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own style, with this little alteration only; may be guilty of. Indeed I should not But because human judgment is gradually have dared to have taken up the pen at this şaining upon certainty, though it never time, but that I felt it a duty to contradict becomes infallible, and approbation, assertions made by your correspondent A.B. though long continued, &c. &c." on the Hospital for the Poor in Bristol.

Now, Sir, with all due deference to I must beg here to express my surprife, that Mr. Collard's logical acuteness, I must a gentleman, who certainly appears to own, it is my decided opinion, that he be well informed on every other part of has totally misunderstood the turn of the his subject, Mould venture (on this) to argument in this sentence. Dr. Johnson express himself from report ; for I think it did not propose to appeal from the judg- impossible he could have visited the House, ment of a former to that of a latter pe- or he would not have said of it “ that riod, but to claim the right and afert the light and air struggle almost in vain to get propriety of private judgment at all times

, admittance." I feel an honest pride in and of non-acquiescence in opinions, how. saying, that I have taken a very active ever long established or popular, without part in its direction for upwards of three previous investigation. To render the years pait, and during that period it has meaning till more evident, let us suppose been in a progressive state of improvement. the sentence to be extracted from the writ. It is within that time the manufacture for îngs of an author hostile to the reputation coarse woollens has been introduced, noof our bard.—Notwithstanding the judg- ticed by your correspondent, not with a ment of successive critics, and the applaute view to immediate profit, but rather to inof fucceffive generations (Voltaire fer in- ftil habits of industry in the rising genestance would have said), I think it proper ration. If A. B. has resided for any to suspend my opinion, till I shall have in. length of time in the city of Bristol, it is quired for myself by what peculiar excel- scarcely possible but that he must have lencies Shakespeare' has gained and kept known the present Directors have constantthe favour of his countrymen ; because ly expressed a wish, that their fellow-citihuman judgment, though it be gradually zens would inspect the improvements, and gaining upon certainty, never becomes in. point out any others, they might wish to be fallible, and approbation, thongh long con- introduced ; an advertisement to this eftinued, may yet be only the approbation feet was sent to all the Bristol papers. of prejudice or fashion. --Now the reason- This House of Industry, as it is now ing, whether coming from Johnson or Vol. called, is situate on the banks of the river taire, is precisely the same, though the ob- Avon : the tide flows immediately under jects which they have in view are diame its walls; the windows of most of the trically opposite; both are anxious that wards look towards it, and from fume of Shakespeare's own evidence alone should them the prospect is extensive and beautihe admitted on his trial; the former in ful, equalled by few, surpassed (I had alfull confidence that the poet's paramount most faid) by none. Having myself seen mezit would thereby be rendered more

most of the Houses of Industry in this part conspicuous and impressive; the latter of the kingdom, I have no hesitation in with the hope of thewing, that much of saying, however respectably many of them his fame rests on no other foundation but are conducted, I never saw one more clean, national prejudice and partiality. more healthy, or in which the poor are

Inaccuracies of thinking or writing, better fed or better clothed. I am not when detected in any species of compofi- informed what may be the dimensions of a tion, ought to be exposed for the improve- Norfolk barn ; but, for the information of ment of criticism; but in a treatise on your correspondent, I directed that the logic, or the art of reasoning, they deserve ground on which the hospital stands lhould

still more particular attention ; and on be measured, and find it to be, 227 feet in " this ground the present article fólicits ad- length, and 108 feet in width. There are miflion into your valuable miscellany. four wards, each 53 feet by 21; three Yours, &c.

