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with the laudable zeal you have always
The Queen and Princesses in coaches, atmanifested to convey instruction, combined tended by their suite. with ainusement, to the many who peruse of the Nobility and Gentry in their carriages,
Band of music, followed by a great concourse your therefore I send you an ac
and on horseback, count of the TRIENNIAL MONTEM, performed at ETON ; the
The Procession commences in the Great
more particularly so, as the next celebration will take Square at Eton, and proceeds through place on the 14th of the ensuing month : where the boys all pafs the King and
Eton to Slough, and round to Salt Hill, and those whom it may fuit, will have an opportunity of seeing this description real. Queen in review, and ascend the Montem;
here an oration is delivered, and the Grand ized, should they be as much inclined as myself.
Standard is displayed with much grace The celebration of the Montem is a
and activity by the Standard Bearer, who custom, time immemorial, performed by
is generally selected from among the senior the scholars of Eton School, near Wind
boys. for, formerly duennially, but now trienni
There are two extraordinary Salt-bearally; i. e. upon the Whit Tuesday in every Queen, who are always attired in fanciful
ers appointed to attend the King and It cominences by a number of the senior habits, in manner of the other Salt-bearers boys taking post upon the bridges, or other already described, but superbly embroileading places of all the avenues around embroidered bag, which not only receives
dered; these Salt-bearers each carry an Windsor and Eton, soon after the dawn the royal falt, but also whatever is collectThese youths so posted are chiefly the ed by the out-stationed Salt-bearers.
The donation of the King and Queen, best figures, and the moft active of the students; they are all attired in fancy dresses, or, as it is called upon this occasion, the of filks, fatins, &c. and some richly em
royal salt, is always fifty guineas each ;
the Prince of Wales thirty guineas; all broidered, principally in the habits or fashion of running-footmen, with poles in the other Princes and Princesses twenty their hands; they are called Salt bearers,
guineas each. and deinand salt, i. e. a contribution
As soon as this ceremony is performed, from every passenger, and will take no
the royal family return to Windsor. The denial.
boys are all sumptuously entertained at When the contribution is given, which the Tavern at Salt Hill; and the beautiis ad libitum, a printed paper is delivered ful gardens at that place are laid out for with their motto, and the date of the fuch ladies and gentlemen as chuse to take year, which passes the bearer free through any refreshments, the different bands of all other Salt-bearers for that day; and is of music performing all the time in the as follows, viz.
gardens. “ Pro more et monte,
About fix o'clock in the evening, all 1799,*
the boys return in the faine order of proVivant Rex et Regina."
cession as in the morning, (with the exThese youths continue thus collecting ception only of the royal family), and their salt at all the entrances for near marching round the Great Square in Eton feven miles round Windsor and Eton, School, are dismissed. The Captain then from the dawn of day until about the clofe pays his respects to the royal family at the of the procession, which is generally three Queen's Lodge, Windfor, previous to his o'clock in the afternoon.
departure for King's College, Cambridge ; The procession commences about twelve to defray which expence, the produce of o'clock at noon, and consists of the Queen's the Montem is presented to hiin; and and other bands of music; several ftandards upon Whit-Tuesday in the year 1796, it borne by different students; all the Eto- amounted to more than one thousaud nian boys two and two, dressed in officers' guineas. uniforms; those of the King's foundation The day concludes by a brilliant dirwearing blue, the others scarlet uniforms, play of beauty, rank, and fashion, a promefwords, &c.
nade on Windsor Terrace, bands of music The Grand Standard Bearer.
performing, &c.; and the scene highly enThe Captain, or Head Boy of Eton School. livened and enriched by the affable conde. The Lieutenant, or Second Boy.
scension of the royal family, who indifcri.. His Majesty, attended by the Prince of Wales, and other male branches of the royal rade the Terrace till nearly dark.
minately mix with the company, and pafamily on horseback, with their fuite. * Or whatever the year may be.
April 2015, 1799.
