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dulity, and by no means the inferences of recollected, that the order of Illuminees legitimate suspicion.
went to work only with the weapons of The Jefuits certainly have deserved oral and written instruction, dispensed in much gratitude for the geographical in- lodges before judges not inadequate, or formation which their millionaries collect displayed in books and journals in a form ed, and much admiration for the classical ftill more open to criticisin and refutation: learning which their erudits displayed, and that their obedience was promised This reproach, however (observes Hume, only to chosen superiors, concealed rather v. 238) they must bear from posterity, from the jealousy of the prince, than from that by the very nature of their institu- the curiosity of the aspirant. Whereas tion they were engaged to pervert learnthe Jesuits go to work with the armed ing, the only effectual remedy against su. force of rulers naturally ambitious to experftition, into a nourishinent of that in- tend their power, and irritated by miffirmity. Nor have they merely been the trust; with regulations which infringe fophifts of error and credulity: wherever all liberty of the press, and which abolish patronised by the government, they were all meetings of the people ; with an autoalso fophifts of fervility and despotism. cratic, not an autonomous, constitution. Order is no doubt of more value than li. Were the idea wholly laid aside as unberty; but these high doctrines, however supportable, that the Jesuits continue to tranquillising in appearance, have never exit as a formal and confederated order, contributed eventually to public quiet ; , it would still be convenient, for the claffi either under queen Mary, under Alva in fication of various moral, literary, and the Netherlands, under Charles I. or social phænomena, to employ fome appel. James II. They provoke a vexatious lation analogous to that of Jesuits (which vigilance in the magistrate, and a jealous itself does not necessarily imply any thing diltemper in the people: they fupply a exceptionable or vituperative), with re. lax caluistry to the oppreffor, which is spect to such persons as have inherited the fpeedily learned by the revolter; and thus like views and pursuits, as are motived untwift those bands of mutual confidence by similar conliderations, and employed which alone are really durable. A system in imitated purposes. If the jesuitic facof non-alarm, an affected slumber of the tion does not exist, the jesuitic school of magistrate, has in all times of public fer- opinion is no unreal or extinct academy. ment most conduced to allay animosity. Their erudition has not ceased to operates A new recognition of this school of prin. their maxims survive in an imperishable ciples, whether its teachers are to be em. library. Jeluitism, whether taught by bodied as doctors of anti.jacobinism, or
the books of the dead, or the voices of the as a society of faith, ought to be depre- living, is a system of opinion still honoured cated by every friend to pacific security. by a long procession of sectators, and must The project of Broglio is a stab at Euro. continue as indestructible as the love of pean repose.
unresisted sway in the bosom of priests and Since the hospitable circulation among kings. Jesuitism, therefore, muft ftill be the courts of the Continent of this project endeavouring to urge religion to the neof restoration, it will not be contended, plus-ultra of docile credulity, and governthat the perpetuity of the jefuitical order ment to the ne-plus-ultra of implicit im. is less real and effential, its concert less periousness : it professedly tolerates in the extensive and complete, or its influence ruling class, for purposes of influence and less entire and formidable, than Nicolai, ascendency, the laxest outrages of liberGedike, and Biester (affifted perhaps by tinisin; it imposes on the obeying clais, the private intelligence of a literary mini. for purposes of dispiritude and fubjugafter now deceased) had ventured, in 1785, tion, the severest privations of asceticism. to assert. If their honeft hoftility to its And jésuitism thus defined is become the dangerous * character led them to favour critical danger of Europe. The justly a counter-confederacy, also exceptionable offensive phænomena of the Revolution of for oppolite extremes of doctrine, for simi- France have produced in every other Jar interior secrecy, and for its devoted country a mighty re-action. From a fear subserviency to unknown chiefs—let it be of the doctrines of atheism and insubordi
nation, the people are every where flying * The Encyclopédie, ariicle fefuites, de
to the opposite extreme ground; and are scribes them when persecuted, as iophists of embracing with eagerness the more mif tyrannicide; when patreniled, as sophists of chievous, hecause more permanent, princityranny. It is a very bitter, but a very his- ples of gloomy mysticism and passive obe. torical article.
