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1800.]

New and correct Account of Algiers.

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but it is neither beautiful, nor has any circumjacent villas, a most agreeable and in. Hourishing trade or manufacture. The viting appearance; but the internal state of Shellif, formerly Chinalap), is the largeit the city answers not the expectation thus river of the whole kingdom ; it takes its raised. It has five gates; but no public rise in the Desert, in 35° 2' north lati. places or squares of considerable extent. tude, from 70 fources, as its name in. The larger molchs amount to leven ; but dicates. In its course it receives the Mi- , there is nothing remarkable or of superior droe, the Harberne at the town of Medea, beauty in their architecture. Even the the Toddah or Silver River, the Archew, Dey's palace is far from being fpacious the Mino, Warissa and Fagia. Shershel was and extensive. Algiers contains about formerly a place of some importance; but 80,000 inhabitants, in which number are is now in runs: it is faid, that it was de- included feveral thoutand Jewish families.

troyed by anearthquake, and that the arse. Shaw makes the number of the inhabitants pal and a number of other buildings wire amount to 117,000, and Laugier de Tally precipitated into the harhour; the ruins being to 100,000. In the time of these two wri. till discoverable at low water. Sherihil ters, the numbers retpectively given hy them is built after the Moorish manner. The may have been the true amount of the powhabitants are celebrated for their pottery pulation ; for it has been remarked, that wares, and their lieel and iron manufac. it yearly decreases ; and indeed it is far

ures. Tremesan or Tlemsan is by far the from improbable, that fifty years hence, most considerable town in the province of if no extraordinary revolution intervene, Mascara; in the time of the Arabs, it and the government remain the same, the was the residence of powerful kings and inhabitants may not exceed fifty or fixty princes; but is now dwindled to scarce a thousand. fifin part of the extent of the ancient city. About half a mile to the north-east of Its once Aourishing manufactures are at the city commentes the plain of Metitfire, present in a state of decay. They still which stretches fifiy English miles in inake and dye different kinds of carpets length, and twenty in breadth, as far as and woollen coverlets. The latter are the branch of Mount Atlas at the foot of most in requett: they are dyed of a scarlet which lies the town of Belida. This plain colour, and at the ends interwoven with is well cultivated, better indeed than thie goli wire. They cost from 8 to 30 Al. other districts of the kingdom. Immedigerine zechins. The former master pieces ately under the government of Algiers are Oi architecture have disappeared: not a the following Kaits, the Kait of Zalau single building of distinguished excellence or Sebau, the principal of them all; the is now to be leen. The minarets (towers Kait of Bufarik, Bninusa, Gasbra, Bnig. of the moichs) indeed raise their heads liff?, Bnisbat, Arrib, Zebt, Yljer, and Shere above the relt; but possess no real beauty scelle. This province is watered by me or symmetry.

Mazaffron, which at its entrance into the Mascara, formerly Vietoria, the present tea is a very confiderable river, and little capital of the province, and the relidence inferior to the Shelif; by the Shiffa and of the Bey, is the only place in the whole , the Harash. ķingdom, which under the domination of III. THE PROVINCE OF TITERI. the Turks flourines and perceptibly in- This province is the smallest and least creases in prosperity. It is, indeed, smal. important : towards the north it is mounler than Tremefan and Sherthel; but lur. tainous and narrow; to the louth it ex-' passes them in beauty, and the modern ap- tends far into the Desert. Along the coast pearance of the houses, and daily increales of Temendsuse, to the mouth of the Boobe

Mascara is situated in the rack, we find not a single town. On this centre of a district abounding with corn. coait the Regja, the Builwowe, the Corsoe, fields and embellished with numerous small the Merdass, and the nijjer fall into the ica: villages. So late aš in Shaw's time (1732) of these rivers, the Yilier greatly furpafies it was bun an inconfiderable place; but at the others in magnitude. In the interior preient it has a great number of good of the country, at the foot of the ridge of boules, newly erected moschs, and a trong mountains, and about fifteen miles from caitle, in which the Bey retides, and is at. Algiers, lies bleeda or Belido, a tolerably Lended by a numerous and fplendid retinue. large and populous town, but without N. THE TERRITORY OF THE CITY much trade. The fecond town of this

province is Medea; it is surrounded with The capital, Aigiers, or Argel, has, from high mountains ; and, the heat being froin jos amphitheatrical situation, ihe resplendent this cause extraordinarily greai, fruits and whiteness of the houses, and the numerous plants attain a greater periection. Medez

in extent.

