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Tuesday, half a pint of wheat or wheaten earth, he can never be justified in recurflour, made into pudding or soup. ring to vice in order to avoid misery:

Wednesday, two pounds of potatoes, To bear the unavoidable evils of life with turnips, carrots, or other vegetables that unyielding integrity is the highest test of are in reason,

our virtue: to attempt to escape them by Saturday, a quarter of a pound of vicious means is the great proof of our cheese, or the vegetables as on Wednesday. weakness, and of our unfitness for a fupe

Salt, every day a quarter of an ounce. rior state. This would alone be a fuffi

This is certainly no harving plan ; cient answer ; but, in addition to this, and I may add, that Mr. H. was parti- let it be recollected, that war is in itself cularly attentive to the securing of due an evil in no respect inferior to any that weight and measure in prilon allowances, it might be supposed to prevent.' If it being well apprised of the usual frauds in were probable that ten thousand people this point.

would die of a peftilence or famine, it Having thus endeavoured to vindicate would certainly be a strange mode of prom the memory of this distinguished friend of ceeding, to massacre these ten thousandr mankind from the imputation of undue in order to prevent such an event. For, harshness and severity in his own genuine granting that by such means you preplans, I do not feel it to be my buliness vented the pestilence or famine, you would to draw any comparisons, in whih I not have prevented the misery; you could have no other guide than common would only have exchanged one fpecies of rumour, or representations of which I distress for another not inferior in degree, know not the truth. Let those make and you would still have the cries of the them who are poffefed of the means of orphan and the widow, and the groans information, and of impartiality to use of the dying. It is evident, therefore, them with justice. The subject is, doubt that no degree of inconvenience arising less, of high importance, and ought not from an overcharged population could to be passed over lightly. Had Mr. H. ever afford to a civilized people the been still living I am sure it could not figlitest excuse for war. Yet I thought have long remained without a complete in- it not absolutely impossible that some vestigation.

J. AIKIN. person might advance such a plea, howStoke Newington, March 1o.

ever palpably weak ; but, I own I was

totally unprepared to expect that any To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

person should seriously assert, that I my

self had advanced it, and had undertaken SIR,

" that war was an unspeakable OU Y with dhe me din great favour, if bleding to mankind.” I every where

through the medium of your valu- rank it among the checks to population, able miscellany, you will allow me to which I call misery and vice; and in notice a misstatement relpecting the Ef- speaking of it as the prominent feature of say on the Principles of Population,in a the barbaric character, I expressly say, note to a poem, called, “ The Literary that the commission of war is vice, and Census," by Mr. Dutton,

the effect of it inisery. This, I should It lizs not unfrequently happened, that hardly think, would be the language of a an inference has been drawn from an au- person who attempted to prove war an unthor's reasonings by others, totally diffe- speakable blessing. rent from that which he himself had in In a note towards the end of the

poem, view. From the nature of the principal Mr. Dutton says, “ I am not of that argument in the " Elay on Population," class of men who, with the author of the I have not been without apprehensions, “ Ejiry on Population," think it necessary that some person would exercise his inge- that man should be destroyed by war by nuity in applying it to a defence of war; wholesale, becaulė, forsooth, the Author and I was rather anxious for an opportu- of our existence has no other method of difsity of lțating, that no such use could be posing of us; or, that it becomes us to made of it with the flightest relemblance cut each other's throat, because God has of just reasoning. War being, generally not rendered the earth capable of producing Speaking, a voluntary act, tending to fufficient fulienance for the prolongation foftar the more malignant passions of the of our existence." I lhould certainly féct *Toul, and to produce the worst effects very much ashamed of myself, if I had exupon the human character, must ever be pressed fuch a sentiment; but being concoufidered as vice: and in whatever Icious that there is not in the whole light ve view the fatuation of mau on Efiay any thing that bears the most dif


