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that article then bore in our markets. of corn (which was ground into four), The corn fo purchased was ground into in paying half price for butcher's meat, flour, and sold to the poor at prime coft. and in premiums for bringing potatoes The measure was attended with the hap- to market. 10,991 lb. of flour, with the pieft effects, the price of the article mate. like quantity of butcher's meat, were fold rially reduced in the market; and after to the poor each week at half price, for feveial months sale, during which the seven weeks. By which means the poor money received was applied to the pur- of Shrewsbury, during that period, purchase of more corn, a return was made to chased weekly 21,982 lb. weight of the the subscribers of 18s. 60. in the pound, prime necessaries of life at half price : and on the amount of their respective subscrip- a balance of 1341. was reserved for a futions.
ture occasion. In the year: 1788, a subscription of In the beginning of the present year betwixt two and three hundred pounds 1799, a subscription of 2561. was in like was laid out during the severity of the manner employed in the purchase of coal, winter in the purchase of coal, which was bread, and materials for soup. The poor sold to the poor at little more than half were served with 4000 quarts of foup price; the sale continued for four weeks, gratis ; 323 tons, 7 cwt. of coals, and when the weather became more moderate, 1751. worth of bread, were sold at half and ros. in the pound was returned to all price. 4612 individuals were thus resubscribers of above 2s.6d. The relief was lieved weekly for four weeks extended weekly to upwards of nine hun. The general mode of conducting the dred poor families, besides three hundred business attending these distributions was, single persons.
by appointing parochial committees who In the year 1794, a subscription of two met in their leveral vestries, made out lists hundred pounds was laid out in the pur. of the poor, and distributed prinied tickers chale of bread, which was sold to the poor numbered and inscribed with the name at less than half the price charged in the of the parish of the party applying, the bakers' Mops, and 10s. in the pound was number his or her family consisted of, and returned to the subscribers. One thousand the quantity they were allowed to purand thirty-six families, and two hudied chale. These tickets the poor took to and seventeen single persons, were relieved the bakers, butchers, or coal-wharf, paid weekly during the continuance of this dis- half price for the quantity allowed, and tribution.
delivered up their tickets, which were In the year 1795, a subscription of near called in and re-issued weekly; serving at five hundred pounds was laid out in the the same time as checks to the accounts of purchase of bread, butcher's meat, and the bakers, butchers, and coal merchants. coals, which were sold at a reduced price. The quantity of each article they were In consequence of the very long conti- allowed to purchase, was in proportion to nuance of severe weather, and of a very the number the family conlifted of. A extraordinary inundation that took place regular entry was kept in a book of each on the breaking up of the frost, the whole person's name, the number in family, and of this subscription was applied for the the relief allowed. The poor had a serelief of the poor.
parate ticket for each article. By going Six hundred and ninety-eight pounds individually with their respective tickets worth of bread, besides coals and meat, to the butchers, or bakers, &c. the great was sold ; and upwards of scco indivi- inconvenience and loss of time occasioned duals thus relieved twice a week, from by lo large a body crowding together to the 17th January to the end of February. be served, was totally prevented. Con
In the autumn of the same year, a fül). tralls were made for the bread, meat, and scription of seven hundred pounds was coals, at a reduced price. Jaid out in the purchase of 1260 bushels
ERRATA in our lafi.
In the account of Mr. Wiche, p. 929, Ist col. 1. 33 from the top, for the predominance of some amongst the number; read, the predominance of which in some amongst the number. Ditto. I. 48 from the top, for properly, rad profanely.