dience. Like the returning stroke of an
electric shock, one discharge of the battery phants; two horses; two chariots; and of revolution has accumulated another two pieces of artillery. negative coating of subferviency: it is to The nine first of the eleven pieces just the filent dissipation of this latter excess named are placed in the outermost band of that the conducting points of literary the board, one beside the other, the taytoca acuteness ought now to be applied. in the middle, a mandarin on each fide, an
But if this jesuitic order does, as is elephant atter each mandarin, a horle after nearly undeniable, exist in growing force each elephant, and a chariot at each end; and energy, is more than ever busy in its the two pieces of artillery are put on the enormous purposes of subjection, has a third row, before the two hories, and the long catalogue of wrongs to avenge, and five soldiers on the fourth line, correspondvalt and willing provinces to subdue-if ing to the taytocy, to the two elephants, it operates in any sort of merely inten- and to the two chariots. tional conjunction with the Ruilian co. The board or field (camp) is separated lossus-it would indeed be an important by a river, the passage of which is oly interest of this nation to turn aside the permitted to the horses, to the chariots, to planet of its afcendency, and to diforb its the cannon and the soldiers ; while it is approaching culmination. Russia, with absolutely interdicted to the five other its Scandinavian arm, could strike at the pieces. When the taytocq is made check, heart of British empire in Europe ; and, mate, the game is won. with its Perfian arm, at the heart of Bri- The following is the march or movetih empire in Hindustan. A Russianised ment of the pieces : Scandinavia (by the bravery of Sir Sidney The taytocg or general, who can never Smith that mutt never be !) would possess make more than one square at once of the an extent of North Sea coast capable of board, may advance or retire, or go in any interfering with our naval superiority: direction, provided he never quits the nine and from Scandinavia have poured the coinpartments next to him, and which, for only barbarians who ever achieved an un. that reason, are marked with a different consented conquest of the British illes. fade from the reft of the board,
The mandarins or counsellors can only For the Monthly Magazine.
go from one square to that which is next, but only diagonally; and, like the general,
they cannot go out of the nine compart. By ANDRE'EVERAR U VAN BRAAM HOUck- ments which serve him for limits.
GEEST, late Chief in the Direction of the The elephants march diagonally, by Dutch East India Company in China, and the leaping over a compartment or square, but fecond Person in the Embally to the Court of they are not to crois the river. the Emperor of China.
The horses have exactly the same march N China the game is called Tche-on- as the knights in the European game.
khie; it was introduced into that coun- But if the adversary puts one of his pawns try more than four hundred years ago, by by the side of a horse, he has, according to a Tai-toeq or general of their troops whole the sense of the Chinese word, his feet tied. name was Long-bin-tche quam-tie-lie. Then he cannot take the piece which made
This game is so common in China, that him check, although he may place himit was played by the coulis and the lowest self any where elle; he alio passes the class of people before he understood that they river. were playing at chess; as they did not The chariots have the same march as make use of figures like thote einployed the cafi les or towers in the European gaine. in Europe, but of round pawns like thole They pass the river. we make use of for draughts, and on each of The cannon march like the chariots which the name of the piece is engraved. next to them, in front and in rear. They
The board is not of two colours, but may pass over any of the compartments, consists of a simple paper, crossed by stripes, and may go over the river. But one canto that the pieces are placed on the points non cannot take another piece, unless where the itripes meet.-- The number of there be on the same line with it another pieces however is the same as in the Euro- piece in front of that which they design it pean game, viz. sixteen pieces of each co- to take. So that the movement of the lour. There are only five pawns or fol. cannon or piece of artillery is that of a diers, although there are eleven principal body which is projected like a bombpieces.
shell. These last are: à taytocg or general; In the beginning, the soldiers or pawns two mandarins or couniellors; two ele- can only make one square forwards, and
NOTICE AND EXPLICATION OF
CHINESE GAME OF CHESS.