N. K. ditto 73 by 28; three ditto 54 by 21 ; May 20, 1799.

three ditto 58 by 20; two ditto 67 by 18;

.and two ditto 39 by 21 ; besides these, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

there are many other rooms of less dimenfions, with kitchens, brew-house, bake.

house, cold and warm baths, surgery, apo. OT being used to write for public thecary's shop, and every other necessary

convenience for a house of this descripmost indulgence for any inaccuracies I tion. The average number of the family,


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including children, from April 1797 to In your Magazine for this month, R.H. April 1798, was 320 in the house. Your of Exeter, inquires what is the cheapest, correspondent could have been informed fimpleft, and most expeditious mode of makof these particulars, had he thought proper ing vinegar ? "It will, probably, 'be mot to have made the inquiry; and it certain- very ealy to meet with a inethod in which ly is not right to stiginatize any institution all the qualities of cheappels, fimplicity, upon hearsay evidence. I further beg to and expedition are united; though I am inform your correspondent, that the differ- not without hopes that such a method ent churchwardens pay to the poor in may be communicated to you. A few their respective pariMes nearly 900ot. an- years ago a lady of Warwickshire told nually, and only account to the Governors the way in which she made vinegar, and, of the House of Industry for the balance as it had cheapness and fimplicity, though of their rates, after deducting their dif: not expedition, to recommend it, I made it bursements.

known to several persons, who immediately I rely upon your candour to introduce adopted it: it has since been tried in my this reply in the next number of your useful own family, and the vinegar' which was miscellany, as well for the information of thus made is as good as any I ever met A. B. as to remove the unfavourable im- with. The method is as here described; pression such unfounded reports may have To every gallon of water, put a pound made, coming through so very respectable of coarse Lisbon-lugar; let the mixture be a channel.

boiled, and keep ikimining it so long as I am Sir, your obedient humble Servant, , any scum arises. Then let it be poured

THOMAS BATCHELOR, into proper vessels, and when it is as cool Bristol, June 12, 1799.

as beer when worked, let a warm toast N. B. The house is attended by three sur- rubbed over with yeast be put to it. Let geons, an apothecary, and a chaplain, daily. it work about twenty-four hours, and then

put it in a iron-hooped cask, and fixed ei

ther near a constant fire, or where the sumTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, mer fun fines greater part of the day: SIR,

in this situation it should not be closely TOUR correspondent I. C. has pro- stopped up, but a tile or fomething îmiof the readers' of your useful miscellany, dust and insects. At the end of about which is pretty generally allowed to be at. three months (Cometimes less) it will be tended with contiderable difficulty, name- clear and fit for use, and may be bottled ly, the Origin of Springs. Some letters on off. The longer it is kept after it is botthis subject, by two or three anonymous tled, the better it will be. If the vessel writers, by Mr. Kay of Aberford, and containing the liquor is to be expoled to the myself, have appeared in the three or four sun's heat, the belt time to begin making latt Numbers of The Mathematical and it is in April.” Philosophical Repository,” and I believe another letter on the same subject will ap- In answer to the inquiry of C.A.R. repear in No. 8. of that publication. But I lative to the author of the melody of the am much afraid that after all which has old hundredth plalm tune, I beg just to been written relative to the Origin of say, that some time ago, I met with an Springs, in the work now referred to, the old book, the title of which I have now matter is by no means decisively settled, forgotten, in which it was stated that and perhaps the various hypotheses which Martin Luther was the author of the mehave been advanced will be long before lody of this tune, but that the bass, the they have any thing more than probability 2nd. and the counter-tenor were put to in support of any of them. I am, howe it by a Dr. John Dowland. But on what ever, of opinion with 1. C. that “by a kind of evidence this statement reits, or closer attention to the situation, appear in what part of the last century this Dr. ances, &c. of iprings themselves" a more Dowland lived, I have not been able to fatisfactory acquaintance might be gained determine, I have seen mufic-books pubboth with their nature and origin: I would lished at the latter end of the last century therefore join in that gentlernan's request, and the beginning of the present, by Playand I hope fome of your nuinerous and ford, Broome, Green, and others, in which ingenious correspondents will be able to the tune was, to the best of my recolleccommunicate such a series of observations tion, constantly ascribed to Dowland. as shall have a great tendency to remove May I be permitted to relate a cir. the difficulty.