T belowende de more agreeablet pris has plematic in their negociations; and that
[ 977 ] ANECDOTES OF EMINENT PERSONS. . ANECDOTES OF some of THE LEAD- diplomatical composition. Hahn is a memING CHARACTERS IN THE PRESENT ber of the Diplomatic Committee,* anii,
FROM RIEM'S with Gevers, the most considerable among TRAVELS THRO' HOLLAND, IN 1796 them. If there be any thing to blame in AND 1797
the conduct of this great man ; it is, that
he does not prescribe to the ambassadors of HERE are few on whom
vian more dignomy than on this honest and great man.
he does not endeavour to have formed a The traits of unaffected sincerity, expref- fixed political syltem for the republic, acfive of a truly republican soul, are spread cording to which the ambassadors might be over his whole countenance ; with linea- instructed to a&t; and that men of merit ments of a mild, compassionate turn of be appointed to watch over the interests of thought, and of strong feelings, blended the republic in foreign countries, in pretogether, as it were, by the magic pencil ference to such as have no other clains to of a Raphael. In his eye, large and full of such an office, but their willingness to acfire, we discover strength of mind, and the cept a wretched salary, and detray the lively expression of patriotic contempt of greatest part of the expences out of their life. With these traits is mixed a dash of the own pocket. But what can one '
man do failing of all great men, felfwilledness and againit the will and pleasure of an ignorant inflexibility. His energy betrays itself in majority ? the play of the muscles of his face ; and he
I was much ítruck with his fingular apcommands more attention and regard than pearance the first time I saw him brought he seems to aim at. In stature he is thort
into the National Assembly. Two fervants and thick: the free use of his hands is not
bore him, fitting on a kind of hand-barwholly in his power ; and the use of his row, and thus carried him to his place; as, feet he has lost entirely. But the lavish for some time past, he has been unable to hand of nature has made him ample amends walk. It is obvious how much this must for what she denied him in corporeal powers, impede the active discharge of the duties by lavishing on him mental endowments; of his station; and I ain astonished, that a quick faculty of apprehension, a found his unfortunate lameness does not produce judgment, a penetration that seldom errs.
more irkiomeness and ill-humour in a man When the long discourses of his col- of lo lively turn as Hahn. But, perhaps leagues have distorted and obscured the ob- nature, in forming him, mixed with the inject in debate, he, with a few words, dif- flammable ingredients a portion of Bata. pells the darkness, and leads back their vian phlegm, and thus produced his happy deliberations to the question. The pa- temperament. tience with which he listens to the speeches of some of the drawling reprelentatives,
Justum et tenacem propositi virum
Non ardor civium prava jubentium, and notices, applies, or refutes the most
Non vultus instantis tyranni, important parts, is, as is patience in ge. neral, in him the work of education and
Mente quatit solida. art, and altogether contrary to his natil
Hunc, fi fractus illabatur orbis, rally fiery temperament. He is complai
Impavidum ferient ruinæ ! fant and hospitable ; and an attic urbanity Never, perhaps, was a motto more juftly reigns in his house, and an air of opennels applicable than this is to Von Hooff. It and candour, which prepossess the stranger would seem, indeed, as if the lines had been with a favourable opinion of him and his expressly written on this great man. Whenfamily. His wife is worthy of the hufband, such as I have here delineated him. Affembly, the above passage occurred to me.
ever I heard vím speak in the National But, Hahn's father was a German, and his He is tall and athletic. Almost continually wife is likewise a native of that country.
the marks of inward sorrow are painted on Hahn undoubtedly furpasses all the Ba. his countenance; as he sees affairs take a tavian patriots in the knowledge of polic turn, that cannot posibly tend to the estatics and diplomatics; and he has clearer blishment of the happiness of his native ideas with respect to matters of finance, country on a firm basis. Traces are liketban most of his colleagues. The report wife discoverable of his former sufferings. of the Citizen Representative Van der Kaf- He had emigrateci to France; and, for a teelen is, indeedi, a master piece of patient industry; but rather an historical than
In the year 1797.