pawn so far.
can only take in this direction, and not gin, and offered to produce an old man, an obliquely as in the European game. inhabitant of the place, who would repeat But when they are on the other side of the nearly the whole poem in Low Dutch ; addriver, they may take in front and sideways; ing that this man frequently heard it reyet fo as not to go back; the pawn cited in his youth, by people still older brought to the last band of the adversary, than himself, from whom he had learned is changed to a piece already taken, at the it. My time would not permit me to stop option of the party who has conducted his for the man; but having told Mr Cordes
that I meant to come back by the fame Such are the rules and the process of road, he had the goodness to promise me this game among the Chinese.
his opinion in writing concerning the origin of the fable; which, in fact, I found in
readiness when I arrived a second time For the Monthly Magazine.
at Glandorf, and herewith I send you a The following Letters were addressed to the Editor translation of it. You will as a patron of of a literary journal in London, with whole German literature find means of giving it plan it is inconfiftent to infert articles of correr publicity, and thereby remove the error jpondence : from bim they were barded to us for into which the adınirers of that truly publication. Our defire to ol lige the foreign beautiful Ballad have been led concerning author has prompted us to admit them : yet we
Your's, &c. consider it as a mere question of curiosity, whether its origin. Bürger's Ballad is in any degree a refaccimento: Hamburg, April 9, 1799.
C. L. bis merit is not diminished by the pre-existence of the ftory. In the second volume of Poems by Robert Soutkey, p. 145. may be found an ex
AGREEABLY to your kind request I trad from Mattbez of Wejiminfter, relating communicate to you with pleasure, in writa tale alfo occurring in Olaus Magnus and in ing all I know, and what already I have the Nurčmberg Chronicle, the catufirophe of told you by word of mouth, concerning which bears an abrious resemblance to be story, Bürger's Leonora, considered as a popuof Lenore. This incident perhaps has been used lar iale in Lower Saxony. I do so with by some Minnesinger, and has contributed its
the greatest satisfaction, as it confirms Starklet to kindle the imagination of Bürger.
Bürger's own affertion: than an old Low. DEAR SIR,
Dutch ballad furnished him with the idea N a short excursion to the Lower of that piece, which assertion you will see at the polt-hcule of Glendorf, a small Deutsche Mercur, fect. 2. and in Sect 4. place in the bishoprick of Osnabruck.- of Mr. Schlegel) in contradiction to some Besides my fellow-traveller, a gentleman of English antiquarians, who say, that BürValenciennes, there was no other company ger took his Leonora from a collection of but a young chanoinesle of the abbey of old Ballads, published in London, in three Ellen, who was going on a visit to her no. volumes, in 1723, and in which the matter ble parents in the neighbourhood of Oina- of that Poem is contained in a story, en. bruck.-Dinner was served, and the post- titled : The Suffolk Miracle, or a Relation master, a Mr. Cordes, joined us, to do the of a young Man, who a Month after bis honcurs of the table rather than to par. death appeared to his Sweetheart. take of the fare. My Frenchman had I have often heard the tale repeated by foon engaged in a conversation with the sundry persons of this place; and among lady; and, tandis qu'il poussoit sa fortune, others by a man of the age of 75 years. I boarded the postmaster, in whom I was Altill greater proof of its being a popuagreeably furpriled to meet with a man of lar tale of Low Saxon origin, is its being learning, astonishingly well versed both in fo universally known in those parts; and English and German literature. He seemed I heard it several times recited almost in pleased to hear that the latter had become the faine manner by my step-mother, who more than ever familiar to the English is 71 years old, lives in a place called reader. I mentioned fundry good tranf- Rheine, at five German miles' distance lations to him, and when I happened to from hence, in the bishopric of Munfter, speak of the late elegant edition of bürger's and assured me, that in her youth the Leonora, he could not refrain from laying, heard it often related by several people. " I wish they had honoured the work The story runs as follows: with a less fine edition, and not accused The lover enlists in the army, is killed, the author of plagiarism.” These words appears by night gently rapping at the occasioned a more minute enquiry. He door of his sweetheart. She alks, Who's insisted upon the fable being of Saxon ori- there? “ Dien leef is dar," is his answer,
She opens the door, gets behind him on his assures us, that Bürger in the study of the horse ; thev gallop away in the swiftest old English ballads confined himself almost course. Then the swain says these iden- exclusively to Perey's Reliques of Ancient tical words:
Your's &c. " De mond, de schint so belle,
Glandorf. J. FRANCIS CORDES.