to prove



1799.] Mr. Wakefield on the Flagellation of Milton. tant resemblance to it, I can only feel in his edition of Milton's finaller poems, the emotion of furprise at so very strange and by Dr. Johnson in his “ Life of Milan affertion. Satire has, undoubtedly, ton," from the pleasure derived by these great latitude; but it may be a question two gentlemen in attempting to degrade whether, even in a fatirical composition, a Cambridge man and a republican. As it is perfe&tly justifiable, in order to make to Aubrey's story, it must be left to its a man a proper object of attack, to affirm, own merits, and the proportionate crethat wien he calls an action vicious, he dulity of the reader. Milton's verses are means virtuous; when he speaks of evil, these, in Eleg. i. ver. II. he means good. Yet, without some Jam nec arundiferum mihi cura revisere Casuch converlion of terms, I am at a loss to conjecture how Mr. D. can make out, Nec duduni vetiti me laris angit amor : that I have ever faid a single iyilable in Nec duri libet uíque majas perferre magistri, favour of war. If Mr. D. has any cați- Cæteraque, ingenio non lubeunda meo. dour, he must acknowledge, that, from That fome circumstance, different from inadvertence, or iome other cause, he has rustication, either of domestic avocation, in this instance been guilty of a more pal- bodily indispoliiion, or some other impepable misrepresentation than any which diment, not‘now discoverable, is intended he imputes io the author of the “ Pursuits in the first difiich, I conclude from the of Literature.

dates of his adinillion, Feb. 12, 1624-5, It is my intention at a future time to and his two degrees, 1628-9 and 1632, enlarge and illuitrate, by a greater num- by which there is no appearance of any ber of facts, the principal part of the lots of terms; and from an unwillingness Eduy on Population;" and, as the sub- which every inan must feel to the publiject of the two last chapters is not necef- cation of his own dilgrace : for certainly sarily connected with it, I shall, in de

a punishment from such a fociety as Christ's ference to the opinion of some friends college is at that time represented to whole judgments I respect, omit them in have been by Milton himself, would have another edition. I hould rather with, been disgraceful to any man. And that therefore, the subjeet to rest : but, in an- leader must have very little acquaintance swer to Mr. D.’s ironical observations, with Milton's profe works, and the uniI cannot help begging him to reflect for a form fpirit of the man through life, who moment, if ever he thinks upon there cannot see in college jobations, and imposubjects, whether it is more derogatory fitions, and forinal exercises, and rigorous to the Deity, to suppose that an immor- exactions of a regular attendance at chapel, tal spirit may require some time or pro- an adequate explanation of the second dicel's for its formation; or, to suppole Nich. that man might be placed at once in the How long the flinging discipline was moft exalted state of happiness, exactly continued at Oxford, or whether it be in the same manner formed to, or con- exerciled at this day, I know not; but firmed in virtrie, as if he had passed with its prevalence at Cambridge, so as to approbation through this lift; but that render a public fiagellation of Milton crethe Supreme Being law with fatisfaction dible, is much dilcountenanced by a pasthe toil, the tears, the pains, the conti- fage in “ Gardiner's Letter to Cbéke," so nual failure of numbers, in this world, far back as June 1542, tòwards the con. and was pleased with the spectacle of un- clution. Puerilem denique temeritatem, Keceljary evil?

fi quid publice ausa fuerit, DOMI·APUD Author of the Ejay on the Principles suos CASTIGARI curato." March 1, 1799. of Population."

But to those who have well considered

the magnanimity and sanctity of Milton's To the Editor of the Montbly Magazine.

characer, the following passage must be

regarded as a fufficient refutation of all MR. EDITOR,

unauthenticated suriniles to his discredit. CROM an nnauthenticated report of

Prose Works," pp. 174, 175. edit. AmAubrey, tlie antiquary, in an un- sterdam. published MS. of the Athmolean musium,

“I must be thought, if this libeller can and an apparent corroboration in some Latin veries of Milton's elegies, this find belief, after an inordinate and riotous great genis is concluded to have fuffered youth spent at the university, to have been

at length vomited out there. For which comflagelleirion whilst a student at Cambridge: modious lie, that he may be encouraged in and this foolish tale is most eagerly em- the trade another time, I thank him ; for it braced and exaggerated by Mr. Warton hath given me an apt occasion to acknow