P. A. S.
269 ENQUIRER, No. XVII. to the general good, will always have not QUESTION. What is the conßitutional only power, but opinion, on its fide; and Freedom of the press in England, and howu when the appeal is made to the people on may it best be preserved?
meland, any point, through the medium of the
press, it is fufficiently evident which party Yet philosophic love of ease
will most possess the advantage of rewards I suffer not to prove disease,
to engage advocates,
and of opportunities But rise up in the virtuous cause to circulate their pleas. Of a free press, and equal laws.
But I mean not to dwell longer on the e GREEN.
general ideas. My purpose is to consider THE "HE freedom of the prefs, or, more the freedom of the press as existing in this
comprehensively, the freedom of pub- country, and defined by her laws. Juflication, is a topic which from its high iin, tice Blackstone has said, that in England portance has engaged the tongues and
every freeman has an undoubted right pens of Englishmen, ever since they have to lay what sentiments he pleases before been free and enlightened enough to dif- the public.” This would appear as excuss matters of public concern. Though tenlive as the most zealous advocate for a at all times interesting, at different periods free press could defire; but he immediit has proved differently lo ; but perhaps ately subjoins, that“ if he publishes what there never was a time in which the course is improper, mischievous or illegal, he of events has rendered it so important as must take the consequence of his own tethe present. The liberty of writing, by merity.” (Blackft.Comm. book iv. ch. 11.) some looked upon with fear and abhor. We now seem to have lost all we had berence, by others regarded as the only fore gained; for what is a right-for the means of extricating mankind from their exercise of which a man may be punished? present troubles, and producing safe and But if there is an apparent inconsistency lasting reforins; abolished in some coun- in the language of these two clauses, there tries, closely restricted in others, and suf- is none in the meaning. Its purport is, piciously watched in all; now peculiarly that there exists no law in this country, claims the sober and intelligent support of as in many others, against the meer act of its remaining friends. I Thall therefore publishing a book without previous per venture to call the attention of the readers mission, and that its peculiar nature and of the Monthly Magazine to a few con- effects alone are the objects of legal enfiderations on this subject, which, if not quiry. It is obvious, however, that a li
however suggest some ideas of berty thus circumscribed may be reduced practical utility.
to nothing real in exertion; for if I have I shall begin with admitting that those reason to believe that what I wish to pub: who have afi'umed, as a principle of free lifh will in fact subject me to severe pugovernment, the unlimited licence of pub- nishment, my " temerity” must be great Ticly discussing all topics, in which the indeed to induce me to undergo the hawelfare of society is concerned, have zard. Yet it must be acknowledged that spoken upon theory merely, and are as this mode of restriction is less injurious yet unsupported by experience as to the to the cause of freedom, though more hautility, or even the practicability of their zardous to individuals, than the mode of system ; for in no country, ancient or submitting works to the judgment of a modern, as far as my knowledge extends, cenfor before publication. These censors has there existed such an unbounded li. being always appointed by the ruling berty. At the same time, the effects of an powers, it is evident that all discussion approach towards this principle have thought dangerous to established doctrines been such as to give probability to their and institutions will be strangled in the arguments in its favour; for it cannot be birth. Here, it may have attained its denied, that in exact proportion to the ex- object before the author or publishers ercise of such a liberty, science, truth, hall have been marked for prosecution. public spirit, and all that we deem moft Moreover, a censor would suppress many valuable among mankind, have spread sentiments, which a public accufer would and Aourished. Nor am I acquainted not choose to prosecute. Of this we have with an instance in which this indulgence sufficient proof in the only instance of has produced any serious evils in a cour- licensing practised among us, that for the try governed, like ours, on a plan corre. stage. What trilling objections have fpondent to the withes and habits of a mas been made in that department against jority of its inhabitants. Existing au- passages which would have attracted no thority, if exerted with any decent regard notice in a pamphlet or a newspaper ? MONTHLY MAG. NO. XLIV.