cumstance concerning this tune? A few



years ago the place of organist at a cathe- the mischievous consequences of such exdral in the country was yacant. For this posure or detection. situation there were ten candidates, each of 4. Girls in a state of pregnancy, house. whom was to perform any tune which he less, friendless, and destitute of every thought proper, before the electors. The thing. person whose turn it was to play last, had

Ni B. Girls infected with the venethe mortification of finding that the piece real or any other disease, or in a state of which he had intended performing, had pregnancy, or having infants at the breast, been chosen by one of the other candi- are not (for obvious reasons) admitted dates: in this dilemma he knew not for into the Magdalen Hospital. The signs some time how to proceed, but at length of pregnancy render it extremely difficult had recourse to the old hundredth, or Savoy 10 procure a place of habitation. They tune. “ The electors," as he had used to who let lodgings are unwilling to admit express it,“ having had their ears tickled, the inconvenience attending child-birth the whole morning through, with light, fan- into their houses; and fear, besides, the tastic, and wonderfully rapid movements, resentment of parish-officers, if they rewere at length alleviated by the simple har- ceive one likely to bring a charge upon mony of old Savoy; its well-known tones

the parish. found access to their souls, inspired devo- 5. Girls fallen from the superior fituation, and induced them to make choice of tions of life, doubly distressed because unthe last performer for their organist." tried in difficulty, hiding themselves in I am, Sir, your's respectfully, the misery of utmost obscurity, and shrink

ÓLINTHUS GREGORY. ing with terror from every idea of the Cambridge, July 2, 1799.

publicity nf an hospital. Some of these

are perhaps married ; some of an age exTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

ceeding that which is considered as proper

for admission into a penitentiary inftitų. SIR,

tion. I

FEEL myself obliged to your corre- 6. Girls in extreme distress, who, from

1pondent W. R. page 429, for bring. misconduct in (if not in the utmost de. ing into public notice, through the me. gree nefarious) or running away from dium of your Magazine, a plan of a so- hospitals, &c. or froin other circumitances, ciety for alleviating the miseries attendant may not be entitled to the benefit of other. upon common prostitution. He has not, charities. however, specified the objects whom it is y. To the above may be added all cases intended to relieve. From a fincere with of poflible distress, at a time when it shall that the plan in ay itation may not be appear, upon inquiry, that other institufrustrated by any want of support from the tions Mall, from a surplus of recommenrich and berevolent, I beg leave to send dations, be unable to receive and protect you the following nute extracted from the their peculiar objects." pamphlet itself :

I thall be very much obliged to your “' It occurs to me, that many of the correspondents for any hints they may lugsituations of distress above enumerated gest relative to this subject; as well as for being peculiarly within the scope of the Tome account of the pretent state of the Magdalen clarity, it may feem, to scme Magdalen Hospital, the number of feof iny readers, that the fociety I wish to males admitted there, the mode of admisfee eltablished will not differ, in respect to fion, state of their funds, &c. its object, from that institution; I think I am, Sir, your most humble servant, it, therefore, requisite to specify certain

L. K. cases which claim relief from the good policy, as well as the humanity, of the For the Monthly Magazine. public, and which appear to be without Extract of a Letter, dated Oftober, 1798, the scope, or heyand the reach of any exist

from DANIEL MACKINNEN, Esq. Baring establigimet.

rifler at Law, 10 Mojur 1. Girls as yet undebauched, without

giving an Account of the Country South employment, money, or friends.

of Lake ONTARIO. 2. Women liable to be imprisoned for Small debis, in circunstances of peculiar

(Continued from page 524.) ditress.

, A

FTER having crossed a fine flat on unexposed to public Mame, whom private the west of the Genesee river, a relief and accommodation may lave fruin mile is extent, we penetrated into the

filence minith


filence and folitude of the wilderness. the

eye, and give one an idea of the great, Our route lay along an Indian pathway est refineinent in rural scenery. The first which conducted us to lake Erie.' There night of our journey across the defart, we is an interest which the mind feels in the Nept in a fort of log house-but on the remoteness of situation, and in the pleasure second, after travelling between fixty and of contemplating scenes which wear all seventy miles, we halted in the midst of the graces of nature in her primitive attire, a fine plain. Overcome hy fatigue, I took that will scarcely yield to the most pic- my faddle from my horse as a pillow, and turesque charms of culture and popula- lay down on the roots of a large oak.-tion.