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ledge publicly, with all grateful mind, that fall so high as to produce no effect what. more than ordinary favour and respect, which I

ever on the pavement. It is found, I befound above any of my equals at the hands of those lieve, that on the spot where the lamp courteous and learned

men, the fellows of that is placed, no additional light is thrown, college wherein I spent some years, who, at my parting, after had taken two degrees, from the numerous focuses that catches

and the glare of light that proceeds as the manner is, signified many ways how much better it would content them if I would the eyes of the passenger, is extremely af

fensive. stay, as by many letters full of kindness and

On the whole, and I speak loving respect, both before tha time and

without the least prejudice whatever, I long after, I was atsured of their fingular should conceive it would be found that good affection towards me; which being the light from lamps of the old construc. likewise propense to all such as were for their tion will be found nearly equal and cerftudious and civil life, worthy of eteem, I tainly more mellow ; and in support of could not wrong their judgments and upright this opinion I might perh.ips with conintentions so muuch as to think I had that vition to some persons add, that it has regard for them for other cause than that I already been so decided ; for though onę might be fill encouraged to proceed in the should suppose from the term pateni burnhonest and laudable courses, of which, they apprehended, I had given good proof. And

ers, that the invention is new, your reato those ingenuous and friendly men, who ders may be surprited and gratified in were ever the countenancers of virtuvus and knowing that this is far from being the hopeful wits, I with the best and happieft case, and that these lamps were used things that friends in absence with one to

in London more than a century ago, when another,” &c.

Millon the celebrated traveller visited These friendly and respectful senti. England, from whose travels I beg leave ments are not reconcileable with a recol- lo quote the following passage." Inlection of thote gross indignities which tead of lanterns, they let up in the streets must have left an indelible impresion of of London lanıps, which by means of antipathy on such a mind as Milton's.

a very thick convex glass, throw out Such, at least, is iny view of the fubje&t. great rays of light, which illuminate GILBERT WAKEFIELD).

the path for people that go on foot tolerHackney, March 2, 1799.

ably well.” The translator adds, that

thele lamps were at every tenth house P.S. Since I wrote the foregoing observa- and a marginal note in the French edition tions, a friend informs me, that Mr. Hayley, in his " Life of Milton," has urged the Taine says, that Mr. Edmund Heming was the

inventor. The inference then is, that passage, in confutation of the same calumny, As I have never had the pleasure of reading they were found not to answer, and were that publication, and am unacquainted with conleqaently disused. Perhaps some of its contents, it my communication be not your philosophical readers will favour wholly superseded, and therefore unworthy

us with their remarks on the comparative of a place in your Magazine, it may not be advantages of common and patent burners. altogether unimportant, as an uninfluenced

I am, &c. and independent effort to rescue from disgrace

March 7th, 1799: the character of a man who adorned his species no less by the purity of his manners than the endowments of his underítanding. To the Editor of tbe Monthly Magazine.

Mar:b 8.



For the Monthly Magazine.


AGAIN take the liberty of calling MR. EDITOR,

ers to the subject of NEGLECTED Bio. THI THE lamps with w!lat are called patent burnirs, that is, with a convex

GRAPHY. My former observations on refracting glass placed before them, are, the effect intended ; perhaps this might

that painful topic have failed to produce it should leem, at present almost general. be owing to their being too general. ly adopted, under the idea of their giving Particular enquiries, probably, may elia very luperior light to the common

cit information from Tome of your intellamp.' It is very certain that a:ftrong ligent correspondents. With your leave ray of light is thrown to a great distance by means of these convex glafles, but this then, I will here mention a few names, ray seems to attach on a particular spoi concerning which any intelligence will be only, and often through the injudicious very acceptable, not only to myself, but manner of placing the glass, is made to to the public at large.' I thall make a



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1799.] Dr. Watkins on Articles of neglected Biography.

