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will lead us to this extent. But the sympathy which the Gospel cherishes knows no other boundaries than those of the Church itself-in some respects, indeed, reaching far beyond them. But we are speaking of sympathy
with the brethren: this must extend to all the brethren, or it fails of its office as a Christian principle. "ALL the saints"-" all that are in Christ Jesus"—all those that call upon the name of Christ, their Lord and ours,—these, according to the Apostolic precept and example are to share our love. It is of great importance that our missionaries, and especially our young men designed for missionary work, should imbibe this principle. There is, in many minds, perhaps in all, a disposition, the result of early prejudice or of natural infirmity, or of the want of Christian discipline, to look with dislike, to use no stronger word, upon some portion of Christ's family. This dislike must be borne down. The question is a very broad one; the answer to which determines, whether or not these men should have my Christian sympathies: it is not this; can I heartily approve of all their principles, or of all their conduct?-It is simply this, are they Christ's? Here amongst the heathen do they preach the Gospel which He sealed with His blood; or is it another Gospel, which is not another? When the question is, Whether a missionary shall receive within the circle of his spiritual affections some other labourer of a different judgment in matters of Church polity, the rule is clear, and we cannot better express it than in the terse words of Robert Hall: "He that is good enough for Christ, is good enough for me.”
III. But now we come to our third point for consideration,-that OF PRACTICAL CO-OPERATION in the entire work as conducted by the different societies. Christian sympathy is not an idle sentiment; it prompts us to the work of faith and to the labour of love. How then, assuming that we possess Christian love towards each other, can we give practical utterance to our affections? In a word, when and how can we co-operate?
Let it be premised that we speak of co-operation such as may, and, we think, should exist amongst men who adhere, nay, perhaps rigidly adhere, to their several notions of Church government. We assume that great differences exist as to which is the right model of Church government; and that we shall still adhere each to his own form, and continue faithful to his own section of the Catholic Church. A brighter day may sometime dawn; but at present our humble task is not to anticipate the future, but to cultivate the opportunities that lie within our reach.
First, then, to begin at home; why should we not have an annual conference of the friends, the committees and officers of all our Evangelical missionary societies? Why should they not assemble once a year at least, and under the direction of a president, to be chosen by themselves, proceed calmly to deliberate on their position, their prospects, their difficulties; frankly to avow their mistakes, and cordially to encourage each other? The advantages of such a meeting, were its members actuated by a manly and Christian spirit, would surely be incalculable. Our little jealousies would cease beneath its influence. The low intrigues, the party spirit, the unfounded jealousy, the suspicion and the coldness which isolate our several committees would surely melt; Ephraim and Judah would neither vex nor envy one another. As far as the imperfect condition of the Church allows, we should be what the Church was once-though not, alas! in recent times-when "the multitude of them that believed were of one heart and of one soul.”
It is in vain that we impress upon our missionaries the duty of a catholic spirit and of co-operation with other Churches, unless the example be set them at home. Nor are the difficulties, I conceive, insurmountable. Some years ago a "New Model of Protestant Missions" was proposed by a writer whose name was held in great esteem amongst Evangelical Christians. His plan was, I believe, to sink all our peculiarities, all that distinguishes one section of the Church from another,
and carry out the Gospel to the heathen without any particular Church order or form of government. I do not revive this idea. The plan was impracticable. Yet Churchmen and Dissenters have met ere this to commend a missionary bishop to the grace of God for the work before him. Few of those who were present will forget the day, though more than twenty years have passed since then, when the Bishop of Calcutta, before he set out for India, was thus commended to the tender care of the Great Shepherd, by services in which the venerable Clayton and the venerable Simeon each took a part, and when prayer and praise were offered by brethren of different Churches. In this there was the germ of a missionary conference such as I propose. Something of the kind, I am aware, exists; but I venture to urge a more public formal acknowledgment of the great duty of united conference among the committees of our different societies.
