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TRE

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA.

A

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, AND GENERAL LITERATURE.

NINTH EDITION.

(AMERICAN REPRINT.)

VOLUME XII.

PHILADELPHIA:

J. M. STODD ART & CO.

1881.

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1881, by

J. M. STODDART & CO., In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

SHERMAN & Co., PRINTERS,

PHILADELPHIA.

032
Enabga
v.12

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA.

HIR-HIR

, lawas a which one man grants the use of a thing to politico-ecclesiastical controversies of his time; while a another in return for a certain price. It corresponds treatise from his pen, De Musica et Tonis, as well as to the locutio-conductio of Roman law. That contract the Philosophicarum et astronomicarum institutionum was either a letting of a thing (locatio-conductio rei) libri III., bears witness to his interest in science and or of labor (locatio operarum). The distinguishing philosophy. About the end of the 12th century the feature of the contract was the price. Thus the con- material and moral welfare of Hirschau was again very tracts of mutuum, commodatum, depositum, and man- perceptibly on the decline; and it never afterwards datum, which are all gratuitous contracts, become, if a again rose into importance. In consequence of the price is fixed, cases of locatio-conductio. In modern Reformation it was secularized in 1558; in 1692 it was English law the term can scarcely be said to be used laid in ruins by the French. The Chronicon Hirin a strictly technical sense. The contracts which the sugiense, or, as in the later edition it is called, Annales Roman law grouped together under the head of loca- Hirsaugienses of Trithemius (Basel, 1559; St. Gall, tio-conductio—such as those of landlord and tenant, 1690), is, although containing much that is merely master and servant, etc.—are not in English law treat- legendary, an important source of information, not only ed as cases of hiring but as independent varieties of on the affairs of this monastery, but also on the early contract. Neither in law books nor in ordinary dis- history of Germany. The Coder Hirsaugiensis was course could a tenant farmer be said to hire his land. printed at Stuttgart in 1844. See Christmann, GeHiring would generally be applied to contracts in which schichte des Klosters Ilirschau (1782); Steck, Das the services of a man or the use of a thing are engagel Kloster Hirschau (1844); Wolff, “Joh. Trithemius for a short time.

u. die älteste Geschichte des Klosters Hirschau," in HIRSCHAU, or Hirsau, a village within the amt the Württembergisches Jahrbuch for 1863; and Helmsof Calw and the circle of Schwarzwald, Würtemberg, dörfer, Forschungen zur Geschichte des Abts, Wilhelm on the Nagold, is a station on the Pforzheim-Horb von Hirschau (Göttingen, 1874). Railway, and has paper and other factories. Popula HIRSCHBERG, the chief town of a circle in Prustion 800. It owes its origin and its historical interest sian Silesia, government district of Liegnitz, is beautito the now ruinous Benedictine monastery in the neigh- fully situated at the confluence of the Bober and Zackborhood, the Monasterium Hirsaugiense, at one period en, and on the Silesian mountain railway, 30 miles one of the most famous in Europe. It was founded in S.W. of Lauban by rail. It is the seat of a circle cout 830 or 832 by Count Erlafried of Calw, at the instiga- and of a chamber of commerce. A great portion of its tion of his son, Bishop Notting of Vercelli, who en- old walls still remains, and to the south of the town richel it with, among other treasures, the body of St. there are pleasant promenades. It possesses an EvanAurelius. Its first occupants (838) were a colony of gelical church, one of the six stipulated for in the fifteen monks from Fulda, disciples of Hrabanus Maurus agreement between Charles of Sweden and the Emani Walafridus Strabus, headed by the Abbot Liude- peror Joseph I. in 1707; four Catholic churches, one bert. During about century and a half, under the of which dates from the 14th century; a synagogue, fostering care of the counts of Calw, it enjoyed great an Evangelical gymnasium, a school of the middle prosperity, and became an important seat of learning; grade, a female school of the higher grade, an orphanbat towards the end of the 20th century the ravages of age, and an asylum. The town is the principal emthe pestilence combined with the rapacity of its patrons porium of commerce in the Silesian mountains, and its and the selfishness and immorality of its inmates to industries include the carding and spinning of wool, bring it to the lowest ebb. After it had been desolate and the manufacture of linen and cotton fabrics, Braand in- ruins for upwards of sixty years it was rebuilt bant lace, veils, artificial flowers, paper, Portland in 1059, and under Abbot William

"der Selige

cement, porcelain, sealing-wax, blacking, chemicals, (1069-1091) more than regained its former splendor. machines, fire-engines, champagne, and cider. There By his Constitutiones Hirsaugienses, a sort of new is also a lively traile in corn and agricultural produce. religious order, Ordo Hirsaugiensis, was formed, of The town is celebrated for its romantic surroundings, which the rule was afterwards adopted by many mo- including the ('avalierberg, from which there is a nastic establishments throughout Germany, such as splendid view, the Hansberg, the Helicon, crowned by those of Blaubeuren, Erfurt, and Schaffhausen. The a small Doric temple, the Kreuzberg, with walks comfriend and correspondent of Pope Gregory VII., and manding beautiful views, and the Sattler ravine, over

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