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For the Monthly Magazine. TOUR IN NEW ENGLAND. (Concluded from Page 129.)

BOSTON, for the moft part, is airy and pleafantly fituated; but many of the streets in the old and centrical parts of the town are very narrow and ill paved; neither is fufficient attention paid to the cleanliness of the ftreets. The buildings are heavy, antique, and incommodious; but the major part of thofe in the more elevated fituations difplay confiderable taste and elegance. The governor's houfe, formerly the refidence of Mr. Adams fince elected prefident], Mr. Phillips's, Mr. Rogers's, and fome others, are very hand fome modern edifices, many of which, from the steep afcent of the streets, are fo elevated as to command at one view a profpect of the whole town. It is, on the whole, by far the most irregular, and has received the feweft improvements, of any capital in the United States. The Exchange and Coffee-house are merely nominal, the latter being inferior to the lowest defcription of ale-houfe, while the merchants meet and tranfact their bufinefs in the open, dirty street. From their naturally enterpriting and liberal fpirit, it is matter of aftonishment that a coffeehoufe has not been erected here, after the manner of the ufeful and elegant one at New-York; I entertain little doubt, however, that this and other improve ments will be foon realized among fo commercial a people.

Here are commodious docks, containing a great quantity of fhipping, and conveniently fituated near the merchants' ftores or warehouses, for the purposes of lading or unlading; but the port does not equal that of New-York, either in beauty, convenience of fituation, or extent of traffic. I was credibly informed, that the trade of Bofton is in a manner stationary, and has not increafed in proportion to the other principal fea-port towns in the Union. This, which I think much to their credit, may in fome meafure be accounted for, from their greater folidity of character in conducting business; whilst innumerable mifchiefs have refulted from the extenfive fpeculations too frequently occurring among the more ardent people of the fouth. I muft likewife add, that Bofton poffeffes one very diftinguished advantage, which is a material confideration to the trading part of a community, as alfo to perfons defirous of emigrating, namely, that proceffes of law and recovery of debts are obtained there more eafily and speedily than in most other places.

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Markets are exceedingly well and plentifully fupplied fish and poultry may be had in abundance; and, from the climate

being more favourable to good pafture, this ftate far excels the fouthern, or even midland ones, in all kinds of butchers' meat. Vegetables, however, are neither fo good nor fo cheap in this, nor, indeed, in any part of the United States, as might be expected from the low price of land, and other advantages: but this arifes from a neglect of bestowing proper culture on the foil, and leaving nature too much to its own unaffifted efforts. The fame inattention and defect is discoverable in their fruits. Soil and fituation do every thing; the choiceft fruits in fome parts growing luxurioufly by the road fide; but from a want of the ufual methods of improving them by horticulture, their fine flavour is loft; and their peaches and other delicious fruits, though apparently natural to the country, will not ftand the test of comparison with fimilar productions in England.

The negroes in Boston, compared with thofe in the more fouthern towns, are very few in number, the menial fervants being moftly white people. This is no trifling confideration to an European, unaccustomed to their hue and features, and the more difagreeable effluvia exhaling from their bodies. Yet, to do juftice to the blacks, I never found any inftances among them of impertinent or difobliging behaviour. The police of this town is well regulated; diforderly houfes and flagrant breaches of the public peace being rarely met with or taking place. The number of inhabitants is computed at about 32,000.

At the fhort distance of three miles from hence is the pleatantly fituated, and not inconfiderable town of Cambridge, famous for its college, where a number of ftudents are educated much in the manner of the English univerfities. In this neighbourhood are the country-feats of many of the opulent merchants, who have fpared no expence to diverfify and improve the rich fcenery furnished by the hand of nature.

Coaches ftand for hire in the principal ftreets of Bofton, a very useful convenience, which has not yet been established in the larger towns of New York and Philadelphia. A regular, handfome, and well managed theatre, with fome able performers, meet with due encouragement from the inhabitants. This, with affemblies, concerts, and promenades, conftitute the chief of their recreations


and diverfions: hither, as in other places, refort the Boston fair, who, in beauty of complexion and feature, are justly acknowledged to excel all others on the continent.