Turning our attention now to the state of things abroad, I would suggest, that since the circumstances of our brethren engaged in the missionary field are so various, no precise plan of action can be proposed. In some places, as in the great cities of our Indian Empire, there may be several missionaries of different denominations living near each other. More frequently the missionary is a lonely labourer. He must travel far to meet with one who is engaged in the same holy calling. Practical co-operation may be in such cases quite impossible. On the whole, then, it is rather in the cultivation of the catholic spirit, than by any precise mode of action, that our friends abroad must exhibit their sympathy with other portions of the Church of Christ. Still something may be done where distance does not render it impracticable; there might be conferences on missionary work, where there should be a free exchange of thought as among brethren, and members of one family. They might communicate their plans, explain, as far as they are acquainted with them, the causes of their failures, and invite their brethren, though of other denominations, to share their triumphs-triumphs which, if worth the name, are not those of a sect or a denomination, but of the whole Church of the living God. If a Jew have been led to see his Messiah in the man Christ Jesus; if a Mahomedan have abandoned his filthy visions of a carnal paradise, and been transformed by the renewing of his mind; if a heathen have forsaken his dumb idols to serve the living and true God, these are no sectarian triumphs. The shout of victory is heard in that distant land where there is joy over one sinner that repenteth. And shall it be that fellow-soldiers in the same warfare shall feel or affect indifference. When there is joy in Heaven shall there be none
Above all, our missionaries of different Churches might unite with one another, at stated seasons, in solemn acts of devotion. Meetings expressly for prayer might be held from time to time, in which all should join who belong to the common household of faith. Nothing soothes asperities, nothing checks the aspirings of ambition, nothing conciliates affection, nothing enlarges charity, like social prayer. Let there be fervent prayer offered up unceasingly, and those who are wont to take their part in it will scarcely, under any circumstances, be tempted to regard each other with suspicion or distrust. Surely the spirit of disunion, or cold indifference, would shortly disappear; our unhappy divisions would be healed, and in their place we should hail the presence of the spirit of unity and of godly love.
Much might be added; but I have trespassed long, and I forbear. I speak as unto wise men; if feebly, your wisdom and experience may still give power and life to what is imperfectly expressed. If, in any measure as beseems the importance of the subject-if any thought or hint has been uttered, which, passing into another's mind, shall there receive the touch and finish which may give it life, and speed it on some career of usefulness,—since man is nothing, to the only wise God let us give all the praise.
I. GEORGE HUGHES.
(To the Editor of Evangelical Christendom.)
Southwark, Nov. 29, 1854.
SIR,-My attention has been directed to a series of "Lives," in three manuscript volumes, written by John Quicke, M.A., a Puritan divine of the seventeenth century. The work is known to a few historical writers in our own country and on the Continent, but has never been published. It contains facts, to be found in no other documents, relative to a very interesting period of Church history; and memoirs of eminent divines of England and France, written with the freshness of personal acquaintance. The MSS. are rapidly perishing from age, and some cause of injury to the paper. It seems, therefore, to be a duty to rescue its contents from oblivion. The style of Quicke is diffuse and full of digressions. Some patience, therefore, is required in deciphering and in condensing his narrations; but my desire to become better acquainted with the men, and with the times upon which he throws considerable light, will render the task of preparing a few sketches agreeable-if at the same time I may contribute that which will be useful or instructive to others. It will not be in my power to abridge the story, in every instance, within the compass of a single Article; but I hope, in the course of the year, to furnish a few biographical portraitures that may prove the commencement of an extended gallery. I begin with the father-in-law of JOHN HOWE :Perhaps I ought to have given these incidents in more modern diction, but there is a charm in the quaintness
I am, Sir, yours faithfully,
called them to an account every night; how they had spent the day; what books they had read; what progress they had made in knowledge; whether they did understand perfectly their authors; what difficulties they met with in their reading; whether they could readily assoile and answer such objections as we made them; by what arguments they would defend such and such positions? Accordingly, if ignorant, we would instruct them; if doubtful, direct them; correct their judgments if erroneous; and never suffer any sin in their lives. For," said he, "we counted it as one of the sins against the Holy Ghost, an unpardonable sin, to suffer the youth committed to our trust for a religious and learned education to be perverted and debauched. We told them they had too great volumes daily, and principally to be studied by them-viz., the book of their heart, and that Book of Life, the Holy Scrip
This eminent and influential Puritan divine, diligently; prayed with them every evening; was born in Southwark, 1603. His father was a native of the principality. At sixteen years of age he was sent to the University of Oxford, and entered first into Corpus Christi College, of which he was made Bible clerk. He formed a close friendship there with Edmund Staunton, son of Sir Francis Staunton, and other scholars eminent for piety and learning. At the foundation of Pembroke College he was urged to accept a fellowship in it, in order to become tutor. In that office he was most exemplary and successful. Dr. Henry Langley, afterwards Master of this College, expressed his deep obligations to Mr. Hughes as the instrument of his conversion, and for the great advantage he had derived from his instruction. Other ministers had to make similar acknowledgments. "I cannot forget," says Quicke, "a discourse I had with him about the tutors of his time in the University." "The Puritan tutors," he said, "intures; and that before they betook themselves those days were conscientiously careful of their pupils, and were mightily concerned for their well-being and well-doing every day. We were most especially solicitous for our pupils' souls -to form them, in those their youthful years, unto godliness. We did watch over them most
to their sleep at night, they should dwell at home-turn within themselves and review the frame and temper of their souls for that whole day. We were most strict observers of the Lord's-day-His most Holy Sabbath, and ex amined all our pupils, whom and what they
had heard. We repeated the sermons to them, and pressed home the Divine counsels upon their consciences, and always concluded with prayer. Sometimes that Father of the Puritans, old Mr. Dod, would make an excursion into Oxford, and visit the tutors of his acquaintance; but we would never let him go till he had prayed with us and our pupils, and given both us and them his blessing; and the good old man would charge us to have an apostolical care of those tender plants, the great hope of the ministry and magistracy in the rising generation."