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. " Wat scboll mi gruveln, du bist ja by mi.” She replies. After they have been gallop. In the article of "Neglected Biograing for a good while, he makes up to a
phy," last month, there is an account church-yard. The graves open ;
of John Upton, critic. I find in a late and rider are swallowed up, and the woman
publication, ini ituled, “ Alumni Etonenis left behind in darkness and gloom. -.. ses,” by Mr. Harwood, a much fuller ac"Sapper ment ! en scholl ehn wual gruveln!”
count of him—that he was born at Wymfwill the old man add in his peculiar hu- lowe, in Cheshire, and that he was for some
time an assistant at Eton school-that he You see that the progress of the fable is married a daughter of Mr. Proctor, who the same as in Bürger's Leonora ; an:: this kept a boarding house at Eton; and was very similarity, nay this wordly similarity, presented by Sir Philip Sydenham to the has with fuine raised a doubt about Bür: rectory of Monk Silver, in Somersetíhire. ger's assertion to Schlegel, viz. that he He became master of Ilminster school, and had taken merely a few hints from an old afterwards of Taunton, in the gift of Earl Saxon ballad.
Pawlet. In addition to the publications Yet--that I may not injure our poet's
mentioned by Dr. Watkins, he edited known veracity and candour ; I muit fay, &c.” with a Larin version—"Aristotle
Dionysius Halicarnassius, de Structura, that it appears pretty natural to on hearing the old lary related, Bürger
de Arte poetica”-and various school
books, There is a Latin ode of his writ. immediately conceived the idea of his Leonora; and that afterwards, perhaps. ing in the Gentleman's Magazine for Ocafter the lapse of many years, he could tober 1737; He died Rector of Plympnot himself distinctly recollect, and, in his to!, August 13, 1749, at the age of seven. Matement to his friend, separate from his ty-nine. His fon, a captain in the navy, own fictions what originally belonged tɔ
died on the 17th of the same mouth in that the old tale. Whoever has made it his year.. I am, &c.
G. D. ftudy to examine fimilar productions, either
July 24. taken from or built upon popular sayings, will moit certainly be of my opinion in
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. this particular. If even the whole ground work of the ANY of readers will proba.
your poem were not of Bürger's own invention,
hly have seen “ Lord Lauderdale's it can however not be. denied, that it Plan for aitering the manner of collecting a has considerably gained under his hands: large part of the Public Revenue;" a tract Leonora's frantic anguish when she does which discovers an intimate acquaintance not meet her lover among the returning with the true principles of political æcoWarriors—the language of comfort of nuny, and at the fame time evinces that her mother-her contempt of the facra. high degree of liberality and patriotisin, ment, and her incredulity in its virtues, which alone could induce his Lordlip to which motives the apparition-are not offer, to his political opponents, a plan to be met with in the oral tradition. which he considers as effectually preven
It appears, that the tale originally passed tive of any deficiency in the public l'e. from mouth to mouth in rbime and verse, till in progress of time it entirely lost that But while I give Lord Lauderdale much
credit for this plan, and for the distinct The explanation of the resemblance of manner in which he has explained its ad. our Tale with the Suffolk Miracle I must vantages, I ftill fee difficulties and objec. leave to you. Perhaps it is fo old that tions which he has not removed; and the Saxons carried it over to England. theref.jre I propose to submit a few obserFor my part, I am fully satisfied that vations on this subject to the readers of Bürger' did not take his Poem from any your very excellent miscellany. English ballad, but from an old Low- The plan is, to replace the Tax on In Dutch tale; the more fo as Mr. Schlegel come, by a tax, equal in amount, on cæ
pital passing by succession; and to con- all his adventures is ascertained, his books tinue this tax, even after the termination cannot be finally closed, nor the amount of the war, for the purposes of liquidating of the tax determined. During this pepart of the national debt, and diminifhing riod, it would be hard on his fucceffor, the taxes on consumable commodities. The and disadvantageous to the community, inquiry then is, whether a tax on succes- to keep his property idle and unproducfion is preferable to those which it is tive. The heir, being on this account immeant to replace.