Farther, where the decision is committed imaginary or impassible beings. An auto juries, conviction depends chiefly upon thor may be one of Curl's garreteers, comthe spirit of the times. If that is favour- posing in a cock-lott whence his landlord able to free enquiry, in vain shall an offi- has taken away the ladder of communicer of the crown declaim on the wicked cation, in order to secure his weekly rent. and dangerous designs of an author. The The publisher may be an inmate of Newjuror, bound by no determinate rules of gate or the Rules, defended by poverty judging, may view the matter in a totally against fines, and by want of shame against different light; and may in his own mind the pillory. And both these gentlemen applaud, as a laudable employment of rea- may be set to work by the fnug reputable son and argumeut, what the minister of thop-keeper. I believe, therefore, that power may consider as criminal presump- the honourable part of the profession, fention.
fible of the existence of such practices Not contesting, then, the propriety of among the disonourable, are ready to acmaking, as is done with us, anthors and quietce in the necessity of the general republishers responsible for the works they Sponfi/ility of booksellers with respect to all offer to the public eye, I shall next con- the works which pass through their hands sider the mode in which such works, when in their way to the public. The conseof a suspected tendency, are to be brought quences of this legal principle they know to the bar of the country for the purpose to be highly serious; but they trust to of undergoing the ordeal which is to give the good sense and justice of their coun. the stamp of innocence or guilt. In this trymen to render them as little mischievmatter there are two objects in view-to as possible. This important confisuppress the progress of a dangerous pub- deration well deserves to be fully opened, lication, and to punish thule by whose and placed in the clearest light. fault it has been circulated. Both these
The power of selecting at pleasure its intentions concur in the perfon of the au. victims in a profecution för libel may, it is thor ;, and perhaps, also, of his publisher, evicient, be abused by government so as to who may, if he pleafes, require adequate become an engine of the most grievous opproof of the character of a work to which pression, and even to render the whole busihe is to itand in a peculiar relation. But ness of publishing to infecure, as to reduce the first only, namely the suppresion, it to mere connivance. Suppose a work of seems to regard the mere vender, who, in dubious character, but of considerable common cales, cannot reasonably be sup- literary merit, to be sent abroad with its. posed to have made particular enquiry author's name. Cautious book sellers for inte the merit of a book of which he re- a time refuse to admit it into their shops ; ceives a few copies in the way of trade. but observing, that weeks and months
That there should be a power of stopping elapse without any notice of it from the it in his hands, and preventing him by Attorney General--that it is honoured the fear of future responsibility from con- with replies by writers known to be attributing to its further circulation, is ob- tached to, or employed by Government viously efential to that end of public that it is warmly censured, indeed, but utility which is the foundation of the read and quoted, perhaps in the great whole process; but why should a power fenate of the nation-they begin to suppose exist of inflicting more evil than the case that it is confidered as within the limits demands, or of making that vindi&tive, of free difcuffion; and yielding at length
li which ought to be only remedial? Here to the importunity of their customers, then, it would appear, that the first fixed procure copies of it for common fale.. point Ahould be eltablished; and that the Meantime, the crown officers keep their prosecutor of a libel should be obliged to eyes open-the law winks, but does not call upon the author and publisher, when tleep-and obnoxious persons are closely known and avowed persons, in preference watched till they are fairly got into the to, and exclusively of, the common vender. net. Then, on a fudden, come informaBut it must be confessed that this matter tions, indictments, prosecutions, and all the is not so clear as oa a cursory view it would apparatus of legal warfare ; and while feem. That advanced state of society to the whole body of booksellers are within which we owe our refinements in civiliza- reach of the battery, it is directed against tion has, in this, as in innumerable other those only whom vengeance, not particular instances, suggested the practice of fo delinquency, point out as objects of demany tricks and evasions, that the real struction. I speak here solely upon suppoficulprit might escape, while the thunders tion ; yet in the case of the publication of of the law were spending themselves upon the Rights of Man how nearly was it re