781 few remarks upon thein, which may serve tical subjects. The plan of his philofoto kindle in the minds of persons better phical grammar is a very excellent one; informed than myself, a resolution of though it is marked by too much pedangiving more ample and correct memoirs. try: His Magazine of Arts and Sci

1. JAMES PIERCE, Divine. encies," was a good work, and it excites This learned critic, and eminent con- astonishment and indignation to find that it troversialist, has been omitted, together dropped for want of encouragement. His with his coadjutor, HALLETT, in every Philological Library,” is a very judi. biographical work that has fallen in my cious compendiun, and extremely well way. No two names stand higher in fitted for the nie of young persons, and the class of biblical critics, nor any a- those who have not the means of procuring mong what are called rational dissenters, many books. A new edition, with corand yet they have been strangely neglected. rections and improvements, would doubtThey were both settled at Exeter, at the less be acceptable at present, especially head of a large and respectable congrega- as the book is become rather scarce. The tion of presbyterians; and when Dr. fame may be said of the “ Philosophical Clarke kindled the controversy relpecting Grammar,” and some of the other producthe Trinity, they avowed the Arian hy- tions of this industrious writer. I have pothesis, which raised a violent distura been told that his Young Gentleman's bance among the dissenters in the west of and Laily's Philosophy," which first apEngland, Mr. Pierce commenced his peared in his magazine, and was afterliteraty career by a very able, and what wards published in two volumes, owes is rather unusual in a polemical treatise, nuch of its liveliness to his daughter, a very entertaining book, entitled “ Å who polished the language, and selected Vindication of the Protestant Disenters," the poetical passages which ornamented which was first published in good Latin, the work. If I am not mistaken, a and afterwards in English, 1717, in re- fon of Mr. Martin's is now living ; if ply to Dr. Nicholls's Defence of the it should be so, I hope this sketch will Church of England.He also printed fall in his way, and itimulate him to several single fermons and tracts, but send the publisher of this magazine some bis greatest work is his " Commentary on information which may be made use of St. Paul's Epistles.I believe both in drawing up a more fatisfactory mehe and Mr. Hallett were natives of moir of his father. The chief partickExeter, or its neighbourhood. Sure lars defired are his birth place, names it is in the power of many now liv. and profession of his parents, dates of ing, to gather some interesting facts re- birth, death, &c. place of his education, lative to these able scholars, and though his different settlements, &c. the information be but little, it is better 3. SAMUEL DUNN, Mathematician. to communicate that little to the public This gentleman was the contemporary, through the channel of a respectable work, correspondent and friend of Benjamin than to suffer men of such merit to remain Martin. He was a native of Crediton, without any memorial.

in Devonshire, where he kept a respecta2. BENJAMIN MARTIN, Mathematician. ble mathematical tchool for leveral years ;

A meagre notice is given of this extra- but afterwards removed to Chelsea, where ordinary and indefatigable man in the he was engaged in the same way. He was latt edition of the “ General Biographical deeply versed in the science of calculaDictionary," but no reader can be fatis- tion, and was a good practical astrono. fied with it; we are left by it totally in mer ; several reports of his observations the dark as to the birth-place, various being inserted in the Philosophical Transsettlements, and even family of this in- actions. He was also the author of some genious writer. He was at one time separate treatises on mathematical subjects, fettled as a schoolmaster at Chichester, and published an Atlas in folio which but from the circumstance of his after- has been held in good estimation. He diwards becoming an itinerast lecturer in ed in good circumstances, and left an experimental philofophy, it seems that estate of about thirty pounds a year, his school did not answer. He next set to support a mathematical school in his up as a mathematical instrument maker native town, the first master of which was and optician in Fleet-street, where he appointed in 1793. failed. The catalogue of his writings is 4. MARTIN MADAN, Divine. very numerous, and all of them are very This once very popular clergyman was respectable, but he certainly succeeded brought up to the bar, and possessed exþetter upon philosophical than matheina- traurdinary powers as an orator. He had

