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exhausted, as it was no longer supported by the requisite supply. The consequence was, that when the rebellion fublided tliere was a great scarcity of linens; indeed it may almost be said there were none to answer the accustomed orders; the price rose of course, and though fince that period the province of Ulfter has returned apparently with fincerity to the pursuits of industry, there has not yet been produced fuchr a quantiry of goods as fully to answer the demand, so that at present there is scarcely one unbought piece of goods in the north of Ireland; the webs are frequently bought while in the loom; and the price of linens, particularly of those which usually sell for two fillings and under, remains at nearly double what it was eighteen or twenty months since. The linens of a finer kind have also greatly risen in price, but in confequence of the demand for them not being sa great as for the cheaper kinds, have not rifen in an equal proportion; linens of all descriptions are however uncommonly high, and it will probably be some months before this great article of Irish commerce falls to its proper level.
We stated in our last report, that the BIRMINGHAM trade began to assume rather & more favourable appearance, and if it does not continue so, it certainly will not be from the want of a sufficiently enterprizing spirit in that place, for no sooner had the expedition which lately failed made good its landing in Holland, than we understand fome Dutch orders were immediatly given out, and the merchants are diligently preparing to invade that country, both for the purpose of collecting old debts, and with the view of contracting
But few orders have been received from the last Brunswick fair, and we underftand from Germany, that the dearness of provisions is so great as to affect materially the state of commerce, so that the expectations from the Francfort and Leipfic fairs, now about to be held, are not very great, particularly as the security of the former place is neceffarily held upon an uncertain'tenure so long as the French remain it its vicinity. The next convoy for the Mediterranean, which is expected to fail fortly, will take some considerable quantities of Birmingham articles for the Italian markets. The demand for Ireland has lately been very considerable, as but few goods had been sent there during the laté troubles, fo that the shop-keepers and merchants have now to lay in almost entire new stocks, which they feem to be doing with considerable spirit, but the present high course of exchange occafions fome difficulty in obtaining remittances from Ireland, and there seems little proba. bility of its being much lower for some time to come.
It was apprehended a short time ago, that the trade of Birmingham would suffer confiderably from the introduction of a practice almost as nefarious as that of making counterfeit money; this was, marking of buttons gilt, which in fact had no gilt whatever upon them." These buttons, in the firit instance, were made principally for the German trade; but to rapidly did the practice encrease, and so much were the consequences to be apprehended from it on the general trade of the town to be dreaded, that an act of parliament was thought necessary to stop its progress, which was of course obtained. This act expresses the quantity of gold to be put upon a button of a certain dimension, when marked gilt, double gilt, or treble gilt, and imposes a fine of 20s. per gross, upon the perfan manufacturing or vending them with a less quantity of gold thereon than is specified; one half of the money to go to the informer, upon conviction. A number of respectable gentlemen have formed themselves into a committee to attend to the execution of the act, and by means of their afliduity, several perfons have been convicted of the offence and obliged to pay the fine, so that we hope soon to see this stain upon our manufacturers entirely done away. It is to be regretted that the act itself is worded fo loosely as to be difficult to be understood by the manufacturer, and on the other hand is not sufficiently clear, to regulate those who wish to check a practice as ruinous as it is disgraceful to the trade. The neceflity of legislative interference in this and similar cafes is greatly to be lamented, for however well it may accomplish the end proposed, it is much to be regretted that the poorer class of people fhould be tempted to become informers against their employers.
The silk manufactory upon the whole continues in a very favourable situation, few perfons engaged therein having any reason to complain of want of employ, and the demand being such as enables the manufacturer to meet the advancing price of Thrown filk, which otherwise would prove a serious disadvantage. The revival of the article of Velve's, or at beast a great increase in the consumption thereof, particularly for collars and other parts of military uniforms, has been of late very favourable to the workmen in this manufactory, as this branch, though one of the most profitable to them, being of nower progress than most others, occafions employ for a greater number of hands, and the whole number of workmen being less than it was a few years ago, from many having gone into the arıny and navy at the commencement of the war, good workmen have of late been sure of constant employ. Italian raw silks are cheap in comparison with Thrown, which at present are exorbitantly dear. The India company's filk fale which commences the 29th October, confifts of 300 lots of China, 1100 Bengal, 10 Privilege dition 7 Madrass lilk, and 100 Bengal organzine.