1799.] Principles and Calculations of Falling Bodies,
271 alized ? I wish not to exaggerate, but I according to their own ideas of the case, nor believe I may affirm that that work was do I mean to cast the Nightest fufpicion on allowed an unchecked circulation during a their integrity. But it is manifeft that period of scarcely less than two years. With nothing less can follow an adherence to in that space it was printed in all sorts of their principle, than the utter extinction of forms, dispersed by all methods, openly fold the freedom of publication. Booksellers in all shops, answered and commerted up will themselves become cenfors or licensers on by namerous writers, so that, at lait, of the press.: To every offer of concern in when prosecuted and condemned as a work which they suspect may prove dislibel, there was scarcely a bookseller in the agres able to the existing administration, island who had not.incurred the danger of they will say, “How can you be sure that being proceeded against as a publisher; it will not he construed a libel, and that I nor, indeed, many private men in the king- Mall not be involved in its penalties ?” dom, among those who were approvers of Thus, none but the lowest in character and its general doctrines, who had not partici- circumstances will be found ready to unpated in the guilt of dispersion, by lending, dertake the hazard of giving the public that recommending, or some other overt azt. I instruction and those warnings on public do not in this instance accuse ministers of topics which, under the best administered design in their long delay. I believe it governments, it can never cease to want., was purely owing to hesitation and difference The effects of this alarm are but too apof opinion among themselves. But the parent at the present instant; and works, effect was such as I have stated ; and after the innocence of which it is a libel on the the work, through their own neglect, had times to doubt, are in actual want of a done all the mischief of which it was publisher. capable, a vast number of innocent persons I have dwelt more upon the case of book. were rendered obnoxious to punishment. sellers than of authors, because it seems to
What then is the remedy agaiist this be the policy of the day rather to direct posible, this actual evil? A JURY. This attacks against the former than the latter. sacred institution, the only safe defence, And indeed this is the true spirit of doing perhaps, that human wisdom can devile business by wholesale; since one consideragainit tyranny and oppression, is expressly able bookseller heartily frightened, may designed to limit that fummum jus, which render abortive the schemes of a score of is so often summa injuria. It is iinpoffible adventurous writers. To them, therefore, to doubt, especially since the late decision the protection of the public should peculiarof the highest legislative authority, that a ly be extended, if the public really wish for jury has a right in matter of libel to take a continuation of that rational freedom of to itself the confideration of the whole case, the press, to which the conftitution of this and make intention the interpreter of fact. country is so much indebted. But if the The Attorney General Mall bring a man prevalence of alarm, and the habit of conbefore them, and charge hun in as gross founding abuse with ufi, and associating terins as he pleases with being a wicked bad caules with good, have taken such polo seditious person, because he has fold a copy feffion of men's minds as to make a maof a work deemed to be a libel. He shall jority really desirous of abridging the usual prove his facts; and with all the eloquence license of discussion, “actum est de repubof real or affected regard for public justice, lica,” the cause of liberty is at an end! and demand his vi&tim, “No"! the jury may its votaries have nothing to do but to wait say-a" the man you have chosen to bring in silent expectation of the return of a bet. to the bar is not the real criminal-he has ter fpirit. no culpable intention about him to render him a proper fubje&t for the severity of the To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. law. What he did was through mere inadvertencenecessary
SIR, confequence of his following his protethon. The resudom falling Bodies as stated in
HE result of M. We find him not GUILTY.