OF ALGIERS.

13

is nearly of the same magnitude as Belida. and Provençals. The edifices belonging The chain of mountains branching out in to the Company are the only regular build this district to the east and west, is a part ings; the rest of the inhabitants, composed of Mount Atlas, and becomes higher the of the scum of the populace of Marseilles, farther it extends towards the eaft. The live in wretched huts. They are employed Anwall Mountains on the river Yiffer in packing and unpacking of goods, in the already rise to a great height ; but to the coral-fishery, in taking care of the cattle; fouth-east, we find some of the highest in and must likewise do military duty, and the whole kingdom, known by the names of daily mount guard. At the mouth of the Furjura and Felizia. The latter are a Zaine, near the shore, lies the island of Ta. high and rocky ridge, that stretches to the barca. It was formerly well cultivated ; extent of trom seventeen to twenty miles, contained a great number of inhabitants, and is in most places inaccessible. There and was connected with the continent by a dwell the Cabyls, an independent tribe, mound. It confifts of a high, and towards wlio have never yet been subdued by the Al- the north steep, rock, whole heiglit gradugerines. During the greatest part of the ally decreases on the fide towards the land; year, the tops of many of these mountains on this declivity formerly stood the popuare, even in this hot climate, covered with lous and pleasantly fituated city of the fnow, which vanimes in May, and re-ap- fame name. The Emperor Charles V. pears towards the end of September. In conquered this iland, and caused it to be and near the city of Algiers, these snow. fortified as a place of safety, from which covered fummits are diftin&tly seen, resting, the Tunisian corfairs might be successfully as it were, on the clouds.

attacked; and, if neceffity should require IV. THE PROVINCE OF CONSTANTINE it, a landing effected. At that time, many

Is the largest and richest of the four; Spanish families settled here, and the island and stretches from the river Booberack to was defended by a Spanish garrison. In the Zaine, which separates it from Tunis. the sequel, it was granted to the house of The greatest part along the coast is moun- Doria, and thus came under the dominion tainous : and in the mountains dwell free of the Genoese, who established liere a coArabian and Moorish tribes, which from ral-fishery. When, their trade being ititime to time have proved formidable ene- fested and interrupted by the Algerine cormies to the power of Algiers. The most fairs, the inhabitants of Tabarca applied remarkable places are, Bugia, a large town, to Genoa for tanc it was in agitation and well built after the manner of the to transfer the poffeffion of it to France. country. It has a garrison of from two This project the Tabarcans rendered abor. to three hundred men, which however is tive, by voluntarily surrendering their city not always fufficient to overawe and put a to Tunis. But they found themselves stop to the depredations of the Cabyls. As cruelly deceived. Initead of protecting these free mountaineers possess a superfluity their trade, the Bey of Tunis razed the of oil, soap, dried figs, and especially tim. fortifications of the ifland; treated all the her fit for building; the government of Al- inhabitants, on their expresfing their difgiers, which stands in need of these pro- content, as prisoners of war, and caused duets, is obliged in many things to Mew the greatest part of them to be carried as great indulgence to these tribes. The flaves to Tunis. In the year 1757, when Cabyls, especially those who dwell to the Tunis was taken by the Algerines, the west of Collo, are reckoned among the most captive Tabarcans were brought as flaves turbulent and cruel inhabitants of the Al- to Algiers ; where the Spanish court foon gerine dominions. In Collo, the French after purchased their freedom, and they reAfrican Com;any has a small factory, as turned to Spain or Italy. The Bey of Tulikewise at Bona or Blaid el Aneb (the ai). nis caused a new fort to be conitructed on cient Hippo Regius), where they purchase the continent, exactly opposite the island; corn, oil, leather, wax, and wool, and con- but kept in both forts only a small gani. stantly keep a resident agent, who has fon. Since the year 1784, the island has charge of the correspondence between Bo. for the most part been uninhabited; having pa, Algiers, La Calle, and Marseilles. lost almost all its remaining inhabitants by Half a mile inland from the present Bona, the plague. The French African compawe find the ruins of Hippo. The chiet fac. ny obtained from the Bey of Tunis the tory of the French African Company on privilege to send hither an agent or fa&tor; this coast is La Calle, surrounded on three who, however, does not constantly reside on fides by the sea, and on the fourth defend the spot. ed by a strong wall. This place is inha- Confiantine, formerly Cirta, one of the bited by three or four hundred Corsicans molt confiderable cities of ancient Numi

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1800.] Account of the Journal de Physique.