MONTHLY AGRICULTURAL REPORT. VUCH has been the prevalence of wet weather during the last and present months, that
we believe but little good hay has been made in any part of the kingdom, but especially in the more Northern Counties. In these indeed the rivers have been so much swelled by the late heavy rains, that much hay has been carried away and com, letely loft. And in regard to the corn crops, it has been probably still more prejudicial ; in most low situations, the grain being either completely beaten down by the continued wetness of the feason, or covered by the rising of waters. Much of the wheat and other grains that have been already çut in the midland and more southern districts, has been got in with great difficulty, and by no means in the best state. It is indeed apprehended that a considerable part must have been greatly injured, and some in all probability totally spoiled.
In the Northern Counties very little grain is yet in a state fit for the fickle, much being quite green for want of sun. In the districts to the North of Northumberland we are told, es that such a feason, fo far, has not appeared perhaps in the memory of man; at any rate jot since the year 1782. Very little grain is yet cut in those parts ; and what is cut, confifts almost wholly of Dutch and Poland oats. The wheats are totally beaten down; and, being ripe, are beginning to spring in the ear: the lodged grain being kept constantly wet from the almost inceffant rains, must be completely destroyed, and rendered unfit for the use of man, unless a very speedy alteration of the weather should take place. In the higher parts of Scotland, a very small portion of the grain is in a state fo forward as to warrant a hope that it can ripen let the future season be what it may."
All the corn crops are, however, in general full on the ground; but the great want of fun and fine clear weather has prevented the grain in many instances from being so plump and full in the ear as it ought to be. This was the case with several famples of wheat and other forts of grain which we have examined in very different parts of the INand. In a few favourable fituations we have however met with very good and full samples of both wheat, barley, and oats, and we have little doubt, from what we have actually observed in the course of a journey of nearly three hundred miles, but that had the weather been suitably fine, there would have been more than a middling crop in most parts of the kingdom. The state of the grain is at present such, that without immediate fine weather, great quantities must be in. evitably lost.
Turnips. These are for the most part but an indifferent and unpromising crop. They are 'not only late but appear extremely thin on the ground and puny. This has probably been caused by the soil being rendered too dry by the warm weather in June and the beginning of July, and the coldness caused by the deluges of rain which have fince fallen. In particular situations both in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire, we have notwithstanding observed full and good crops : but the exceflive wetnefs of the season does not seem in any situation to have admitted of their being properly hoed and kept clean from weeds.
Potatoes. This important crop is not by any means fo favourable as we had reason fometime ago to fuppose. The heavy rains have in general rendered them clayey, and not well tafted, and in low situations made it necessary for them to be immediately taken up. In fome parts of Lancashire this has been particularly the cafe ; and they have been sold in the markets for any price the owners could get for them. This root, after being covered with water, goes bad, and cannot be kept for any length of time.
Hops. The great degree of wetness has likewise operated very unfavourably for this crop. On the North Clays, we find there is not even half a common crop ; and from other hop districts our reports are not much more favourable. Yearling bags fetch from 10 to rıl. and Pockets from 11 to 121. New bags fetch from gl. gs. to rol. 1os. ånd pockets from fol. 1os. to 12l.
Some of the necessary operations of husbandry have also been confiderably retarded by the uncommon wetness of the season. In many situations, summer fallows have remained in the state they were left in July, and in scarcely any have they been properly cleaned, not even in the dryeft foils. In some places we observed them quite green, being completely over-run with weeds. Much is therefore to be done before the seed for the next year's crop can be committed to the ground. Some grounds can hardly, we suppose, be rendered fufficiently clear in time for sowing.
