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Enough, perhaps more than enough, has been given to show you the intimate connection between your profession and the experimental sciences, the study of it leading to a knowledge of these, even when apparently far removed from it. Indeed, growth in medicine is, in great measure, dependent upon the growth of these sciences. There is not a discovery in chemistry, optics, electricity, magnetism, &c., that does not minister immediately or mediately to medicine. Science, the production of reason, is the natural enemy of charlatanry as well as superstition. With its advancement these must disappear. Beneath its white and gladsome light, they, twin offspring of ignorance, can not live. Medicine itself is a science, founded, like the other physical sciences, upon observation and induction. It is as erroneous as it is degrading to it, to suppose that it is a mere collection of nostrums or specifics, to be learned by rote by the student.

Nor is it to be narrowed down and circumscribed by any exclusive dogma. Water-cure, botanic remedies, infinitesimal doses, any special system, neither separately nor collectively constitute the philosophy or the entire remedial agencies of medicine. It is no Procrustean bed for the diversified forms of humanity and of human ailment. It is catholic in its nature, seeking knowledge wherever it may be obtained, and subjecting all science to its demands. It is the science of human bature, having for its end the "prevention of disease, the cure of disease and the improvement of the condition of man."

You will readily understand that mastery in it can only be reached through years of patient, devoted effort, guided by the spirit of scientific inquiry. Yet it invites to no unrequited toil; the rewards of science are among the greatest that wait upon human endeavor. I know under our democratic polity we are all necess

essarily more or less politicians; and hence, political success has had an undue preëminence. Yet who would prefer the pomp and circumstance of great office, to the pleasure and the fame of the student of the closet whose years of patient toil have at last been rewarded by the discovery of some great law of nature, or by an invention utilizing these laws to the benefit of mankind?

The Greek word eureka is domesticated in every language, because it is inseparably connected with an incident that touches the heart. Who does not sympathize with the philosopher of Syracuse, upon the solution of his problem, rushing from his bath crying, Eureka! eureka!" "I have found it! I have found it!" Who does not sympathize with our own Franklin, when, having brought down the lightning from heaven,

thus establishing its identity with electricity, he tells us that he then felt that he was ready to die?

Agassiz has said that the name of our late lamented townsman, Prof. Mitchell, would live longer than that of the most distinguished politician-referring to his invention for sidereal observation.

Still, the universal stimulus with expectant parents is, “My son, you may be President,” as if that were the acme of all greatness.

Yet, how many Presidents have left office with a reputation that any one would envy? And as to fame, with the flow of time and the brevity of their terms, the historian will soon cease to mark the order of events by a reference to their names. These will pass into tabular lists, and like the tables of Rome, sink into the forgotten rubbish of the past. A few, from their connection with great events, will escape this fate. But the names of science, associated with the discoveries and inventions, marking the developments of knowledge, will be as enduring as knowledge itself. When the blood ceases to circulate, and the hideous variola is no more, and pain shall have ended, the names of Harvey, Jenner, Morton and Simpson may pass from memory.

These are the benefactors of man. No fields of mangled victims, no ruined country, no mourning friends, no stricken revengeful foe attend the conquests of science. Nature joyously yields her treasures as the refreshing fountain flowed from the smitten rock.

I would not depreciate political eminence, but I feel that the disposition to seek office is wasting in our country talent and genius that might in the departments of science, be an ornament to our race. So that he is a public benefactor who leads one ingenuous, inquiring youth from the slough of office-seeking to science.

I would that you should devote yourselves to the noble profession you have chosen, with all its great opportunities for usefulness and fame. You are quite aware that the diplomas you have this day received, are not testimonials that

have finished

your education. Indeed, they but indicate that you are now fairly prepared to begin your professional studies; and if you have learned how to study your profession, you have done well, and your teachers also.

It is not a difficult thing to commit to memory the teachings of a text book. But this alone is not sufficient. We must bring to the study of any subject we would master, a spirit of scepticism and criticism. Prove all things, hold fast that which is true. We are apt to take as truth that which our text books and teachers tell us, and quite

likely they are right; but knowledge obtained in this way does not become our own; it sits uneasily, as a garment made for another.

It only becomes our own when we have gone through for ourselves the process by which the original investigator reached his results, and have supplemented this by such independent modes of investigation and reflection as may occur to us. This manner of study, uniting with reading, well directed observation and reflection, gives knowledge and discipline of mind, securing soundness of judgment. These lead to wisdom, the true end of all education.

A credulous person of retentive memory and industrious habits, may fill his mind as a store-house, with facts, yet, without his own reflection there is no wisdom. There are men of much learning and little wisdom; and there are men of much wisdom, yet with little learning.