Happy pupils, to enjoy care so kind, paternal. Happy tutors, to enjoy confidence so entire and affectionate!
and Gomorrah. I pray you lay by these thoughts. Our case is not desperate at home. The Lord's hand is not shortened but that He can retrieve and save us. And if the fountain be closed in one place, God will open it in another. Let us wait awhile upon our God, in silence, and see what He will do with you. Undoubtedly He will not totally lay you by— but open a door for you in some other place."
Mr. Hughes acquiesced in the views of his faithful friend, and for eight weeks accepted his generous hospitality. His abode was the scene of holy contentment. It was a marvel to all how he contrived, with his very moderate income, to "entertain so many strangers." 'When I came to his house," says Mr Hughes, "I found there no less than eight Bachelors of Divinity, all of them ejected." The good old man would say, "I neither have, nor want, nor am careful. I leave God, whom I serve, to care for me and mine." Similar counsel Mr. Hughes gave to Mr. Quicke, when in trying and afflictive circumstances. "Trust God-keep His way, but intend the ministerial work. Seek and take all opportunities for the fulfilling of it, and verily you shall be fed." This advice is very sound if all the conditions mentioned are practically observed. A day at Fawsley, with Mr. Dod and the eight Bachelors of Divinity, would be delightful, if it could be spent in our own time-notwithstanding some Puritanic stiffness. "Every morning and evening," Mr. Hughes tells us, we knelt down, as sons to their father, to receive the blessing of Mr. Dod."
Mr. Hughes was ordained about 1628, and for some time preached in Oxford and the neighbourhood. All-Hallows, Bread-street, in the City of London, was the place in which he first settled as a minister. Mr Lawson, the rector of the parish, being aged and infirm, the parishioners invited Mr. Hughes to be their lecturer and assistant to their minister. His preaching excited great interest amongst all classes. Mrs. Ashurst (the mother of Sir Henry and Sir William Ashurst, Lord Mayor) was one of his first converts; the family entertained for him the highest esteem, and to the day of his death treated him with marked kindness. In the midst of his pulpit and pastoral labours, Mr. Hughes found time to take up his degree as Bachelor of Divinity. He was not suffered, however, to continue in his work unmolested. His preaching was distasteful to Laud, at that time Bishop of London; and on the complaint of a neighbouring clergyman, the zealous lecturer was silenced for non-observance of ceremonies, imposed by the stern diocesan as indispensable." Deprived of all means of ministerial usefulness, Mr. Hughes directed his steps to Fawsley, in Northamptonshire, to ask counsel of the venerable Mr. Dod. Some of his silenced brethren had withdrawn to Holland, and others, following in the track of the Pilgrim Fathers, settled in America. Mr. Hughes "had thoughts himself of leaving Old England and going into the wilderness of New Eng. land." He mentioned his design to the patriarchal divine he came to consult. Mr. Dod was utterly averse to it, and asked him, if there were no devils in New England?-mented front, pierced by many a deep window, Rest assured," said he, "you will meet with them there as well as here. Besides, if such as you, and all the godly of the land, should presently leave the land, as Lot did Sodom, what do you think will become of our poor native country? It will be even as Sodom
On the recommendation of his friend, Mr. Hughes found a home in Warwick Castle. Mr. Stoughton's picture of this noble mansion will afford a pleasant relief to our story, he says: Among the beautiful rivers that run through the heart of Old England, there is one, which though inferior to some of its sister streams in the scenery which adorns its banks, surpasses them all in its rich associations. The world's greatest poet played in his boyhood beside its gentle waters, and gathered the wild flowers which they had moistened and nourished. From the edge of Shakspeare's river, at one of its most picturesque points, there rises in abrupt grandeur a massive rock, crowned with a fine specimen of the baronial architecture of the middle ages. The battle