Grain. Is every where on the advance. Wheat averages throughout England and Wales 745. 3d.; barley; 395. 3d. ; oats, 315. 2d. Apples. These are for the most part an abundant crop.
Cattle. Those that are fat or in the way of being readily made ro, sell at high prices; but lean stock of all sorts has but a very indifferent fale. Good milch-cows are falling much in price.--Sheep. Good fat sheep for mutton, and lambs, still fell high; but lean sheep are considerably cheaper. In Smithfield-market, Beef sells for 3s. to 43. per stone. --Mutton from 35. to 3s. 80.--and Veal from 35. 8d. to 55.
Fiorses. Good saddle-horses, and those for the army, are still higli; but carriage and cart horses are lower.
NOVEMBER 1, 1799.
[No.4. of Vol.vill.
ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS, To tbe Editor of the Monthly Magazine. view of its chemical properties; and, in SIR,
about forty lectures, the principles of URING the course of last year, a chemistry are pointed out, and illustrated short
account was given in your by experiments: then follows the applivaluable Magazine, of the Academical cation of chemistry to the different arts Institution founded here in 1796, pursuant and manufactures, particularly etching, to the will of the late Professor Anderson. and the different modes of aquatinting, Since that time I have received several-let- dying, bleaching, and calico-printing; in ters, requesting particular information which the different processes are performed with regard to the nature of the lectures before the students : this part of the course delivered in that institution. For the sake concludes with the application of chemiof those gentlemen, and others who may stry to agriculture, and to the analysis of with for such information, I will thank mineral waters. you to insert the following account of my After this follows a comprehensive view Lectures. I am, Sir,
of mineralogy, in which all the specimens Your
obedient servant, are exhibited, and their nature and for
THOMAS GARNETT. mation explained, with geological obserGlasgow, Sept. 4, 1799.
We next proceed to the principles of THE first is a complete scientific course electricity and magnetilin ; and after hav, on physics and chemistry, with their ap- ing considered these two branches, and plication to the arts and manufactures. particularly the former, at confiderable One lecture of this course is delivered length, we proceed to optics. In this every morning, and the following are the part the principles of the science are pointbranches comprehended in it.
ed out; afterwards the structure of the The properties of matter are first ex eye, and the phenomena of vilion, are conplained, with a view of the theory of sidered, and an account of optical instruBoscovich ; after which come the laws of ments given : the subject is finished by a motion, and the principles of mechanics. view of the theory and practice of perThe principles are first demonstrated ma- fpective. thematically, and afterwards illustrated The last part of the course consists of by experiments; and then the application physical astronomy, which is comprised in of each part to the arts and manufactures ten or twelve lectures only, because a more pointed out, and, where it can be donė, particular consideration of it would exillustrated by models of machinery. After clude some more useful parts of the course; this comes the doctrine of heat, which and the completion of this part is left to occupies a considerable number of lectures. the lecturer on astronomy and geography. After illustrating the general effects of I trust I may be allowed to say, that beat, and Dr. Black’s Theory of Fluidity there is no course in Britain which comand Evaporation, I proceed to point out prehends to much, and is, at the same the discoveries made by Count Rumford. time, so full on each subject; and this
Having explained the cause of fluidity, arises from a particular attention to eco. we proceed to the principles of hydrosta- pomy with respect to time. The lecture tics and hydraulics, rivers, lakes, inland begins precisely at the hour, all recapitunavigation, &c. The mechanical proper- · lation is avoided, and, what is usually inties of the air are next examined, which troduced to spin out less comprehensive constitutes pneumatics; after which come courses, carefully excluded. acoustics, the theory of the winds, and Besides this course, I give a popular music: the method of curing chimnies, one on experimental philosophy. This according to Count Rumford's plan; me course only occupies one lecture a week, teorology, and aërostation.