And this is well understood. We have in public life men of great and varied erudition, who pour it forth on every occasion in copious streams. People are startled and wonder, but in hours of trial, they do not look to them for guidance. They instinctively feel that wisdom is not here. There is a maxim, “ beware of the man with one book"that is, much reflection with little reading is better than much reading without reflection.

Do not mistake me, I am not underrating the importance of learning; but I would increase its value by adding that reflection and study which may

make it our own. While the investigator of science should doubt and criticise, let him not carry this unnecessarily into the domain of theology. There are men of science, of merit, who are continually contrasting their discoveries with the teachings of revelation. These commit the same error which theology did when the church invaded the province of science and commanded the earth to cease it revolution around the san. “It moves, notwithstanding,” said Gallieo.

Dr. Hooker advises : “Let each pursue the search for truth—the archæologist into the physical, the religious teacher into the spiritual history and condition of mankind.” Enlarging upon this, I may add, let the scientific inquirer pursue his investigations after the methods of science, let the theologian pursue his studies in his own way. Each may be equal to his own, but not to both departments. There need be do apprehension of conflict if each reaches truth, for there is no discordance in the work of the Author of all harmony.

It may be inferred from what has been said, that while you should

endeavor to have a general, and, as far as may be, an accurate knowledge of all the branches of your profession--yet that you are more likely to reach high excellence if you make some particular branch, to the investigation of which your tastes, aptitudes and opportunities lead, the subject of your special inquiry. It is in this way that men of the old world study, and hence their great attainments. We, led by the multitude of matters, which, in a new country, demand our attention, spread ourselves over too much surface and dissipate our energies. Life is too short to permit any one, however great his capacity, to attain to a complete mastery of all science; yet, every one that pretends to scholarship, owes it to himself and to his fellow-man to so miaster some one branch of knowledge that he will be upon it an acknowledged authority. If each who can, does this, selecting different branches in the aggregate, the public will have the advantage of ripe scholarship in all the departments of knowledge.

You will observe, gentlemen, that I have not referred specially to the practice of your profession. It is not because I do not feel the exceeding importance of this branch of your duties. It is owing partly to the fact that on this you have already had the better instruction of your teachers; partly to the fact that whatever is likely to promote the money-making part of your profession will not be overlooked; but mainly because I would fain stimulate in you the desire to elevate and advance your noble calling. I would that you should look upon it as something higher than a mere money-getting art. Yet, even in this narrow view, a thorough knowledge of the principles of medicine will not hurt you. For I take it, notwithstanding the depressing example of successful charlatanism, that, other things being equal, your capacity and success will depend upon the mastery you obtain over the science of medicine.

It is true that there have been instances in your profession, of high scientific capacity not coupled with practical skill; yet this has been owing, perhaps, to the fact that the practice was neglected, or perhaps to some peculiarity of mind or temperament unfitting for practice. But there are many noble examples of high scientific capacity united with the highest practical skill.

You will pardon me if I shall name a living one. Dr. Simpson, of Edinburgh, is perhaps at the head of his profession in his country, having an unequaled practice: yet he has illustrated the annals of medicine with many happy inventions and important discoveries; and perhaps there is scarcely a number of the leading medical journals in

the United Kingdom which has not a contribution from his unwearied and productive pen. I mention him the more readily because there is that in his career which appeals peculiarly to American youth.

There is not a young man before me who commences his professional life under difficulties greater than those which surrounded Prof. Simpson in his youth. Living in a country where the classification of society opposes serious barriers to the advancement of the young man without family or fortune, he yet, beginning life the son of a baker, by his indomitable energy and perseverance, has risen to his present high position.

Gentlemen, your Alma Mater and your country expect much from you. May they never be disappointed. Let it be your worthy ambition to be masters in the science of medicine; so study it as to make it your

own. Select some branch suited to your tastes and opportunities, and make this the object of your special, life-long investigation; and then, with the blessing of heaven, your name, may yet be written among those who have advanced the boundaries of knowledge.



January 29th, 1869, was called to see a boy aged seven years, under the care of Dr. Searles, of Osborn, with whom had been associated Dr. Green of Fairfield. For about a week before, the patient had been suffering under the symptoms of an ordinary cold; only on the second day preceding had he became severely ill, and only since the day before had his breathing been seriously affected. I learned that on the day previous he had passed part of the time looking at his book, nothing apparently the matter with him, except what was betrayed by cough, breathing and voice. He had been rapidly getting worse, however; during the night he had three suffocative attacks, so severe that his friends did not think he could survive another. I found him to be an extremely healthy looking child, of a very healthy family, but Dow presenting all the symptoms of suffocation from laryngeal obstruction; his cough suppressed, voice whispering, chest walls working violently with the efforts to respire, face and hands livid, pulse frequent and tolerably feeble. Upon the tonsils and larynx were scattered .

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