Confidering the capital of Maffachusetts in the aggregate, I prefer it, as a place of refidence, to any other town or city I have vifited on that side of the Atlantic; for while it poffeffes neither the beauty nor the regularity of Philadelphia, nor the elegant buildings and delightful pic turesque scenery to be found about New York, you have, to compenfate for these defects, people of your own colour to attend on you, are but little peftered with mufquitoes and other vermin; nor is the fcorching heat of fummer felt fo intenfely; and, above all, it has hitherto been much lefs afflicted with that baneful and infectious autumnal fever, which of late years, in both the other places, more particularly in the former, has made fuch terrible ravages.

On my return to New York, leaving the States of Maffachusetts and Rhode Island, which in general had the appearance of being well fettled and in good cultivation, I arrived, after a tedious journey, from the badness of the roads, at the town of Norwich, in the State of Connecticut. This is not a place of any confiderable magnitude, neither does it exhibit the appearance of recent improveinent it ftands, however, in a pleasant and well sheltered fituation, and has an excellent inn, with good accomodations. The landlord is Colonel Brown, a very public fpirited and useful citizen. It appears fingular to an Englishman on a tour through the United States to find the hoft, in many, even the most ordinary houfes of entertainment, a ci-devant general or colonel, &c. Thefe titles are not affumed, but were really poffeffed by the parties in the revolutionary war: and, indeed, they are not a little proud of them; for I have remarked, that on neglecting these appellations, the fame alacrity has not been fhewn, as when their full title, or rather, one exceeding it, was given them.

In this part of New England, the obfervance of the fabbath and religious duties is rigidly adhered to, neither public nor private travelling being allowed on that day; and it is confidered as in fome meafure difreputable to neglect attendance on public worship. This ftrict obfervance of the Sunday is, however, chiefly confined to the state of Connecticut, as it does not extend generally even through

the New England ftates. In many parts of the latter, but more particularly in the midland and fouthern provinces of the United States, irreligion, with its usual attendant, immorality, feem to be advancing with hafty ftrides, more efpecially among the rifing generation.

Proceeding on my journey from, Norwich to Hertford, the capital of this ftate [Connecticut], diftant about forty miles, I remarked in general a fertile foil and large farms, breeding great numbers. of cattle, with a few very pretty villages interfperfed. Stopping at one of these to dine, and having received the usual salutation, not lefs prevalent, than unmannerly, not to fay impertinent, among the inhabitants of New England, of, "Sir, I perceive you are from the old country? where are you going?-what is your bufinefs?" &c. &c. I was requested by my good landlady to walk into an adjoining room, to act the part of an interpreter to a country-woman of mine, who a few days before had landed at Boston. Fortunately for my good hoftefs we were both literally from the fame county, otherwife none of us would probably have been the wifer; for this woman, with her four children, I found, had just arrived from Lancashire in search of her husband, who had written for her, having fettled here advantageoufly; but the fpoke the provincial dialect fo very broad and coarse, that very few of her words were intelligible. Having explained the language of the Lancashire woman to my inquifitive landlady, fhe was delirous of knowing why, both coming from England, we should talk fo differently? The reafon why this appeared fo very fingular to my hoftefs was, that, confidering the vaft difference in extent of country in the United States, the English language is fpoke there very plain, and what is yet more furprifing, in general, pretty grammatically.

