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1799.] Wiltshire....Dorsetshire.... Somersetshire, &c. 173 WILTSHIRE.

At Plymouth, Mr. Nicholls, to Miss Saralı Married.] At Salisbury, the Rev. C. Upham, of Stogumber. Rigby, M. A. to Miss Collins, daughter of At Soutlinolton, Mr. Hocker, to Miss CP William Collins, esq.

Brown of Dulverton. At Westborough, Mr. Hugh Barnsdole, of Died.] At Exeter, Stephen Hawtrey, efq. Claypole, to Miss Ann Pepper, of Doddington. formerly recorder of Exeter, and barrister at

At Malmsbury, Mr. Alderman. Garlick, law. aged 76, to Miss Judith Ball, aged 26.

At Berry-house, Nicholas Wolferstan, esq. At Grittleton, John Skottowe, esq. of At Hambrook, Mr. Wm. Fugile. Chesham, Bucks, to Miss Sarah Pollok, daughter of the Rev. Dr. Pollok.

Died.) At Truro, Mr. E. Trebilcock, one Died.] At Salisbury, Mr. Smart, glazier ; of the masters of Lloyd's coffee-house. and a few days after one of his sons : they

At St. Martin's, near Looe, Mrs. P. Ni. were both interred in one grave.

cholas, wife of Major Nicholas, of the Corne At Stratford, under the castle of Old Sarum, wall fencible dragoons. John Saunders, at the great age of 106 years. At Purton, aged 70, Mrs. Goddard, relict

Married.] At Halkin, Flintshire, Mr. Edof the late W. Goddard, M. D. and daughter wird Edwards, to Miss Ann Jones, of Groes, of the late Lord Chief-justice Willes.


At Denbigh, Mr. David Jones, of LiverA cutter was lately driven on the sands pool, to Miss Jane. Evans, daughter' of Mr. near Pool, and the crew, who remained in W. Eyans, of Parky Fwile. the most imminent danger, were at length Died.] At the Mouni neär Llanfair, Montrescued by the active humanity and wonder- gomerythire, aged 22, Mrs. Humphreys, wife ful courage of C. Sturt, Esq. M. P.

of Mr. Humphreys, attorney, and youngest Married.] Mr. Francis, of Castle-Carey, to daughter of the late Rev. Mr. Worthington, Miss Conway, of Netberbury, Dorset. of New Chapel.

Died.] At Blandford St. Mary, aged 57, At Caernarvon, Mr. Robert Roberts, of the the Rev. John Willis Burrough, vicar. Bank.

At Sherborne, Mr. R. Clarke, maltster. At Carmarthen, Mrs. Williams, mother of

At Wareham, aged 75, the Rev. Sir Thro- Mr. Williams, serjeant at law. mas Bankes l'Anfon, rector of Corse-Castle At Haverford West, the Rev. Mr. Cleave51 years.

land, rector of St. Thomas. At Hannington-house, aged 69, the Rev. John Freeke, one of his majesty's justices of

Married.] At Edinburgh, George Aberpeace for the counties of Dorset and Wilts. At Frampton, Mr. Stone, a respectable crombie, to Miss Montague Dundas, youngest

crombie, efq. eldest son of Sir Ralph Aberfarmer.

daughter of Mr. Secretary Dundas. The At Shaston, Walter Whitaker, esq. At Nether-compton, fuddenly, Mr. Tho. Right Hon. the Earl of Elgin, to Mifs Nil

bett, of Dirleton. Westcomb, late of Bridport.

At Bargeny, the Hon. Hugh Lindsay, to

Miss J. Gordon. Married.] At Bath, Mr. Mitchell, wool- At Glasgow, John Gardner, jun. esq. to len-draper, to Miss F. Tresler. Mark Ro- Miss Christiana Biggs. binson, esq. captain in the royal navy, to Died.) At Edinburgh, Mr. Peter WilMrs. Shirley, John Wanibrough, esq. to liamson, who was kidnapped when a boy at Miss Fuffell, of Nunney. Wm. Bury, esq. Aberdeen, and sent to America, for which to Miss Maxwell Major-general Jones, to he afterwards received damages. He passed Miss E. A. Williams.

considerable time

among the CheAt Bristol, Mr. Steel, of London, to Miss rokees, and on his return to Edinburgh, Mary Cockin, of Minchin Hampton. Mr. amused the public with a description of their John Reeves, to Miss Mary Wood.