There was something, however, so awful Traversing these wilds, and observing and interesting to me, in a situation per. often nothing but an immense forest fectly new, that I scarcely wished to comaround me, where the cultivated spots pole myself to sleep. The night was calm comparatively upon a smaller scale are no and starlight; a tall wood at a distance more than a few square feet cut out of a caft a folemn shade before us; and while field of standing wheat, I could not help my companions were in fleep, I lay all anticipating that time, when the gloom night in contemplation, attentive to the and solitude of the woods will give place deep silence of the gloomy regions furto a peopled and smiling landscape. rounding us, which was fometimes interThough probably I shall be in my grave rupted by the howling of wolves and the before that happens, it is difficult to at- wild and Thrill cries of the Indians. Not: tach the idea of independent existence to withstanding Mr. Buffon will not allow individual bodies--we live in each other, the panther to be a native of America, it and the future as much as in ourselves, is very confidently said to have been seen and I exclude the narrow idea, that would in these parts; but I confess, I never met confine all my views within the confines any person who could alert it upon unof my own day. No! the increase and equivocal testimony. The American expansion of human being and happiness wolf, which is a diminutive species, forafford the brightest views in the perspec- merly inhabited every part of this and the tive of the mind. Through many a weary adjoining states.. So great was the nummile, enveloped in the jhades of unpene- ber of wolves at the early settlements to the trated woods, by indulging in fancy a ra- south-east, that when the finall.pox first tional picture of the future, I beguiled the committed its ravages amongit the Intedium of my journey, I could not con- dians, attracted by the peftilential stench template without emotions of pleasure, of the putrid bodies, they afsembled round that these inhospitable tracts of forest, def. the Indian castles and devoured the helptined by nature for the blessings of the less fick. From this animal it is fufpected human race, in the course of a few revo- the Indian dog derives his race-although lutions of our globe in its orbit shall be domesticated for a length of time, he fill transformed by culture into a country retains some of the features and ferocity where future generations will experience of his progenitors. From the liberal bounall the comforts and all the embellish- ties given by the western counties of this ments of life; and I amused myself often state for wolves' heads, they will soon proin imagining, that the rural beauties of bably be destroyed. my native country would one day adorn On our arrival at Buffalo creek, we met these hills and valleys now covered with an with a party of surveyors and some of the endless unprofitable forest of trees. chiefs of the Six Nations, who were emThere

appear to me through this wil. ployed in adjusting the boundaries of a derness two diftinct characteristic tracts of trait of three million acres of land lately country-one of a moist rich soil, where purchased from the Indians by a com. the beech associates with the maple; the pany of Dutch proprietors. At the other of a light or fandy nature, covered mouth of the creek we beheld a beautiful with fern or wild grass, and extending in and extensive prospect of lake Erie. The beautiful plains or natural parks, inter- promontory of Cape Abineau fronted us at spersed with groves of poplars, chesnuts, à considerable distance on the Canadian and white oaks. The latter tracts of side of the lake; on the south the shore pre. country, from the name of an extensive sented an extended curve of hills in reniote morals and the creek in their vicinity, I perspective, and on the west we beheld apprehend must have originally abounded nothing but an unbounded waste of water, with buffaloes ; but they have at present The whole was very much like a handa disappeared. These Buffalo plains, which fome view of the sea; but the tall and , extend far west, are extremely pleasing to spreading trees which line the banks, di


minith much the desolate and bleak ap- of the state of New York. The princi. pearance of the sea-coast, and give a pecun pal body of water then suddenly takes a liar character to the scenery. We pro- bend to the westward, and precipitatés it. ceeded along the sandy shore of the lake, self in foaming furges over an immense till we reached its outlet communicating bed of rocks for the distance of nearly half with lake Ontario; and here we were ferried a mile, till it tumbles at 'the great falls. over a very rapid stream below Fort Erie to Part of the river, without essentially al. Upper Canada.