963 dia, is the capital of the whole province, On the Algerine coaft neither ebb nor and the residence of the Bey. Its ruins flood is perceptible, and there is a want of ftill Anew what it once had been. Part of good and secure harbours, and likewise of the city is built on a steep eminence, from convenient landing places; for the flore which criminals are thrown down headlong. is for the most part high, steep, and rocky. Next to Algiers, Conftantine is the most Oran is, beyond doubt, the best harbour of populous city in the Algerine dominions. the whole kingdom; the harbour of Arses

In the Sahra, behind Mount Atlas, or is indeed equally convenient, deep, and Tell, lies the diftrict Zaab, belonging to safe; but less capacious. The harbour of the Province of Confiantine. The people Algiers is small, shallow, insecure; and of Zaab are free, and pay no tribute : they moreover, when a strong north wind blows, are poor and indigent, as it may be ex- the entrance into it is attended with the pected of the inhabitants of fo barren a greatest danger, on account of the numefoil. Dates are their principal article of rous rocks lying in its neighbourhood. food; for they have beautiful and exten- The harbour of Bugia is safer, deeper, and five plantations of palm-trees. From the more capacious than that of Algiers; but nature of the country, only a few can be its entrance is equally dangerous, and it employed in agriculture and pasturage. is not much frequented by Europeans. They carry on some commerce in negroes Bena and La Calle scarcely deserve the and oftrich feathers. Small troops of the name of harbours ; as, besides having all poorest of them every year wander forth the defects of those already mentioned, to th-2 capital and the larger cities of the they are capable of admitting only small kingdom, where they are employed in ser- vessels, such as draw five, or at most fix vices similar to those performed by the feet of water. Savoyards in Paris ; and, having in the course of two or three years accumulated a capital of from six to ten zechins, return

For the Monthly Magazine. home, and are reckoned among the wealthy There are few periodical publications on the of the land. In the capital, they are

subjects of Natural History and Experi known by the name of Biscaris, and con

mental Philosophy, that have acquired a {titute, under a common head, a kind of

higher reputation both on the Continent

and in this country, than the Journal de diftinct corporation : they have even a com

Physique, and its continuation the Journal mon treasury for the purpose of mutually

de Rozier. Most of the eminent philoforelieving each other. They are the only

phers of Europe, during the very interestclass of free servants, and are highly ing period of 21 years commencing from esteemed for their fidelity. In winter as

1771, appear among the contributors to well as fummer, they sleep wrapped in rage, this work; it therefore contains a valt on a kind of benches before the shops ; number of original memoirs, together with others place themselves at the gates of the judicious selections from the Transactions different roads, and open them to the

of the various philofophical societies of guards, and to other unsuspicious persons.

England, Germany, Italy, and France. Experience has proved, that they are de

The memoirs in this valuable repository ferving of the confidence reposed in them :

may be divided into three claffes. 1. Those for they are indefatigable and of a placid

whose utility is only local.

2. Those and obliging difpolition. Those among

whole utility is superseded by more recent

discoveries, and which now, therefore, only them who are guilty of any breach of trutt serve as historical documents of the progress are punished by their chiefs. They are and former state of science : and 3. Those, likewise employed as servants in the houses whore value is either eflentially permaof the Europeans, and are very useful to nent, or which at least have not yet pafled them; as, boldes the language of the coun- into the second class. From these latter try, they speak the Lingua Franca. Con- alone shall we select the anticies to be laid formably to the custom

of the ancient Car- before our readers for fome successive thaginians, all the inhabitants of Zaab are months ; in doing which, we shall be caredog-eaters; and, in general, neither fcru. ful to make choice principally of those pulous nor squeamis with regard to their

which treat of such foreign manufactures food. The villages which the Biscaris in

and processes, as may furnish hints for the habit in their native country, are small, all

improvement of our own. We shall exer

cise the discretion of abridgement in all fimilar to one another, and remarkable

cases where it can be done without injury, only for dirtiness and roverty. The chief and shall infert, at the end of each article, place of the distrist is the old decayed town such obfervations, if any occur to us, as of Biscara, from which this class of men

may tend to promote the object which we probably derived their name.

have in view.