year and a hall, was subjected to Robere on the matter, they are too much prepoí. pierre's tyrannic fway. Robespierre, who felled in favour of the opinion that resulte iered the energetic nian, ordered liim to from their ratiocination, to be ever is. be guillotined : arxl Von Hooff 's name was duced to give it up. To them is applicable actually inserted in the list of those who had the itxe from Scripture, “ They have eyes, been executed. But, fortunately for the ant fee nut; they have ears, and hear not." Batavian Republic, charce lo directed it, If they were endowed with found judgmer: that the executioners of the tyrant's fan. anl enlightened understandings,they would guinary commands dragged another inna- certainly be in general convinced by tie cent person, whom they milook for Von arguments of this clear-fighted man. Hooff, out of the dungeon, and decapitaied I spoke with him concerning the finances himn instead of the latter, On the fall of of the republic: and I owe him the hint Robespierre, Von Hooff was liberater: for the formation of a paper circulating but the hardships he suffered in prison had medium, that could not possibly be deprefor ever undermined bis health and confi- ciated, if emitted agreably to my plan; tution. In quick penetration he is fir. which is explained in the chapter on the passed by none of his colleagues; and Finances of the Patavian Republic. Couequally excels in perspicuity, bievity, in a rage and resolution accompany and aij bus good delivery, and in a lucid manner of ar. ardent activity. He is the chief among ranging his argumems. He speaks, with the representatives of bis province; and, out digressions, to the purpose, and never without a retrospect to provincial advanlores right of the main quellion. The ad- tages, and the privileges of his immediare monitions of the president make no imprel- continents, constantly acts with a view to fion on him, when he sees the miltakes or the general good of the republic one and inexperience of the latter leading to the indivisible. For this reason, he fupported enacting of a law that may prove vietri- with so much force the proposal for an mental to the public weal.' With fulini amalgamation of the debts of the ftate, ai. nating eyes, and unspeakable energy in his though his own constituents be free from manner, I once law him advance to the feat debt; and prefers the advantages that wili of the president, clearly explain to him the accrue to them from the prosperity of the dangers which must ensuie to the existing whole republic, to the wretched calculadecieis, and to the general geod, if he tions of his colleagues, who are not able to would not otherwise put the question to the reckon farther than how much ready moopfel nominal. Wen, nevertheleis, the ney must be facrificed for the moment. decree of the uth of March pasted the He was certainly in the right, when he allembly, he pronounced with the most for faid to me', “ If we must contribute our cible expresion these remarkable words : quoia to the yearly deficit of fix millions, “ If I were president, nothing, not even a and remain an isolated province, is it not battery of cannon planted against me, better, pairiotically 10 take upon us a fhould force me to put to pernicious a part of the debt, the intereft of which does question to the vote; not even impending pot furpais that quota, and thus form a death should induce me to act fo to the whole?" ruin of my country." His dejection and What so much wins my esteem for this chagrin on that day are almoft incon excellent man, is his love of justice and ceivable ; for he is ačivated by a lively pa- truth, and his exemplary disinterestedness. trivtilm; and his body and foul are de. He never fatters any popular prejudice, voted to the welfare of his country.
with whatever fpecious name it may be On the evening of that day, I converted decorated. He does nothing with a view with him two or three hours; and he not to attain the future offices of the late, nor only concurred with me in opinion, but endeavours to creep into them by a fupple spoke with such ardour of the danger of subterviency to the will of the majority of the late, if the decree remained in force, the allembly, or of the people. He that I could not lilien to him without the marches Itraight forward in the path he utmost admiration. But the fire of his has chosen from conviction, without taking genius contumes, rather than warms. The any frie views, and without ever thinking phlegmatic Batavian teels it not, and is not of his own private interest or aggrandizemoved by his glowing elequence. The In this, he differs widely from the members of the allembly have either al- generality of Baravians. Even his lite, I seady chosen thuir party, and are too fond am convinced, would cease to have any of their ease to bellow ilouçlit and reafin- value for him, ił, by lacrificing it, he could irg on the principles they liave taken for render any service to his native land. granied; or, if they have haply syllogized He puffeles a clear understanding, pori.