manners and customs. He was the first who At Frome, Mr. George Kingdon, clothier, published a directory, so useful in commercial to Miss Jane Bayly, daughter of B. Bayly, cities, and originally instituted the penny of Little Keyford.

post at Edinburgh, for which, when governDied.] At Bath, Mrs. Fowell, relict of ment assumed it, he received a pension. B. Fowell, esq. Mrs. Patten, wife of Tho. Colonel A. Duncan, provost of the city Patten, esq. of Bank, near Warrington, Lan- of St. Andrew. David Finlayson, esq. late cashire. Phillip Cade, efq. Aged 66, Major. of Savannah la Mar. general Prendegast. J. R. Middleditch, esq. At Tarland, aged 67, the Rev. William of Pickwell-house, Devonshire. Mrs. Bon- Maitland, in the 32d year of his mi: istry. ner, wife of Mr. Bonner, printer.

At Dumfries, John Oughterfon, csq. of At 'Taunton, aged 23, Mr. Alexander Ball, Milnthird. tobacconist, one of the Taunton volunteers. At Aberdeen, the Right Rev.John Geddes,

whose extensive learning, and amiable manMarried.] At Exeter, Mr. Hayne, wool- ners, endeared him to a numerous and relen.draper, to Miss Mayne.

fpecable acquaintance,







Greenfield. At the age of 17 he returned to At New York, Sept. 16, 1798, I. B. Lichfield, and commenced the study of me. Scandella, M. D. aged 28, a native of the dicine under the direction of his father. In Venetian state, and descended from a family the year 1791 he arrived in Philadelphia, of rank and opulence. He received the belt and attended the medical lectures that are medical education, but consecrated his talents annually delivered in that city. In the fucto the general improvement of science, and ceeding ye?r he settled for some tirne as a the benefit of mankind. Having resided for practitioner of physic at Wethersfield in Consome time at London in the capacity of se- necticut; but removed, in the autumn of cretary to the Venetian embaíly, he conceived 1793, to New York, where he remained till the design of visiting America. His country's the time of his death. His talents could not service no longer demanding his attention, he otherwise than Nowly furmount the obstacles propoted to gratify his liberal curiosity in sur, which were thrown in the way of his proveying the principles and Itructure of a rising fessional success by his youth, and by the empire. He first visited Quebec, and thence want of patronage. Besides his medical purtook various journeys through the northern suits, he cultivated, with success, almost and western districts. His chief attention every branch of literature. He was carly was directed to agricultural improvements, distinguished by his attachment to the muses, justly conceiving that mankind would derive which is attested by a great number of jumost benefit from the perfection of that use- venile compositions. These have found their ful art. Having spent two years in America, way, in different forms, to the world, and and accomplished the purposes of his visit, manifest a vigour of imagination which, with he embarked for Europe in June, 1798. The the advantages of age and experience, would veslel, however, proving unfit for the voyage, have rendered him an honour to his country, he returned to Philadelphia, and from thence As a physician, his loss is irreparable. He proceeded to New York. An epidemical dif- had explo red, at an early age, an extent case had meanwhile made its appearance in of medical learning, for which the longest buth cities. Notwithstanding its greater pro- lives are feldom found sufficient. His diligress and malignity in Philadelphia, his con- gence and activity, his ardour and persevee cern in the welfare of a helpless family, rance, knew no bounds, The love of Science whom his departure had deprived of their and thc impulse of philanthropy directed his only useful friend, induced him to return whole professional career, and left little room thither. After enduring continual loss of for the calculations of emolument. He had rest, and exposing himself to tke influence formed vast designs of medical improvement, of an infected atmosphere for ten days, he which embraced the whole family of manset out on his return to New York, where he kind, were animated by the foul of benehad scarcely arrived before symptoms of dif- volence, and aspired after every object of a ease appeared, which on the sixth day ter- liberal and dignified ambition. He was ripe minated in death.