which is in the evening. Here all matheBeing thus acquainted with the mecha. matical and abstract reasoning is as much nical properties of the air, wę next take a as possible avoided, the most pleasing and MONTHLY MAG, No, Li,
interesting experiments introduced, and view of the philosophy of living matter, the whole calculated to give an idea of with a general outline of physiology; the those subjects to those who have not had effects of different climates on the colour leisure or opportunity for investigating of the human fpecies; the progress of man them, and to refresh the memories of' in fociety from rudeness to refinement. those who have. It is intended likewise After this, will be pointed out the most as introductory to the scientific course. remarkable particulars with respect to
The third is a popular course on che-, other animals, fuch as their modes of life, mistry; which takes up, for the first part migration, &c. The course will be conof the session, one evening; and in the cluded with a view of the vegetable kinglatter part, two evenings every week. In dom, or the philosophy of botany, with this course, the principles of chemistry, the theory of agriculture and gardening. with its application to the arts and domestic economy, are pointed out, and il
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. luftrated by experiments*.
Besides these courses, during the sum SIR, mer, 1 give a fhort course on botany, and I pondent M. "J. whose cale i lament,
N answer to the of your the theory of agriculture; and the next winter, I propofe a course on the philofo- as he states that he has been obliged, by phy of natural history: the following out the Commissioners of the (Surry; I preline of which has been laid before the ma- sume) Court of Requests, to pay the exnagers.
travagant demand of an impertinent ferThe course is to begin with a general vant-His faid cale I conlider as a deview of the univerfé, in which I shall de- fperate one; for, being well acquainted scribe the different nebulæ, or fyftems of with those tribunals, I can assure him, fixed Itars, and point out the probability that the judgment of the commissioners is of their being suns, round which different final; and consequently it is impossible worlds revolve. We shall next fix our for him to appeal to one that is superior. attention on one of them, our sun, and At the same time I must obferve, that the thall examine the different planets which commissioners are, as all magistrates ought revolve round it, with the various pheno. to be, liable to personal actions, should mena which they exhibit; and shall then they have to far forgotten the folemn obliconfine ourfelves, through the remainder gation of their oaths, as to have ftepped of the course, to the planet on which we beyond the correct line of their duty, and, are placed, and in which we are most in- either wilfully or maliciously, acted illeterested. We shall first examine the dif- gally or corrup:ly. ferent theories concerning its formation, Of all the petty litigation that comes the changes which it appears to have un before the commiffioners, there is, perhaps, dergone from volcanic fires, and the waters none that gives them fo much trouble as of the ocean: this will give an opportu- the continual disputes' ariling betwixt nity of introducing fome interesting facts masters, mistresses, male and female feron mineralogy, on existing and extin& vants; and, it is but fair to ftate, that volcanos, and collections of basaltic pil- there is generally in the two former lars. After this we shall examine the at- grounds to complain against the two latter mosphere which furrounds the earth, and classes of society. Moralists must attri. point out its most striking properties, both bute their behaviour to the licentiousness chemical and mechanical ; and fall then of the times; but I have never observed describe the several changes this fluid un- that the commissioners have made any al. dergoes from winds, thunder, &c. and lowance for the depravity of the age, and give an account of the formation of mists, the effect which bad example may have clouds, rivers, and lakes.
upon the mind, and consequently manners We shall next take a view of the dif- of those fervants that have appealed to ferent living beings on the surface of the them; on the contrary, they have always earth; and first, of man, in which we shall taken the character and behaviour of such trace his progress from infancy to old persons into consideration, and have never age, the unfolding of reason, the faculty suffered them to have the advantage of called instinct, &c. Next will follow a their own wrong, or to make imperti
nence and irregularity of conduct the in* I have printed a text-book for this course,' ftrements of litigious extortion. under the title of “ Outlines of a course of With respect to the original of the Lectures on Chemistry;” which is fold by Courts of Conscience, now to numerous Cadeli and Davies, London.