tering its course, passes along the eastern

Thore, and leaves an isiand which fevers its I now felt that lively interest excited in channel over the rocks till it has fallent me which it is natural to experience on down the steep. Standing on the Cana. approaching one of the greatelt wonders dian shore, which becomes elevated as the of the world. The landscape about us

river descends, and where it makes a curve fo magnificently wildthe number of In- passing down the rapids; the prospect bedians dispersed over it--the prospect of the fore me was truly majestic. The smooth grand lake, all conspired to tell me I was and tranquil course of the waters along in that romantic country described by the the woody shore of Fort Schloesser, about first travellers in America.

two miles above; the finall and picturesque The waters of Lake Erie issue through islands, covered with cedars, which are an outlet on its eastern extremity over an formed by a part of the river winding horizontal bed of lime-stone rocks, and round the rapids; the foam and impetuorunning in a northern course through a fity of the water bursting over the rocks, channel between one and two miles wide, presented an assemblage of grand and and down the falls at Niagara, empty thembeautiful obje&s, forming a picture unfelves into lake Ontario. The land on equalled by any thing I ever beheld in na. the south of this great lake is considerably ture. Having fufficiently gazed on this clevated, and the waters of the principal divine scene; in order to have a full and rivers flowing into it from that quarter, perfect view of the falls below, I'found (such as the Black river, the Genefee, and it necessary to go fome disance round the Ofwego) fall in cataracts before they Paffing under a heavy shower of rain, iffue into the lake. On the banks of the caused by the spray of the falls, and proout-let from lake Erie, the country is ge- ceeding through a thick wood of pines, I Derally level, and continues so for the most found myíelf on the brink of an awful part till within a short distance of lake precipice, which overhung the river, Ontario. The traveller then finds him- boiling below in tremendous agitation self on a high station, floping towards the after its fall. The whole of the stream north, which commands the view of a after its descent resumes nearly its orimagnificent expanse of country, and ex. ginal course ; but it falls in two divisions tends a great distance from east to west, into an immense bason, from the bottom of forming a large embankment as it were to which you obferve one part of the great lake Ontario. The river, at the distance cataract falling, on the fouth side, over a of feven or eight miles from this steep, de. concave ledge of rocks; and on the easterii fcends to the level of its base, and appears side, the other division of the falling river to have wrought a natural canal through separated by an illand covered with large the solid strata of horizontal rocks, which trees, and supported on a base of rocks form high cliffs on each of its shores from nearly 150 feet high. Having descended the falls at Niagara.

with some difficulty to the river, I clam. On the Canadian side of the river, the bered to the tap of a rock which comland has been recently cleared of its wood. mands the whole of this stupendous scene, The opposite thore is totally uncultivated. After lifting my eyes to the sublime and We rode from lake Erie along the western awful spectacle of the great falls to the banks of this out-let, which, branching north, I involuntarily cast them down, out, forms a large iftand in its course, till overpowered by a sentiment of amazement we reached the block-house and village at mingled with terror. The greater body Chitpewa.

At the distance of about ten of this deep river, two miles wide, appear's miles, we distinctly heard the thunder of flowing to the centre of a semicircle, where the great cataract at Niagara, and obsery. it ruhes into conflict and falls with a fury ed a thick cloud rising to the northward. and impetuofity which the eye cannot fol. The out-let being a fine expanse of water, low or luitain. The recoil is almost as about two miles wide, flows serenely be- terrible as the fall, and the whole of the tween the level and woody banks of Chip.. river below seems volatilised in one storm pewa and Fort Schloeffer on the defart shore of foam and fpray, which covers the lheet


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