for the highest honcurs of his profession; his At the same place, in Sept. 19, 1798, the merits were every day becoming more conspicelebrated Elihu Hubbard Smith, physician, cuous, when his premature death deprived aged 27 years, who fell a victim to the de- him of that extraordinary degree of public structive epidemic in that city. There were confidence which awaited lim. In 1796 few who perished during that calamitous sea- the corporation of New York Hospital apfon, whole fate excited more aniversal re- pointed him one of the physicians of that gret, and whose memory will be nore fondly charity. His writings, already published, and permanently cherished. In his domestic excite regret that the number of them is not relations, the knowledge of his excellence is greater. They display fingular diligence and neceflarily confined to few; but by those acuteness of research, accurate and extensive few, his conduct as a fon ani a brother, will oblervation, great force and precision of reaever be regarded as a model of unblemished fouing, and a vigorous and comprehensive rectitude. Indefatigable in the promotion of mind. Though funk into the shades of inthe true intereit of those allied to him, a action and filence, his example cannot cease casual observer would have imagined that he, to offer instruction, nor fail to attract imiwhose affections were so ardent, whole mind tation. His plans for the alleviation of huwas so active for their good, had no leiture man misery, and the advancement of human for the offices of friendthip, or the study of happiness, though deprived of their author the general good. To these valuable pur- and supporter, will not entirely perish. poses, however, no one attended more zeal- Of that very useful periodica! work the ously. He was a native of Lichfield in Con- MEDICAL REPOSITORY, published at New necticut, and received the first rudiments of York, he was one of the most zealous foune his education at New York. He entered the ders, and one of the most active and ardent college of Newhaven at the age of eleven, promoters. In its establishment he had fond, where he gave early proofs of intellectual ly anticipated the diffusion of useful knowattainments. His education was completed ledge, the improvement of medicine, and under the care of the Rev. Timothy Dwight, the advancement of the interest and welfare who kept a school of considerable repute at of mankind.


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lbs. 23,934

tons 555

Monthly Commercial Report. EARLY in the month arrived two of the company's ships from China, with the following cargoes: 1. chefts. f. chests. lbs. Tça, Hyfon skin

351 23,325 Tea, Bohea 975 500 401,676 Hyfол


65,421 Congou

16,702 1,488,697


975 23,130 2,341,227
58,040 | Raw Silk, three bales

29916Twankay 3,214 252,948 | Nankeen cloth

17,400 pieces. Also ten ships from Bengal, one from Bencoolen, and three whalers from the Cape of Good Hope, with part of the cargo of the ship Lion from Bengal; the particulars of the cargo as follows: Piece Goods, Mulins pieces 215,825 | Ditto, White

tons 58 Callicoes 282,792 Pepper, bags 250,

Ibs. 18,500 Prohibited

98,027 | Indigo, boxes 90, chests 51, Raw Silk bales 2870 and bundles 5 Ginger, bags 627

cwt. 646 Lack Lake, bags 8, boxes 9, lbs. 3,561 | Tumerick, bags 1687

cwt. 1,966 Saltpetre, bags 27,710, cwt. 36,949 Sugar, bags 23,246 and casks 5, cwt. 32,762 Cotton, bales 808, lbs. 257,100 Shellack, boxes 13, chests 12,

cwt. 133 Pepper, Black

Befide privileged goods, consisting chiefly of sugar, indigo, gum, cotton, mother of pearl Hells, ginger, &c.

The continuance of severe frost, during almost the whole month, has again produced a great interruption of mercantile correspondence, by the detention of the Hamburgh mails, and the orders from the continent being thus kept back, has caused a heavy market for the principal articles of export, though there has been no considerable decline of price. The average price of raw sugars for the week, ending the 20th, was 70s. Id. exclusive of duty.

The East India company's sale of filk, which commenced the 26th, consists of only 408 bales of China raw, 498 bales of Bengal raw, 44 bales of Bengal organzine, and 5 bales of waste; but the company reserve to chemselves the liberty of feiling a further quantity of the Bengal tilk lately arrived, not exceeding 1200 bales, which, it is supposed, will be fold in June. The China filk has told higher than the last dale, the average price of superfine being 30s. 4d. The Bengal organzine is fuperior in quality to any they have before fold, five bales were particularly curious, but have pot sold at the price it was expected they would fetch; the average price of the whole was 275. 3d. There has been a very small import of Italian filk during the present month, and little alteration in the snarket.

The shawl manufactory which we noticed in a former report being at present a branch of much importance to the Norwich manufacturers, we ihould be glad to receive some further account of it, especially from the intelligent correspondent who favoured us with the former particulars, to whom the readers of the Monthly Magazine are indelated for a more extensive and valuable article.