in this kingdom, they unquestionably had
their rise from that great tribunal for civil proceeding in their wilful fuits, and also causes, known among the Saxons, and by to such persons as had. Imall debts owing us, under the appellation of County to them, and were not able to prosecute Court.
them by actions at law, has fince been These assemblies were instituted in the continued, the number of commissioners time of King Edgar; but far more per-, increased from four to twelve, and the fectly and firmly established by Alfred, at authority of the faid court extended to the the time when he inade the division of the end of the reign of Elizabeth ; when counties that has descended to us. Here divers persons repining at the influence of the sheriff fat as judge, and the suitors of the said court, and not regarding any exthe court, as they were, and are itill term pences or charges, how great soever they ed, that is, the freemen and land-holders might be, so that they might have their of the cqunty, formed a jury.
debtors, and being From these courts was deșived another, also animated thereto by divers attornies but of inferior jurisdiction, termed the and solicitors (for their own particular Court Baron.
gain),did daily commence suits against poor The great increase of frivolous suits in citizens and freemen, in the high courts the King's superior courts, in the time of of Westminster; whereby these
poor men Edward the First, occafioned a law to be were obliged sometimes to pay çix times made, that none should have a writ in as much as their principal debt or damage thuse unless the matter to be litigated did amount to: undoing by these means amounted to the value of forty shillings; such poor men, their wives and children, and this is the first veftige to be traced of, and filling the prisons, when otherwise that form of tribunal, now recognized as they might have got their debts with a a Court of Conscience, the business of small charge and little trouble. which was, about this time, a part of that “ For remedy whereof, and for the of the County and Hundred Courts; and strengthening and establishing the aforewas, indeed, considered as fo material a faid court, an act was made by the legislapart, that we have, upon this account only, ture, anno primo Jacobi Regis, which frequently met with complaints, that great enacted, that any citizen and freeman of hardships and inconveniencies to the lub- London that had, or Mould have, any ject arote from the irregularity and in- debts owing to him not amounting to frequency of those meetings, which forty shillings, might cause fuch debtors complaints existed until the 3d of Ed-, to be warned to appear before the comward the Sixth, who enacted, that the missioners of the said court; and they meeting of all county courts should be should make fuch orders between plaininonthly
tiffs and defendants as they should find to As the commerce of the city of London stand with equity and good conscience. became extended, this inconvenience, it “ But since the making the said act, appears, was more severely felt by its in- divers persons, intending to subvert the habitants than any other class of subjects; meaning and good intent of the same, they consequently endeavoured to procuré have taken hold of some doubtful and ama remedy,' There is in Stow (vide Title- biguous words therein, and wrested the Index) an account of the first Court of fame for their own lucre and gain, cons Requests instituted in the city of London, trary to the godly meaning of the said collected by Thomas Griffin, fome time act. a clerk of that court, the particulars of “ For remedy whereof, another act of which are curious, but to quote at length Parliament was made anno tertio Iacobi I. would extend this speculation beyond the bywhich the power of the commissioners was limits of your Magazine. Among other much enlarged; giving to them authority circumstances, it itates that; “ the ift of to administer an oath to the creditor or February, 9th of Henry the VIlIth, an debtor, and to commit to one of the coun. act of Common Council was made, that ters," &c. the Lord Mayor and 'Aldermen should “ By this act (faith Mr. Thomas Grif. monthly align and appoint two aldermen, fin) the Court of Requests is established and four discreet commoners, to be com
and continued to this day; and God grant millioners.
that it may long continue to the relief of “ This act, which was to continue a the poor!” year, being found charitable and profit. Having thus stated the rise and progress able for the reliet of such poor debtors as of this branch of jurisprudence, with the were not able to make prelent payments, opinion, or rather ejaculation, of one of its and to restrain malicious persons froin first clerks, which probably will have but