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THE

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA.

A

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, AND GENERAL LITERATURE.

NINTH EDITION.

(AMERICAN REPRINT.)

VOLUME IX.

PHILADELPHIA:

J. M. STODDART & CO.

1879.

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1879, by

J. M. STODDART & CO.,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

WESTCOTT & THOX80X, Stereotypers and Electrotypers, Philada.

WM. ROTTER & Co.,

Bookbinders, Philada.

SHERMAN & Co.
Printers, Philada.

032 Enabga vig

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA.

a of Freetown in Sierra Leone, at the foot of the Kon-are mingled in their ritual: every newly-built house is conkodugor, and on the Fala River, a tributary of the Little sidered uninhabitable till the blood of a sheep or fowl has Scarcies. It was founded by the Sulimas, who revolted been spilt in it; a woman guilty of a breach of chastity from the Mahometan Foulas, and its warlike inhabitants has to undergo purification by leaping into a flaming fire; soon attained supremacy over the neighboring villages and the Sabbath has been deified and, as the goddess Sanbat

, recountry. The defences consist of a lofty stockade, and a ceives adoration and sacrifice, and is said to have ten thoumoat about 20 feet deep and as many in breadth. From a sand times ten thousand angels to wait on her commands. distance the town appears like a grove of silk-cotton trees, There is a monastic system, introduced it is said in the 4th and only at intervals are the brown roofs seen peering century A.D. by Aba Zebra, a pious man who retired from through the foliage. Major Laing about 1825 estimated the world and lived in the cave of Hoharewa, in the provthe number of huts at about 4000. They are arranged in ince of Armatshoho. The monks must prepare all their clusters round squares or court-yards, and though only built food with their own hands, and no lay person, male or feof clay are neat and even elegant. Winwood Reade, who male, may enter their houses. Celibacy is not practised by was detained in the town during his Niger journey in the priests, but they are not allowed to marry a second time, 1869, has given a graphic description of life in Falaba in and no one is admitted into the order who has eaten bread his African Sketch Book, vol. ii., 1873. See also Laing, with a Christian, or is the son or grandson of a man thus Travels in W. Africa, 1825.

contaminated. Belief in the evil eye or shadow is univerFALAISE, a town of France, the capital of an arrondisse- sal, and spirit-raisers, soothsayers, and rain-doctors are in ment in the department of Calvados, is situated on the right repute. Education is in the hands of the monks and priests, bank of the Ante, 21 miles S. by E. of Caen. It was for- and is confined to boys. Fasts, obligatory on all above merly a place of some strength, and is still surrounded by seven years of age, are held on every Monday and Thursold walls. The principal object of interest is the castle, day, on every new moon, and at the passover (the 21st or

now partly in ruins, but formerly the seat of the dukes of 228' of April). The annual festivals are the passover, the i Normandy, and the birthplace of William the Conqueror. harvest feast, the Baala Mazâlat or feast of tabernacles

Near the castle, in the Place de la Trinité, is an equestrian (during which, however, no booths are built), the day of statue in bronze of William the Conqueror, by Louis Ro- covenant or assembly, and Abraham's day. It is believed

del. Falaise has two large and populous suburbs, one of that after death the soul renains in a place of darkness till which, Guibray, rivals in size and importance the town the third day, when the first taskar or sacrifice for the dead Ć itself, and is celebrated for its annual fair, which lasts from is offered ; prayers are read in the mesgeed for the repose

10th to 25th August. The town contains a town-hall, a of the departed, and for seven days a formal lament takes hospital, a theatre, several ancient churches, and a public place every morning in his house.' No coffins are used, and library. The manufactures are chiefly cotton goods, hos- a stone vault is built over the corpse so that it may not iery, leather, and paper. The population in 1872 was 7749. come into direct contact with the earth. The Falashas are

FALASHAS (i. e., Exiles), the degenerate Jews of Ab an industrious people, living for the most part in villages yssinia, found in considerable numbers in the provinces west of their own, or, if they settle in a Christian or Mahomof Takazze, namely, Semien, Wogara, Armatshoho, Walkait, etan town, occupying a separate quarter. They engage in Tehelga, Dembea, Tenkel, Dagusa, Alafa, Kunsula, Aschafer, agriculture, manufacture pottery, iron ware, and cloth, Agarv-Meder, and Quara. It is doubtful whether they are and are specially sought after for their skill in mason-work. to be ethnologically identified with the seed of Abraham, or Their numbers are variously estimated at from 80,000 to regarded, like the Khazars of the 8th century, as, for the 200,000. most part, mere proselytes to Judaism. As to the date when the race or the religion was introduced there is no Jahre in Abyssinia, Basel, 1869, and his Falashes of Abyssinia,

See Nott and Gliddon, Types of Mankind, 1868; Flad, Zwölf anthentic information,-one account carrying it back to the translated from the German by S. P. Goodhart, London, 1869. days of Solomon and his hypothetical son Menelek by the queen of Sheba, another to the time of the Babylonian cap FALCON (Latin, Falco; 1 French, Faucon ; Teutonic, tivity, and a third only to the 1st century of the Christian Faik or Valken), a word now restricted to the high-couraged era. That one or other of the earlier dates is probably cor

and long-winged Birds-of-Prey which take their quarry as rect may be gathered from the fact that the Falashas know it moves; but formerly it had a very different meaning, nothing of either the Babylonian or Jerusalem Talmud, being by the naturalists of the last and even of the present make no use of the tephilin, and observe neither the feast century extended to a great number of birds comprised in of Purim nor the dedication of the Temple. They possess the genus Falco of Linnæus and writers of his day," while, -not in Hebrew, of which they are altogether ignorant, but 1 Unknown to classical writers the earliest use of this word is said in Ethiopic (or Geez.)—the canonical and apocryphal books to be by Servius Honoratus (circa 390-180 A.D.) in his notes on En. of the Old Testament; a volume of extracts from the Pen- Teutonic Falk, though falr is commonly accounted its root.

It seems possibly to be the Latinized form of the tateuch, with comments given to Moses by God on Mount 2 The nomenclature of nearly all the older writers on this point is Sinai ; the Te-e-sa-sa Sanbat, or laws of the Sabbath ; the extremely confused, and the attempt to unravel it would hardly Ardit, a book of secrets revealed to twelve saints, which is could here be allowed.

repay the trouble, and would undoubtedly occupy more space than

What many of them, even so lately as Penused as a charm against disease ; lives of Abraham, Moses, nant's time, termed the “Gentle Falcon” is certainly the bird we now Etc.; and a translation of Josephus called Sana Aihud. A call the Gos-Hawk (i, e., Goose-Hawk),

which name itself may have

been transferred to the Astur palumbarius of modern ornithologists copy of the Orit or Mosaic law is kept in the holy of holies from one of the long-winged Birds-of-Prey.

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