The following particulars relative to the manufactures of iron and feel in Great Britain hew how greatly they have increased in value, though the annual produce in crude iron appears to have diminished. About the year 1620, charcoal pig iron fold for

k. 60 In the year 1792, carbonated pig iron

8 10 In the year 1798,

ditto ditto Loak pig iron when invented sold at

4 In the year 1792, melting pig iron fold for

5 10 In the year 1798, ditto

7 10 Mallable iron made with charcoal fold for

15 The same in 1792, to be drawn into wire, for

23 Ditto in 1798

£27 or 28 The first bar iron made (1620) with pit coal, fold for The same iron in 1792, sold for

18 Ditto in 1798, for This statement strongly shews the effect of the depreciation of the value of money on the current price of commodities, but it will be seen that all along there has been preserved an analogy between the value of the respective states of the metal. We cannot however but be astonished at the great advance of iron within the last fix years, nearly and in some cases more than equal to the advance of a period of 170 years before. The total produce of pig iron in Britain, at the beginning of the last century, has been estimated at 180,000 tons, but at prefent docs not exceed 100,000 tons; and reckoning on an average that 33 cwt. of crude iron produces one ton of bars, and that the manufacture of malleable iron amounts in 35,000 tons per annum.

per ton.


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at 201.

57,750 tons of crude iron will then be necessary to form 35,000 tons of bars

£700,000 42,250 tons cast into cannon, cylinders, machinery, wares, &c. at 141. 591,500 100,000 tons amount of the native manufactures of iron at this period

1,291,500 The extensive manufactures of this country have for many years past demanded an additional supply of foreign bar iron. This has been chiefly obtained from Russia and Sweden, and the annual quantity may be averaged for the last 20 years at 70,000 tons, which at 181. per ton makes 1,260,000l. amounting with the sum before stated to 2,551,500l. which may be taken as the annual amount of the raw material, the chief part of which becomes more valuable in an uncommon ratio, by subsequent labour.


Monthly Agricultural Report.
IT was fortunate for the farmer that the operations of the plough had been continued with-

out much interruption for some time previous to the setting in of the frosts; as those together with the very unusual quantity of snow, which has falien during the last month has nearly put a stop, for the time, to the business of husbandry. The farmer could indeed do little eile than look after his stock-his stock, however, required all his attention, and, during the severity of the weather, made him but a trifling remuncration. The turnips were fo cold and comfortless that they would eat no more than were absolutely necessary for their support. Many farmers fortunately had a great deal of old hay by them, and this they were under the necellity of giving to their bullocks and weathers, with an unsparing hand. It is probable that irge graziers must have lost a great deal of money this season.

The late fown wheats Tuffered considerably from the severity of the first frost, and the consequent tardiness of their growth exposed them much to the depredation of vermin (crows, pidgeons, wire-worms, &c.): that frost, however, enabled the farmers to take time by the forelock; they top-drefied those wheats which had not been mucked at Michaelmas, and manured almost all the layers which were intended for wheat next season. Some fortunately still further anticipated the labour of another year; they actually finished mucking their layers, and made forne progress in carting dung on their wheat-stubbles for a crop of turnips in the summer. The snow which accompanied this second winter, prevented, however, the most active farmers from proceeding with their business; they could neither fence nor ditch, nor underdrain nor marle, nor make any other use of their carts and horses than bring a few Totten turnips to the stock.

The fiail in some districts and the thrashing machines in others have indeed been kept pretty briskly in motion. The blocks in the wood-yards have been riven and stacked for the fire. Those who had ploughed their wheat-fiubbles before the frosts set in, expect to have the land in fine order for turnips, as nothing pulverises stiff heavy soils to effectually as frost, and it is found that turnips will not flourish where the earth impedes the expansion of the young plant. From the destruction of the present erop, the farnier may perhaps look forward to a pleistiful harvest of summer corn next year, if the season is not particularly unfavourable. Our Norfolk reporter lays, that there they never manure for barley or for oats, except, as is the case at present, where they cannot help it. Farmers, continues he, therefore, if they be a little dejected now, at the loss of their turnip crop, may, in all probability, be in some measure repaid by the luxuriance of their summer corns.

From some of the northern districts we are informed, that wlieats and clovers, where covered with snow, seem to have received no injury from the frosts, &c. but where the snow has been drifted off by the streng gales of wind which have prevailed, they shew a more meagre aspect. On the whole, however, it is hoped, that they have not sustained any very great hurt.