TARTAR.

THE

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1. The Venetian Method of preparing Crystals with a basket of eggs, a bucket full of of Tartar, commonly called CREAM OF wood-ashes finely Gifted, the perforated

Vol. I. p.67.

ladle, the earthen bowl, and an empty THE following account was commu

bucket. He begins with breaking one of nicated by M. Desmarets, as the the eggs, and putting the white of it into relult of his personal observation when at

the bowl, taking particular care not to mix Venice.

it with the yolk : this he beats up with The necessary utensils in this manufac- some of the boiling liquor, and, when its ture are the following:

parts are well mingled, pours it on the I. An iron boiler.

surface of the boiler : he then instantly 2. From 25 to 30 wooden tubs, about takes a small quantity of wood-ath on the

end of the ladle, and stirs up the liquor three feet high, and four feet across.

3. Twelve copper boilers; three feet and with it from the bottom. A brisk efferver. a half deep, one foot and a half in diame- cence takes place, and the surface is covered ter at the bottom, and about three feet and

with a red lcum ; this is carefully taken

2 a half across at the top.

off with the ladle, and put into the empty 4. A large ladie , pierced with holes, for then added, and effervescence and a red

bucket: second portion of wood-ash is the purpote of taking off the feum. 5. A large iron mortar and pestle.

fcum are produced as before. The whole 6. An earthenware balon to beat up

of this operation with the white of egg whites of eggs in, and a few wooden and wood-ash is repeated fourteen or fit bowls.

teen times, after which the liquor becomes The number of perfons required to carry

colourless. on an establishment of this size, is one su

6. The fire is now withdrawn, and the perintendent, and two affiftants,

liquor suffered to remain perfecly at rest PROCESS.

for three days. On the fourth, a faline 1. The crude tartar is dried by a very surface, and two-thirds of the liquor ladled

crust of a dirty white is removed from the gentle heat in the iron boiler, care being taken to itir it frequentiy, to that it may ledted by the ladle, and washed in the re

out : the crystals on the sides are then colnot burn at the botiom : when thoroughly dry, it is to be pounded in the iron mor

maining liquor ; they are thus obtained

perfectly clean, and require no further pre2. The tartar thus pulverised is to be paration than drying on a wicker frame. diftributed into eight of the wooden tubs, The cryitals from the bostem are still a which are then filled with a quantity of little coloured, and are either collected for hot water sufficient to dissolve the tartar :

an inferior fort, or subjected to process after ftanding awhile, a sediment is depo. 2, &c. The liquor in which the crystals Eted, from which the liquor is poured off

were formed, as well as the saline cruit, clear into angther tub.

are both referred to process 2, &c. 3. The folution thus freed from some of its impurities, is left three days at rett; Venetian cream of tartar, on account of its

The scarlet dyers, object to the use of during which time it deposits brownish requiring a greater quantity of nitro-muriat cryltals of tartar : the mother' liquor is

of tin, than the German tartar, This latter preserved for process 2 with a fresh parcel is considerably more acid to the taste; and the of crude tartar.

more predominant the acid is, the beiter s 4. Three of the copper boilers being the article fitted for the use of the Jyers. At filled with wrth water, a sufficient quantity Montpellier the tartar is purified without of prepared tartar is added, and a very wood-ashes, the carth of Murveil being subgentle heat is applied by occalionaily burn. ftituted in their stead ; and it woull be an obing a faggot ol brush-wood, so as that the vious improvement of the Venetian method complete solution of the tartar is not ef

to begin the 6th process by adding as much fected in less than eight hours ; at the end fulphuric acid as would fặturate the alkali

of the alhes employed in the preceding opeof this time the liquor is changed from a

ration. dirty red 10 a deep yellow wine colour, II. A ne-w Metho:ł of making Ponds, &c. and is made to boil. While the superintendent is thus engaged, his two aflittants

Water-tight, without the Use of Masonry; are employed in the previous operations. by M. D'Ambournai, Vol. I. p. 237.

