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This memoir, which, it is but just to say, owes its chief scientific interest to his pen, attracted unusual attention at home and abroad, and was complimented by many European geologists. It was pronounced by the best critics a real contribution to geological science, and is still referred to by all writers who have occasion to notice the organic remains of Kentucky. Its claims to the consideration of medical men rest upon the connection which is shown in it to exist between certain geological formations and particular diseases.

He continued to labor in the survey of the Territories, under the government of the United States, until 1850, when he made a voyage to Oregon with Dr. John Evans, for the purpose of making a geological reconnoissance of that Territory. The work occupied him eighteen months, and the palæontological report of the survey was written by him. He returned to Louisville in 1852; and on the 18th of November, in that year, married Miss E. M. Allen, a lady whose love of science, domestic virtues and fine literary accomplishments heightened the usefulness as well as the charm of his subsequent life. For nearly a year after his return from Oregon, he was employed on the palæontology of the Red River Exploration, which had just been completed by his brother, the late Dr. George G. Shumard, in connection with Capt. R. B. Marcy. He was equally at home in the field making surveys and determining the relative ages of formations, and in his study writing reports and authenticating the genera and species of fossils; and his powers of observation, his patience and accuracy rendered his researches eminently trustworthy. His communications bore unmistakable evidence of learning and fidelity, and were always accepted as from the hand of a master.

In 1853 he was invited by Prof Swallow to take the position of Assistant Geologist and Palæontologist in the Missouri Geological Survey, and that year removed to St. Louis. It was in a subordinate station still that he was destined to exert his great faculties and employ the large stores of his knowledge. From the time of his first employment on a geological survey, he was qualified for the foremost position; but though his qualifications were recognized by men of science everywhere, they had been hitherto overlooked by those who held the power of appointing to office. As assistant he labored five years in the geological survey of Missouri, when, at last, he received an appointment worthy of his reputation. In 1858 he was invited by Governor Runnels, of Texas, to make a geological survey of that State. The compliment was hardly more gratifying to Dr. Shumard than to his

friends, who had become impatient at seeing him so long kept in the back ground. They felt that now, for the first time, he was in a situation to receive full credit for his labors.

He entered upon the great work with enthusiasm and in the expectation of being able to prosecute it to its completion. For two years he pursued it industriously, and had progressed so far in it as to make a reconnoissance of almost the entire eastern and middle portions of the State; and the specimens collected during the survey were arranged preparatory to writing his report, when Gen. Houston, who had just been elected Governor, removed him from office to make room for one of his political supporters. In the course of his exploration, Dr. Shumard had made interesting discoveries. The geological deposits of Texas were ascertained to be the most complete of any series elsewhere known on the continent of North America, ranging from the most ancient strata up to the latest tertiary formations. If the survey had been completed, there can not be a doubt that it would have presented results of immense value to the State, and of great interest to the scientific world. As it is, Dr. Shumard indicated the wealth of the field which remains to be developed by future explorers. His friends had great hopes that he might be recalled to the work, and there is reason to believe that he would have been reinstated in office if the survey had

gone on.

But a short time after its interruption the war unfortunately broke out and put an end to geological surveys in our country for the time. He returned with his family to St. Louis, but still indulging hopes that he should soon be able to resume his geological labors. He could not persuade himself that war would be waged between the States; but as it went on, month after month, he at last turned reluctantly away from his darling schemes. Geology no longer promised him employment, and he was compelled to return to medicine for the means of supporting his young family. It was in March, 1861, that he removed to St. Louis from Austin, and after waiting for a few months in vain for the return of peace, he opened an office.

“For two or three years,” says a friend in a letter written to me since his death, “it was a pretty hard struggle with him, but success at last crowned his efforts. He was always the industrious, hard-working student you knew him years ago, with the same determination to succeed. Few persons seemed to suspect that under his suavity of manner and gentleness of character he bore so strong a will. If he determined to do a thing, it was done in spite of all opposition.

Having once decided in his own mind that a principle was correct, he adhered to it at all hazards."

In a letter to me, written some time after the close of the war, referring to the same matter, he said: “You have learned that I have, in a measure, abandoned geology; and, much to your surprise, no doubt, resumed the practice of physic, after being out of the profession well nigh fifteen years. I was driven to it at the commencement of the war, as geology was then pretty well 'played out.' I had to practice medicine or starve, and of course did not hesitate long which alternative to choose. I have been eminently successful in the end, and my practice is becoming quite lucrative. The strangest part of the matter is that I have become almost as much in love with medicine as I once was with geology."

He was elected Professor of Obstetrics in the University of Missouri in the autumn of 1866, and lectured acceptably in that school two winters. "My professorship,” he remarked in the letter referred to, “yields me something, and I am rather fond of lecturing.” Before the beginning of another term he had a hemorrhage of the lungs, which proved to be the precursor of phthisis. He was in too enfeebled a condition to attempt to lecture, as he had hoped to do, and was obliged to have the course delivered by a medical friend. His health had been evidently declining for several months, but he attributed his failing strength to bronchitis: From the middle of January last until he died he declined rapidly, and in March, by the advice of his medical attendant, left home to try the effects of a milder climate. He took passage on the ill-fated steamer Ruth, for New Orleans. The boat was burned on the Mississippi above Vicksburg, and he suffered much from the excitement and from exposure to cold. An attack of pneumonia was the consequence. He returned immediately home, and died in the bosom of his family on the 14th of April, in the fortyninth year of his age.