Hertford, the capital of this ftate, is a populous and well built town; the streets are fpacious and regular; it enjoys a confiderable trade, which will no doubt increase rather than otherwife, if we confide its advantageous position, on a fine navigable river, and lying in a line directly centrical with New York and Boston; it is likewife, from its fituation, the grand mart to the capital of the state of Vermont. From hence to Newhaven, which is in the fame ftate, about thirty miles diftant, the country appeared more fettled than any I had yet feen on the continent. We paffed along the banks of


the Connecticut river, through many small towns and villages, whofe inhabitants were chiefly occupied in barrelling fhips provifions, great quantities of which are annually fent down from thence to New York, and fo to the Weft India Ilands. Ship-building is another lucrative and confiderable branch of trade in this diftrict. Much fine timber grows adjacent to the river, which enables the inhabitants to build at an easy and cheap rate veffels of many tons burthen: thefe are moftly chartered or fold to the New York merchants. The oak timber they fe for the purpofe juft mentioned, is neither fo firm nor fo Fafting as that ufed in England, the common calculation of a hip's durability not exceeding eight or ine years; but there is a fort, which they diftinguish by the name of live oak, found in many parts of Vermont, that is confidered as equally, if not more stout and durable than any used in Europe.

Newhaven is a large town, irregularly built, but airy and fpacious, containing many handfome houfes in the rural ftyle, with gardens annexed to them. families refort thither from various parts, on account of its beauty and healthful refs; preferring this place as their feat of retirement, and chufing to enjoy here the emoluments derived from a life of induftry. This town is alfo famous for a handsome and extenfive college, with profeffors and tutors, for the education of youth in every branch of fcience: it is, moreover, under excellent regulations. This public feminary is in great repute on the continent; many of the American youth reforting to it from different parts of the fouthern countries, upwards of goo miles diftant. A number of packet. boats, every fuitable tide, fail froin hence to New York.

As I learned, from good authority, that nothing very ftriking or interesting was to be expected in the route by land, and as the roads were alfo very indifferent, I thought it right to take my page by the above conveyance; and this, in fact, concluded my month's tour through a great part of the New England ftates, Juftly accounted the best fettled country, with the moft fteady and beft informed inhabitants in the Union; yet truth obliges me to add, that I could not help difcovering among them in general a keennefs nearly approximating to difhonefty, together with an uncommon paffion for gambling, and a ftrong predominating fpirit for airy fpeculations, in preference to fubftantial, regular, well conducted


Thefe, Mr. EDITOR, are a few of my curfory, but impartial remarks, containing fome little information relative to the extenfive territory of the United States of America; which, from various favourable circumftances and events, but chiefly from its enlightened fpirit of univerfal toleration, will, in all probability, at fome future, perhaps not very remote period, become highly prominent in arts and fciences, wealth and power! Well might the comprehentive mind of Dr. Franklin, in his last moments, exclaim, "Could I but a century hence revifit thee, my country, and take one view of thy improvements and profperity!" The fcene of life clofed upon him, ere he could collect fufficient strength to complete the sentence !

I am, Sir, your's, &c.
London, 1798.

W. H.

For the Monthly Magazine. MR. EDITOR,

can give you very little account be

F the late revolution of Lucknow 1


yond a few of the moft public events. The negociations were carried on with fuch profound fecrecy, that it is probable they were not even known to the whole of the governor general's family.

Afoph ul Dowlah, nabob of Oude, and vizier of the empire, died on the 22d September 1797, at Lucknow, his capital. He was immediately fucceeded by Vizier Ali Khan his fon, without any fort of oppofition, and with the confent of Mr. Lumfden, the company's minister, at his court. Mr. Lumfden's conduct met with the approbation of government, and the afcenfion of Vizier Ali Khan was proclaimed by a royal falute from the ramparts of Fort-William.

Vizier Ali Khan was a boy about seventeen years of age; his birth was thought fpurious by many; but the late nabob constantly avowed him as his fon and fucceffor, and he was uniformly acknowledged as fuck by every governor, governor-general, or commander in chief, who had wifited Lucknow; among whom were Mr. Haftings, the Marquis Cornwallis, Sir Robert Abercrombie, Sir John Shore, &c. &c.