a hand


Some years


handsome income arising from planta. of this imprudent publication, Mr. Mations in the West India Illands, on which dan was under the neceslity of withdrawaccount he never fought for, nor would ing from his situation at the Lock Hospital, accept any preferment in the church. In and never after resumed it. the former part of his life he was rather afterwards, he published a more useful gay and dissipated, and the occasion of work, viz. the Text of Juvenal," with his converfion is laid to have been this : a literal version, for young persons, in Being one evening at a coffee house, two volumes, 8vo. These books, with with some companions who knew his a collection of psalms and hymns for the talent for mimickry, they desired him use of the Lock Chapel, and a single to go and hear Mr. John Wesley, who sermon, are all that he ever publifhed. was then about to preach some where in In his private character, Mr. Madan the neighbourhood, and then to return a very excellent man ; he was a to exhibit his manner and discourse for good hufband, an affectionate father, and their entertainment. Madau accordingly a firm friend. He was of a very benewent with this intention, and just as he volent disposition, and his charities were entered the place, the preacher named as extensive. "No itain was ever affixed upbis text “ Prepare to nieet your God,” on hiin, but that which he incurred in with a folemnity of accent which fruck the manner jud mentioned, and that surehim with a seriousness that encreased ly may be pardoned when we consider his as the good man proceeded in exhorting motives, and that the excellent Luther his hearers to repentance. On his return bimself fanctioned the Landgrave of Hesse's to the coffee-house his acquaintance asked marrying two wives. hin whether he had taken off the old All the persons here noticed, except methodiit, to which he answered - no Benjamin Martin, are entirely omitted gentlemen, but he has taken me off,” in the new edition of the Biographical and then left their company altogether. Dictionary, which is also the case with Froin that time Mr. Madan became an a vast number of other eminent and ex. altered character; he frequented places traordinary names, many of which, with of worship, and alsociated himself with remarks, will be brought forward in the Serious people, at the instant persuasion nezt and following ujumbers. of whom, he entered into holy orders,

J. WATKINS. but was never settled in any particular cure will he became chaplain to the Lock

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, Hospital, where he obtained an altonihing degree of celebrity. He himself SIR, subscribed largely towards erecting the.


DERHAPS it would not have been chapel at this hospital, and when it was very unreasonable to expect that a built, volunteered his services as the chap- publication like yours, profesiedly friendlain į nor did he ever receive a thilling ly to liberty, should, in criticising a work for his attendance during the whole time of the fame general tendency and spirit, that he officiated in that capaeity. He have discovered fomething of the cancontinued to maintain his popularity as dour, and even the indulgence of lyma preacher, without the finallest diminu- pathy. I am not sensible, however, that tion, till the year 1780, when he unfor- I owe any obligation of this nature, or tunately rouled the public relentment that the work stands indebted for the against himself, by the publication of a lightest portion of "

“celebrity” it may work entitled Thetypihor", or a irealise have attained to the conductors of the on Female Rui'r ;” in which he became Monthly Magazine; the last supplementhe earnest but weak advocate for polyga- tary number of which contains remarks

His intentions, it is fait, were upon the “ History of the House of Brunfgood, being no more than to oblige every wick," affecting the moral, at least as seducer to marry the perton he hus injura: much as the literary character of its ed, even though he fhould have a wite author, and therefore demanding on his already living. A host of writers appeared part some degree of animadversion. againit this inodern Ochinus, fome serious With respect to the objections properly and some fatyrical. The most poweriul, literary, I have nothing to say; the work however, by far of all his antagonists, is before the public, and to the public I was the late ingenious Badcock, who, cheerfully entrust the ultimate decision, in luis criticisms exi Thelypthera in the But, I conceive myself moft unjustly Monthly Review, completely demolished. charged in two instances of a very differthe caute of polygamy. In consequence ent kind, by strong inlinuation and im



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