979 fied from all prejudices, either with re- seldom errs. But, unluckily, in republics spect to religion or any thing else. His the ministers of every department have in manners are polished; only the vivacity of general their hands tied down fro:n ast. his perception gives a harshness to his ing, as every thing must be done according manner of uttering his sentiments, and a to the decides of the national allembly, or want of pliability proportionate to his con- of the different committees. This, how. viction of the truth of what he says. He ever, does not prevent their having a gitat is as little capable of receding from opi- indirect influence, as they are the central nions refting on grounds which he has put point for all affairs and negociations. to the proof, as of fleeing from the enemy in battle. Often have I beheld with plea. BIOGRAPHICAL ACCOUNT OF SAHIUEL fure, the lofty expression in his ardent eye,
L. MITCHILL, ESQ. AUTHOR OF THE who in delivering his arguments he fur- NEW DOCTRINE OF PESTILENTIAL veyed the assembly, or with conscious FLUID), NOW PREVALENT IN NORTH superiority looked down upon them, wlen AMERICA. he had with severity coinmented on their Sumudi Lithim Mitchill was born in
the township of Hempsteal, in Queen's Acquainted with the faults of the new County, in the Province of New York, conftitution, with the errors and failings in Ainerica, near the bezimoing of of his fellow.citizens, and with the im the year 1765. His father was defcendportant relation in which the republic ed from a family in Cornwall, in the Itands with regard to the rest of Ewoe, Weft of Engiand; and was the cultivahe is well qualified to become a member of tor of his own estate. His mother was likethe future directory, and to raise his coun. wile of Englith extraction, from a family try to inat degree of power and glory of of the nam of Latam in the County of which it is capable. But, I much doubt, Middlesex. It is remarkable of im, that, whether they will to rationally consult the during leveral of the first years of his life, interests of the republic, as to place inch men he was of a very fingular white or pale as Von Hooff at the helm of the executive complexion of the whole body, as if there power. Rich aristocrats already itretch forth were no blood within him, which condition their hands to foize it; and ambitious dema- of his skin was ascribed to an extraordinggogues are paving their way to it, by ma ry effect wrougit upon his mother's mind naging and Mastering the people; and this by the light ot a moft bvauritul waxen fin with ihe view, if, to the exilusion of the gure of Jous Cirilt, brought from the true patriots, they should attain the most Havannah, wirich hrad not long before been important places, of throwing every thing captured by the British, and exhibited for into confusion.
a show in the place where she dwelt. At 8
years of age he was sent to a common LEIDEN VON WEST BARENDRECHT school; at eleven, he commenced claffical
Is minister, or secretary, for foreign af- ftudies, under the instruction of the Rev. fairs. He is an obliging, ingenuous, Leonard Cutting, then the paríon of the and agreeable man; and, with great natu- parish. Ai the same place, Mr. Hentz rał talents and acquired abilities, is free gave him his first leffons of the French from all the failings wlic are usually attributed to men in his station. Unwea. in the year 1981, he was removed from ried, and wholly devoted to the husiness the County to the City of New York, of his office, the republic could not paffibly with a view of applying to the protetion of have chofen a man better qualified to filit. piyfic: an] as ise Ciiy was then a guria His principles are in concord with tire intor British roops, thje were many opwants of his country. He has just ideas partumities of leeing medical and chirurgiof the weight of the Batavian Ripublic in cal practice in the military hospitals incre. the political balance of Europe. I listened After the chose of the war, lie determined to him with pleasure, at his fire-lide, to visit Europe; and failed, in 1764, to where I ventured to give vent to fome re. France. He linieci at the old town of proaches againft the Diplomatic Commit- Crolic, in the Bay of Biscay, and traveltee, which does to little that is worthy of led up to Paris. Having palled to me time the dignity of the Batavian Republic; there, he passed over to London; and, a'rer and the minister explaineil to me its politi. tarrying listle while, he took his depar. cal relations, with respect to the other itates ture by tuu tor Einburgh. Here he at. of Europe. His leiters are written in a iunded the chilles as a regular tent of good style, with a condented brevity, and a medicine; ani frequented the leveral todelicacy of expression, that are well worthy cieties established there for the improveof imitation. His judgment is found, and ment or y ung men at the univertiry.