What happened in the interval, or gave occafion for the journey, is unknown; but Sir John Shore, governor-general, and Sir Alured Clarke, commander in chief, left Calcutta in November, attended by their respective fuites, and proceeded by dawk (that is by polt) to Ba


naras. Having halted a short time and collected a body of troops, they moved on to Suanpore, a town belonging to the company, on the nabob's frontier, and within fix days journey of Lucknow here Vizier Ali was expected to come and meet them; he did not come however; negociations went on, more troops were affembled, and a long delay took place; at length the British chiefs proceeded, and were met about three days march from Lucknow by Vizier Ali. The interview appeared of the most cordial nature, full of profeffions of mutual friendship and efteem. The whole party entered the metropolis on the 22d of December, and had houfes affigned them by Vizier Ali: the army encamped in the vicinity of the town, and amounted to about fix thou fand men, his majesty's 78th regiment, near twelve hundred strong, forming part of it. On the 20th December, the whole of the troops at this place marched, and on the 27th arrived at the grand military station of Cawnpore, where we formed one army with the troops there under the command of major general Sir James Craig. The whole was ordered to be in seadiness to move on the firing of two fignal guns; in the mean time every thing wore a peaceful afpect at Lucknow; nothing obviously at leaft going forward but reciprocal vifits and entertainments.

Notwithstanding this, at twelve o'clock at noon of the 9th January, 1798, the two fignal guns were fired, and Sir James Craig, having before thrown an admirable bridge of boats across the Ganges, marched directly to Lucknow, diftant fifty miles, with one regiment of European infantry, a thousand ftrong: one regiment of native infantry, two thousand trong; one regiment and two troops of cavalry, and two complete companies of European artillery, with the full proportion of ordnance. Other troops had alfo been ordered in from other quarters, fo that with those that followed from Cawnpore, on the 19th, there was affembled at Lucknow a British army of not less than fourteen thousand men, by far the largest and beft appointed that had ever been feen on

this fide of India.

News were foon after brought to Cawnpore, where I remained with general Stuart, that Sir John Shore having had intimation that Vizier Ali Khan had laid a plan for affaffinating him and all the British gentlemen in the city, he and every man, woman, and child, of that nation, fled from it on the night of the 8th January, with the utmost preci

pitation and joined the army of Sir Alured in its neighbourhood. Nothing could exceed the confternation of Vizier Ali Khan when this event was reported to him next morning. He immediately repaired to the governor, almost unat tended, profeffed the greatest concern and furprize, protefted his innocence and ignorance, and declared the whole to be am infamous contrivance of his enemies calculated to ruin him.

He intreated, or rather implored, Sir John to banish his apprehenfions, and to remove the intolerable anguifh of his mind, by returning to his habitation The governor was inflexible; he then went back to the city, ordered his camp equipage; and with his grandmother the wife of the illuftrious Sujah Dowlah, and mother of the late nabob, a woman of high family and boundless ambition, a few confidential friends and fervants, in all a retinue of about two hundred perfons, he returned and pitched his tents within three hundred yards of the camp of the com mander in chief, thus evincing that at lea he was unfuspicious of treachery. He never had any army at Lucknow, that could be difcovered by ordinary observers many battalions he had, 'tis true, fcattered throughout his dominions, but it does not appear there was ever one of the ordered to approach the capital. Mean while, we who remained at Cawnpore, were continued under the orders of thofe fignal guns, and the duties of the camp at Lucknow were conducted with as much vigilance and punctuality as may be fuppofed to have been that of his royal highnefs the Duke of York, when he every inftant expected to be affaulted by the Sans-Culottes.

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I may just here by the way obferve, for your information, that the compa ny's troops at the two ftations of Cawnpore and Futty-ghurr are fubfidiary, in the pay and in the fervice of the nabob of Oude, to any part of whofe dominions they are obliged to move on his requifition. I did not hear he had made any requifition for their marching to Lucknow at this time. Vizier Ali paid daily vifits to Sir John, and no alteration was perceived in the courtefy of the manner with which he was received and treated, from what had been customary. Negoci ations were faid to be going on, all difficulties removed, and confidence reftored, and every fucceeding day we expect ed to hear that Sir John was going to return to Calcutta, and that the camp would be broken up.