5. When the ebullition has gone on for The pond may be dug to any depth, halt an hour, the liquor is clarified : for taking care to flope its fides to an angle of this purpose the matter-workınan stations about 40 degrets. himlelf by the side of one of the coppers, The cement with which it is to be lined,

mult

tar.

REMARKS.

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1800.]
Utility of Hand Mills.

965 must be prepared in the following manner: tlemen, your correspondents, the subject of A sufficient quantity of yellow or brown the expediency and inexpediency of hand. brick clay is to be procured so moist as to mills for grinding of corn, which I was be easily worked ; to this is to be added I forry to find terminated fo foon and unsaof good quick-lime, which has been Naked, tisfactorily : the latter gentleman advance the evening before, with so much water as ed that the manual labour of grinding to reduce it to the confistence of curd or the corn was more than equal to the cream cheese. These materials are to be toll taken by the miller, so he drew an hasty thoroughly mingled together till no white conclusion, that no saving would be made streaks appear in the mass, and are then to by the experiment : but one and the chief be made up into balls about the size of a thing he forgot, viz. identity of the corn, that man's head. When a sufficient stock of every one would be sure to have his own. these is collected, to ensure a constant fup- It is a common trick with those honest ply to th workmen, the lining of the pond class of men to change your grilt; I myis begun in the following manner: An felf have sent to the mill good wholeļome able-bodied' man descends into the cavity and sound wheat, which, by the metamorof the bason, and is supplied with a clay fis of the agent, has been changed into ball by a labourer stationed on the brink; so much melilot salve that no mortal this he throws down with his whole force could eat, and other abuses as bad or upon the ground, near the centre of the worse; now at this very crisis, when so cavity : the next ball is thrown with equal much is circulated, good, bad, and indifforce in such direction, as that it may come

ferent, the fatisfaction of having your own, clofe into contact with the side of the first, is of no small consideration. If a strike of and thus all the succeeding ones are thrown, wheat or barley can be turned off in an till the bottom and sides of the intended hour or two, I should think myself well pool are compleatly covered; the only employed; or, by the help of a donkey ; precaution neceffary being to water the rather than trust it to one of this set of last row of balls that is laid in the even- men, the most self-interested of mankind. ing, left it should not be adhesive enough If, therefore, you could recommend a in the morning to make a perfect junction machine of this sort, upon an easy and with the new part of the work. Two or cheap construction, which are requisite to three days after each part of the lining is render it of generál utility, you would serve laid, it inuft be gently beaten with a fiat the public essentially. piece of wood ; and, as it becomes firmer, One Sharpe, of Leadenhall Street, Lone the beating is to be increaled: the furface don, some years ago, published engravings is from time to time to be gently watered, of hand-mills of different forts; whether and again beaten, till the whole floor seems `his or any other have come into use, some one solid piece. When the work begins of your correspondents will be so kind as to powder under the beatti, it is to be to give me all the intelligence in their again gently watered, and finished with power. From your obedient the trowel, taking care to fill up every crevice. It is lastly to be covered with a

Humble Servant, coating of any cheap oil. By this means

PHILIP HACKETT. the lining becomes much harder and closer than tarras, and rings like a bowl when South Croxton, near Leicester, ftruck: it should be covered with about

Nov. 29, 1799 an inch of gravel, before the water is ad. mitted, and will be found no more subject to leakage, than if it were made of porcelain. If kept constantly full, no repairs

To the Editor of the Montbly Magazine. will ever be required : the only thing to be dreaded is an intense frost, which is apt to injure such parts as are above the level HE church of my parinh, and the ca

THE

thedral of Mechlin, in Brabant, &c.

were dedicated to St. Rombald.--- Any of To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

your correspondents giving an account who this St. Rombald was, will much

gratify your Magazine about twelve months

ALLAFILIUS.

Rombald Kirk,; MONTHLY MAG. No. Lilla

Yorkshire.

6 H

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of the water,

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