At the time of Dr. Shumard's death, he was President of the St. Louis Academy of Science. He was also a corresponding member of the Geological Society of London, of the Geological Society of France, of the Imperial Geological Society of Vienna, of the Imperial Geological Society of Hermstadt, of the Academies of Science of Philadelphia, California, Cincinnati, New Orleans, and of many others. By all the Societies at home his death was noticed at the time, and resolutions were passed honorable to his memory. It was deelared in one of those adopted in the Academy of Science of St. Louis, that

the Academy has been deprived of an ornament of which it has no equal, and of a leader and fellow-laborer that it can scarely hope to replace; that his name has been an honor to us for which no distinction that we have been able to confer upon him could be deemed an equivalent.” By a member of the St Louis Medical Society it was justly remarked that few men of his age in our country,“had received so many and such honorable testimonials of their scientific acquirements, and yet so marked was his modesty that few, even among his most intimate friends, knew how highly he had been honored."

Few writers more industrious than Dr. Shumard have appeared among the geologists of our country. In the Transactions of one scientific body alone, the Academy of Science of St. Louis, he published, in eleven years, the following papers:

1. Description of New Fossil Crinoidea, from the Palæozoic Rocks of the Western and Southern portions of the United States.

2. Discovery of the Permian Formation in New Mexico.

3. Description of New Fossils from the Tertiary Formation of Oregon and Washington Territories, and the Cretaceous formation of Vancouver's Island, collected by Dr. Evans.

4. Descriptions of New Species of Blastoidea, from the Plæozoic Rocks of the Western States, with some Observations on the Structure of the Summit of the Genus Pentremites.

5. Table of Genera and Species of the Family of Blastoidea, found in the Western and Southern portions of the United States.

6. Notice of New Fossils from the Permian Strata of New Mexico and Texas, Collected by Dr. G. G. Shumard.

7. Notice of Fossils from the Permian Strata of Texas and New Mexico, obtained by the United States Expedition under Capt. John Pope for boring Artesian Wells, with Descriptions of New Species from those Strata and the Coal Measures of that Region.

8. Observations on the Geology of St. Genevieve: being an Extract from the Report made to the Missouri Geological Survey in 1859.

9. Observations upon the Cretaceous Strata of Texas. 10. Descriptions of New Cretaceous Fossils from Texas. 11. Notice of Meteoric Iron from Texas.

12. Descriptions of a few New Species of Gasteropoda from the Coal Measures, and a Brachiopod from the Potsdam Sandstone of Texas.

13. New Fossils from the Primordial Zone of Wisconsin and Missouri. 14. Descriptions of New Palæozoic Fossils. 15. Dicotyledonous Leaves in Cretaceous Strata of Texas. 16. Vertical Section of Silurian Strata. 17. Sketch of the Life and Scientific Labors of Dr. John Evans. 18. Notice of a (supposed) Meteorite. 19. On Oil Springs in Missouri.

20. A Chronological List of Works on the Paleozoic Echinodermata of North America.

Catalogue of North American Palæozoic Echinodermata.

Table of Genera and Species of Echinodermata in the Geological Formations of North America.

Before entering upon this series of publications, and in addition to the other memoirs already noticed, he had published in conjunction with Prof. D. D. Owen, in the Journal of the Academy of Natural Science, of Philadelphia, in 1850, a description of fifteen new Species of Crinoidea from the Subcarboniferous Limestone of Iowa, collected during the United States' Geological Survey of Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota, in the years 1848 and 1849.

In the same journal he published the following year, a description, with Prof. Owen, of Seven New Species of Crinoidea from the Subcarboniferous Limestone of Iowa and Illinois. Conjointly with the same author, he wrote a Report on the Number and Distribution of Fossil Species in the Palæozoic Rocks of Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota, which was read before the American Association for the Advancement of Science, at its Fifth annual meeting, and published in the Proceedings of 1851. In 1852 he contributed to the Report of the Exploration of the Red River in Louisiana, under the direction of Captains R. B. Marcy and Geo. B. McClellan. In the same year, conjointly with Prof. Owen, he published in the Report of the Geological Survey of Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota, Descriptions of One New Genus, and Twenty-two New Species of Crinoidea from the Subcarboniferous Limestone of Iowa. In 1855 he contributed to the Second Annual Report of the Geological Survey of Missouri, a Description of New Species of Organic Remains. The year succeeding there appeared in the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, a notice by him of a New Fossil Genus, belonging to the Family Blastoidea, from the Devonian Strata, near Louisville, Kentucky.

He had now acquired such fame as a practical geologist, that his services were frequently sought for by companies and private individuals owning mineral lands, and he made numerous surveys, of which the reports show his sound judgment as well as his varied scientific attainments. Among these is a report, which appeared in 1865, on the Mineral Lands of Missouri, owned by H. W. Woodruff, Esq.; one, published in 1867, on the Enloe Mining Property of Allen P. Richardson, Esq., in Crawford county, Mo.; a second, issued the same year, on the Mineral Lands belonging to R. H. Melton, Esq., in Benton and Hickory

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