The remaining turnips, and particularly those of the larger sorts, have now many rotten ones among them, but not more than might reasonably be expected from the long continuance of the frost at this season.

Turnip stock have not improved much during the severity of the late season, either in the field or at the stall, and that root is now becoming scarce, and consequently higher in price. Indeed fodder of all sorts is remarkably scarce and now fold very

During the inclemency of the late reason there does not appear to have been such a murta-
lity among the lambs as might reasonably have been apprehended: some few which were dropt
during the severeit part of the sealon, perished instantiy on their birth; but Providence
seems to have ordaincd that the severity of the season should retard the period of parturition;
it certainly so happened about us at leait (Norfolk) that a very large proportion of ewes
dropped their lambs during the interval between the two frosts.

GRAIN, in the northern parts of the island, seems to be getting rather lower in price,
Horses still keep low, Ai Dusufries fair in Scotland they fold very cheap.



No. XLII.]

APRIL 1, 1799.

[No. 3. of Vol. VII.

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ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. rary expedient, and not a part of usual SIR,

practice: but he certainly approved of A

S the subject of Penitentiary Houses, separate lodgment by night for alche con

to which the attention of the public victs, and during their whole term. He has lately been much excited, has occa- was likewise rigorous in his intentions of fioned a tre ,uent reference to the plans of preventing all prisons from being in any the late Mr. Howard, and that in terms respect places of idle resort or amusenot always the most respectful, I think ment; and therefore not only forbid visits it in some measure incumbent on me, as from friends, except at stated times; but the friend and biographer of that excellent abfolutely excluded fpirituous and ferman, to make fome Itatement of his realmented liquors of every kind. (See his opinions and proposals with regard to " Draught of a Bill for the better Regula.

" that part of police, that they may not tion of Gaols, &c.") As no one could be be confounded with those of other perfons. more attentive, not only to the health, As long ago, indeed, as the time of my but to the comfort of his fellow-creatures, writing his life, I was aware that falle even though unhappily the objects of punotions prevailed concerning his ideas of nishment, he was an advocate for every infolitary confinement, which, in some places, dulgence with respect to clothing, bedding, had been adopted, in fupposed confor- fire, light, &c. that could reasonably be demity with his recommendation, to a de- fired; yet his strong conviction of the begree much beyond his intentions; and I nefits of fresh air caused him to propose ventured to bring forward fume considera- that plan of building with unglazed wintions on this subject, founded on a note dows or apertures, which, in this climate, of his own. (See - View of the Character, during certain seasons, may, perhaps, be &c. of y. Howard," p. 170.). His own found incompatible with a proper degree Remarks on Penitentiary Houses,” in the of warmth and dryness. I am, however, second volume of his work, are, how- convinced, that the experience of any Ever, fufficient, if properly attended to, material fufferings confequent upon this to prevent any misconception of his views. plan would have induced him to alter it. From these it clearly appears, that the With respect to food, though it was part reformation of those committed to such of his delign to subjugate the ferocity of places of continement was his main ob- the mind by bodily regimen, and thereject; he therefore suppoʻes them to be of fore he was an advocate for what may

be that class of offenders who, by ignorance, comparatively called low diet, as chiefly idleness, and vicious habits of all kinds, consisting of vegetable articles; yet the have been led to violate the peace and allowance he proposed was very far from good order of society. To make a Peni- being scanty in quantity, or meagre in tentiary Houfe a place for safe custody quality. As a proof of this, I fall previously to trial could never have en- exactly copy the dietary contained in the tered into his mind; nor do I suppose schedule annexed to his “ Draught of a he liad an idea of rendering it the abode Bill." of political criminals, who, however se- Good wheaten bread, a pound and a rious might be their delinquency in a half daily, i. e, half a pound at breakfast, public view, night have none of those and a pound at dinner. immoral habits which it was his purpole BREAKFAST. Every day, a quarter to correct. As to the regulations of these of a pint of wheaten or barley meal, oathouses, he has explicitly faid, that con- meal, or rice, made into soup. finement to iolitary cells during the day DINNER. Sunday and Thursday, a was only intended to break the spirits of pound of beef, mutton, or pork, without the audacious and profligate, who could be bone. tamed by no other means; and therefore Monday and Friday, a pint of peases that it was to be considered as a tempo- boiled in the broth of the preceding day. MONTHLY MAG, NO. XLIII.



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