mediately admitted to possession, and alWithout entering upon the distinction lowed to in every respect as propriewhich Lord Lauderdale has adopted, be- tor, may, in a very short time, greatly tween the nature of the rights to property increase or diminish the wealth to which and to inheritance; it will readily he al- he fucceeded. Finding some of his prelowed, that a tax on succession would, in decessor's schemes unproductive for want generak produce less of hardship to the of susficient capital, he may render them contributors, than almost any other man. highly advantageous by making advances ner in which an equal revenue could be from his own private funds; he may fee raised. Cases of direct succession mult occasion to extend some of his speculations, however be excepted. Children are usually and to modify, or even totally abandon maintained from the income of their pa- others. How shall we now disentangle rents, and may be considered as having, his affairs from those of his predeceffor? in almost every respect except the manage- How shall we distinguish the effects of his ment, a joint property with them. At the capital, sagacity, and labour, or of his death of the father, that part of the in- negligence and incapacity, so as to dircome which was derived from his exertions what ought to be deemed the is always lost to the family, and this part, amount of the inheritance ? Even if we in most cases, greatly exceeds what he hiin- fnould permit that kind of scrutiny which self had consumed. It would be extreme- is the strongest objection to all direct afleirly hard, at the very time that the family ments, we shall have little chance of afis unavoidably deprived of part of their certaining the truth. While on the one former income, to occasion a ftill further hand the amount of the tax holds out to reduction, by levying a heavy tax for the powerful a temptation to fraud, and, on use of the state. It would not only be the other, there is so much difficulty in taking from them what they had the rea- juiging of the real amount of the fucceffonable expectation of enjoying, hut, fion, all fuch inquilitions must be more what Lord Lauderdale observes is a griev- productive of bribes to the officers, than ance of a much more serious nature, it of revenue to the state. would be depriving them of those comforts With refpe&t to merchants engaged in and conveniences which they have long co-partneries, a tax on succession must had the habit of enjoying. Accordingly, have this farther inconvenience, that it both in this country and Holland, direct publishes, in some measure, the circumfuccessions are exempted from the taxes itances of the furviving pariners. It is levied on collateral ; an exemption which, true, that the books of commercial coinif admitted, and it could not in justice be panies are, even at present, open to the inrefused, would in a great measure defeat ipection of the heirs of a decealed partner; the ends proposed in Lord Lauderdale's but these heirs have usually an interest in plan.
concealing from the public the result of In considering that important point in their investigation. Were the books to taxation, the facility of collection, I think be equally open to the revenue-officers, it must be allowed, that a tax on fuccef- who can have no interest in any such confion would upon the whole be less liable cealment, the affairs of a mercantile comto frauds on the one hand, and vexatious pany would be completely disclosed at the fcrutiny on the other, than a revenue af. death of each partner. Indeed, as the sum Tessed annually, either on capital or in- to be levied at one time must be much come; while it would certainly be attend- greater by a tax on succession, than by ed with less expence in the collection, than annual assessment, the temptation to contaxes on consumeable commodities. But cealment would be proportionably stronger, there would still remain contiderable dif- and the necessity of an accurate investigaficulties in levying this tax from property tion more indispensible'; and in fo far vested in trade.
this plan is probably more objectionable When a merchant dies, his fortune is than an annual assefinent. usually engaged in speculations, of which It may be added, that many expedients the issue is uncertain. Umil the cvent of would probably be dévised, by various