broken by projecting buttresses, and flanked by lofty machiolated towers, stretches along the water's side, throwing its broad shadow on a summer's day over the silvery surface of the river. Dark pines, with their lofty heads, skirt the lordly castle, and with their outspread
branches, here and there stooping to touch the water, add to the sombre beauty of the picture. An old mill is seen at the foot of the castle bank, where the rude water-wheel, in its lazy revolutions, throws its flushes over the stream; the river spreads across from bank to bank, with its murmurs so musical on a quiet summer's evening; and the timemouldered remains of the ancient bridge, with its broken arches, still span the river. No one who has crossed the Avon, on the road from Leamington to Warwick, and stood by the foot of the new stone bridge, or leaned over the parapet, gazing at the scene on the south side, but must recognise in the foregoing description, the noble castle of Warwick, on the banks of the Avon. There it stands, a monument of the age, when feudal rudeness was giving place to modern refinement, and the baron's stronghold was swelling into the palace of chivalry with its courtly halls, open courts, oriel windows, and richly adorned apartments. When passing through the edifice, or loitering within its precincts, one thinks of the Beauchamps, and of the proud race of Nevil, with its famous king-maker, the Earl of Warwick; of the wonderful doings in the way of hospitality by that prince of hosts; and of the dark deeds of violence that have been enacted within those walls, the place with its antique grandeur and romantic associations, is one of those scenes which, after being once visited, remains mirrored on the memory for ever."
Mr. Hughes became chaplain to Lord Brooke; Mr. Dod recommended him to that excellent nobleman as a person of great merit His lordship, when in London, had heard him preach at All-Hallows, but had no particular acquaintance with him. At Warwick Castle, Mr. Hughes had a select auditory. The Puritan gentry and nobility met at Lord Brooke's to consult on public affairs, and to prepare for their parliamentary campaigns: "They would always send for old Mr. Dod to ask counsel from God, by his mouth, in prayer for them, and what they ought to do. Mr. Dod having spread their case before the Lord, though they would importunately desire his presence and assistance with them at their
debate, yet would he never yield to it, but tell them, I have done my work, do you love and follow the Lord,' and thus took his leave of them." In this abstinence from political matters, Mr. Hughes followed his example. "Mr. Hughes gave me very strict charge," Quicke says, never to go out of his ministerial calling; not, like a busy-body, to intermeddle with the business of the civil magistrate, or of the public ministers of state, because," said he, “ they do in no wise belong unto you, and you have work enough to do in the study and pulpit, and with the souls of the flock committed to your charge, and which require the whole man."
Although," continues the biographer, "Mr. Hughes lived with my Lord Brooke in Warwick Castle, he would upon times make an excursion into Coventry, and lodged at night with his dear friend Mr. Ball, an eminent old Puritan, who not only wrote but lived the Life of Faith.' At Coventry Mr. Hughes had sight of a virtuous young gentlewoman, the daughter of Mr. Paxton, who had been sheriff of that city." Quicke adopts terms in describing the manners of Miss Paxton, which would be misconstrued in modern times. He says she was "a very great gallant, and most richly attired;" and adds, "I was informed by one who knew it very well, that the apparel which she had by her at her weddingday cost four hundred pounds." The marriage of Mr. Hughes with the daughter of the sheriff so gaily dressed would have been fatal to his comfort and usefulness in these days, if he had been settled in a pastoral charge. But the style of Mrs. Hughes, to her great credit, soon improved. Her husband, by “his prudent and engaging way," turned her from all her bravery and vanity of apparel," so that she laid it by of her own accord, and habited herself as the wife of a Puritan minister. “She went very plain, but very neat and becoming, so that you might see a genteel education still remaining in her modest garb and conversation. Mr. Hughes went always very neat in his clothes, and you might read a gentleman in his gait and conversation with you.” (To be continued.)