on I am aware that some late juries have LALANDE's history of Astronomy for the not thought proper to determine in this year 1797, has been anticipated I prefume
They leem to have conceived for more than thirty years. In a small quarto, that the guilt of the vender followed as a published in 1765, Mr. Dunn of London corollary from the libellous character of has laboured to prove the following obserthe work sold, however complete might be vations. That tho' it has been the custom his juftification with respect to intention. to adjust all kind of instruments for taking They certainly had a right to decide the altitudes of the sun, moon, or stars,
by the plumb-line, which has always been and will move in the diagonal of a paralsupposed to have a direct and invariable lelogram formed by these two tendency towards the center of the earth, Hence a deviation not only in longitude, in all latitudes, and even since it has been but also in latitude will take place from discovered that the earth is an oblate the true and absolute perpendicular. Spheroid, or the diameter of the Equator On these principles Mr. Dunn founded longer than the polar axis, it has been con- those corrections already noticed ; and he cluded that the direction in which bodies also found that the direction of a plumb-line descend is accurately perpendicular to the at Greenwich is 14' 15! different from a surface of the earth and sea, yet it would righı line drawn perpendicular to the furface be impossible, says Mr. Dunn, to find the of the earth. longitude either at sea or land, within
I am, Sir, yours, &c. &c. thirty geographical miles of the truth, Edinburgh, April 5, 1799.
S, L. without making use of such corrections as he suggests in his treatise. These correc
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. tions are deduced from the following principles :-Ist, If the earth be considered YOUR correspondent W. S. on falling as a perfect sphere or globe of solid and homogeneous matter and at rett, a body of your readers, but had he given an exams let fall towards the earth, will move in a ple by way of illustration he would have right line towards the earth's center, be- pleased them more; that talk be mine. cause the quantity of matter and the 247 feet French are equal to 263,433 quantity of attractions in the northern, feet English, or 43,3 fathoms, from which southern, eastern, and western hemispheres height a heavy body will fall in 4,045 are exactly mutual and equal to each other. seconds. Now fuppofing De LALANDE 2d, Suppose this globe to continue solid made his experiments at Paris, the length and to have a motion round its polar axis of a degree of longitude there, according once in 24 hours, then will this falling to Gen. Le Roy, is 40303,2 fathoms, and body be impelled by two forces, one tendo the femidiameter of a fegment of the globe ing towards the center, the other in the dis in the latitude of Paris is
2309233,3 rection of the centrifugal force. But it is fathoms, to which, adding the height of known that when a i oy is acted upon by the towe: 43,3 fathoms, gives the encreased two forces under different directions, it will diameter 2 309276,6 fathoms. Then, as describe the diagonal of a parallelogram 240 feconds, the time of revolution of one between both these directions. Çünse: degree of the carth's motion, is to 40303,2 quently the falling body, fuppofitg the fathoms, or one degree in the latitude of earth a perfect sphere in motion mund its Paris, so is 4:04 5 feconds, to 679,277 fapolar axis, would not move in a right line, thcars, the motion of a point on the earth at towards the center of the earth, but towards Paris. Again--as 2 309233,3: 679,277 : : a point situated to the softward of that 2509275,6': 679,99 fathoms, the space a center, fuppofing too that the diurnal ro- point will move through at the height of tation is performed in a direction from 2633433 feet, the point oi luípenfion at the west to eaft.-3d, Suppose the earth to be top of the tower, The difference of the a spheroid, flat towards the poles and at motions on the earth and point of suspenreít, a falling body will not move in a right lion is 0,013 fathoms or 0,936 inches, line towards the earth's center, because the the quantity the body will fall to the quantity of matter in the northern and eastward of a plumb-line, which reduced southern hemispheres will, except under the into French lines, is 8,77; and Mr. DE LAequator and at the poles, be unequal, and LANDE by experiment inakes it 8,5 lines.' consequently the falling body will move in
EDMONTONIENSIS, a line towards a point situated to the southward or northward of the center, according
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine,
SIR, as the descending body was either in north or fouth latitude. That is, the point to I y which the line of direction tends will be his valuable communication in your laft
correspondent (a Practical Farmer) for to the southward of the center when the Magazine, in antwer to my queries. falling body is in north latitude, and 10 the northward when in south latitude--4th, flieep on wet clays ?” I have and do
He asks, “ Is it the practice to winter Suppose this Spheroidal earth to be turning from welt to eait round its polar axis, practice this method, though I am by no then will the falling body be impelled by land is not to be had, as in my case, it is
means partial to it; but where good turnip two forces as before in the spherical earth
perhaps the best way of keeping theep