We were all totally difappointed; no man even entertained a fufpicion of what was actually going forward. That the negociation to which I allude had the merit of fecrecy cannot be denied, but whether it had any other merit it might be prefumptuous in me to determine ; time will fhew.

On the 19th January, at fun rife, we were infinitely furprifed by the firing of a royal falute; on enquiry, we learnt it was to proclaim Saadut Ali Khan, nabob of Oude. Saadut Ali Khan is the fon of Sujah Dowlah, and brother of the late Afoph ul Dowlah; his father defigned him for rule, but on his death he was disappointed by the primogeniture of his brother, aided by the intrigues of his mother; and failing in an attempt to affaffinate Afoph, he was obliged to abandon his country and live a vagrant in Hindoftan for feveral years. At length our government interpofing, obtained his pardon and a handfome penfion, and allowed him a refidence in the vicinity of Banaras.


Negociations had all this while been carrying on between him and Sir John Shore he came up poft incog. from Banaras to Cawnpore, where general Stuart was inftructed to receive him with all the honours due to a fovereign prince.

He arrived about three o'clock of the morning of the 19th, and made himself known to the officer on picquet, who immediately conducted him to general Stuart. The general gave inftant orders for a ftrong efcort of artillery, cavalry, and infantry, to be formed for him; and after being refreshed by fome food and reft, he was placed in the centre of the efcort, and marched for Lucknow; by nine A. M. the whole had paffed the bridge of the Ganges.

On the 21ft, being joined by a reinforcement of cavalry from the camp of Sir Alured, and he put on horfeback, the artillery and infantry were abandoned, and they galloped towards Lucknow, in the neighbourhood of which they were met by Sir John, Sir Alured, &c. who conducted him ftraight to the palace, where he had the drefs of inveftiture conferred on him by the mother of Afoph, and was again proclaimed nabob of Oude by another royal falute.

A guard was placed, on the evening of the 20th, over Vizier Ali; and of his numerous fervants and dependants not one remained with him to perform the most neceffary office, infomuch that the officer

of the guard was obliged to supply him, until it could be reprefented to the governor, who ordered him to be provided,

Of all his adherents poffeffing stations or power, there was one man only who evinced the leaft appearance of spirit, or fidelity. This was the grand master of the ordnance, who declared he had sworn allegiance to Vizier Ali Khan, that while he lived he could acknowledge no other master, and that he was refolved to defend the charge that had been committed to him to the last extremity. Accordingly he drew out about two hundred pieces of cannon, and prepared for the conflict. Our army moved towards them in three divifions; but before they had proceeded above half way, intelligence was brought that they were abandoned; a party went forward to fecure them, while the army returned to the camp.

Vizier Ali fent for fome things to the palace, Saadut Ali fuffered them to be carried away, and fent at the fame time to let him know that he was welcome to whatever elfe he chofe befides. Soon after this, he was permitted to vifit the governor-general, who received him very gracioufly, and endeavoured to mitigate his affliction by the most soothing and confolatory expreffions. A penfion has been fettled on him, (to what amount is not known) and he has been conveyed by a small efcort to Banaras; but whether that is to be his refidence, as it was that of his fucceffor, I cannot fay.

Affairs being fo far dettled, the troops began to be withdrawn, I arrived here on the 19th, with the fift divifion of this ftation, and the fecond arrived on the 26th. There only now remain at Lucknow with Sir James Craig, one European and one native regiment, a regiment of native cavalry, and a company of European artillery, and it is daily expected they will be withdrawn likewife.


Sir John Shore and his fuite left Lucknow on the 21ft and proceeded by poft to Calcutta he embarks immediately for Europe, in the Britannia Indiaman; by which fhip I defign this letter to go. Sir Alured and his fuite left it on the 23d, and coming by the way of Cawnpore, arrived here to day; he stays tomorrow and next day, and then alfo goes poft for Calcutta to execute the office of locum tenens during the interregnum between the departure of Sir John and the ar rival of Lord Mornington.

Thus has this revolution, the reafons


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