Among other things, it appears, that he was Albany about this time, he was permitted a warm friend and admirer of the celebrated, by Mr. Clinton, then governor of the state, though unfortunates Dr. Brown. It ap- to gain insight into public affairs by kreppears also, that he was curator of the ex- ing the minutes of the council for revising perimental conmittee, and member of the the bills about to be paired into laws. library committee of the Royal Medical About this time, his Experiments on the Society; and one of a committee with Saratoga Mineral Waters were made, the Bedoes, now of Clifton, and Mackintolli, more striking and popular of which have oi Lincoln's Inn, of the rights and privi: been printed over and over in the periodileges of students residing in the city. cal publications.
He took the degree of Doctor of Physic In 1789, the death of his father deterin 1786, on which occalion he defended a mined hin to relide at Plandome, the place differtation on " Generation ;" a piece in of his birtla; and in 1790, at the general vihich he adopted Haller's doctrine of the election, he was returned one of the memevolution of gern's. This being done, he bers of assembly for Queen's County. In made a tour to the eastern parts of Scot- 1791, he attended the fillions as a member Jand, and to the Highlands, and returned, at the City of New York; and, as apsiter visiting Glatgow, and many other pears by the Journal of the Assembly, was, places, to London, travelling deliberately among other employments, one of the through the countiy all the while. During committee for reporting on expiring, ftathe fe excursions, the lakes in Dunbarton- tutes, and of the committee for making fire and in We! morland did not escape the new apportionment of additional rehis notice. From London he made a num- presentatives, according to the census as ber of excufions; and, among others, directed in the State-conftitution. Mr. walked, in conspany with his friend Mr. Watts was then speaker of the house. Dunlap, now manager of the theatre at Having, during his residence on Long New York, to Oxford, Woodstock, &c. Iland (loi Queen's County is on that island) and back again. He afterwards went to applied himielf to practical agriculture, we Bath; and proceeded, in 1787, by the find him engaged next with Mr. R. R. way of Falmouth, to New York.
Livinglton, the Chancellor, and Mr. S. de The same year, he published fome expe. Witt, the 'Surveyor-General of the State, riments on evaporation, intended as a con- and a number of members of the legislature, tinuation of thote made by the Bishop of in establishing a fociety for the promotion Landaff; and his discovery of muscular of agriculture, vseful arts, and manufacfibres in the absorbent vessels of certain tel
Before this fociety he delivered taceous animals and other vermes. the first public address, which has been
Soon after this, he determined to apply fince published in the first volume of their himself to the study of the law, and remov- Transactions. The society was afterwards ed for that purpose to Albany. In this incorporated, and its meetings connected he was greatly aflilter by the friendship of with the meetings of the legislature. The Mr. Chief Justice Yates. In 1788, we senators and assembly-men for the time find him buted among the commissioners being are declared to be honorary mem. holding a treaty with the Indians of the Six bers of this fociety. Two other volumes Nations at Fort Stanwix; at which the of Transacticns have since appeared. uncenstitutional sales of land made by the During this year, Mr. Mitchill was natives to an association, calling them- elected a Member of the American Philo. felves the Geneffee Company, were invali- sophical Society, held at Philadelphia ; dated; and the right of foil, except certain and likewise appointed a captain of light specified re ervations, purchased for the infantry in the militia then organizing in government of the date of New York.
the part of the county where he resided. During his rtfidence at Albany, he made About this time also, he received a certifivarious excurfions; and, among others, cate of enrollment among the Members of cne to Lake Ontario, and another to Que- the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences at bec, in both which his companion was Cape François, an inftitution at that time Mr. Stephen Van Renpallati, now Lieute. enterprising and respectable, but now parnant Governor of the State. Thele tours taking of the ruins of all regular establishare eminintly intereiling to every person ments in that difiracted colony. who wilhes to view the Icenes of the In 1792, the trustees of Columbia Colgreat actions and events on the frontiers lege, defirous of enlarging the plan of induring the wars, when the states of Amne. (truction in tliat leminary, established an jica were Britis colonies, and Canada be- additional profefforthip of natural history, longed to the monarchy of France. The chemistry, and agriculture, and appointed legill.:(ure of the late being in leffion at Mr. Miichill to the chair. This appoint