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on the other hand, by falconers, it was, and still is, techni- From Port Kennedy, the most northern part of the Amercally limted to the female of the birds employed by them ican continent, to Tasmania, and from the shores of the Sea in their vocation (see Falconry), whether “long-winged" of Ochotsk to Mendoza in the Argentine territory, there is and therefore “noble,” or “short-winged” and “ignoble.” scarcely a country in which this Falcon has not been found.

According to modern visage, the majority of the Falcons, Specimens have been received from the Cape of Good Hope, in the sense first given, may be separated into five very dis- and it is only a question of the technical differentiation of tinct groups :-(i) thé Falcons pure and simple (Fulco species whether it does not extend to Cape Horn. Fearless proper); (2) the large northern Falcons (Hierofalco, Cuvier); as it is, and adapting itself to almost every circumstance, it (3) the “ Desert Falcons” (Gennæa, Kaup); (4) the Merlins will form its eyry equally on the sea-washed cliffs, the craggy (Æsalon, Kaup); and (5) the Hobbies (Hypotriorchis, Boie). mountains, or (though more rarely) the drier spots of a marsh The precise order in which these should be ranked need in the northern hemisphere, as on trees (says Schlegel) in the not concern us here, but it must be mentioned that a sixth forests of Java, or the waterless rayines of Australia. In the group, the Kestrels' (Tinnunculus, Vieillot) is often added United Kingdom it was formerly very common, and hardly to them. This, however, appears to have been justifiably a high rock from the Shetlands to the Isle of Wight but had reckoned a distinct genus, and its consideration may for the a pair as its tenants. But the British gamekeeper has long present be deferred.

held the mistaken faith that it is his worst foe, and the The typical Falcon is by common consent allowed to be number of pairs which are now allowed to rear their brood that almost cosmopolitan species to which unfortunately the unmolested in these islands must be small indeed. Yet its

utility to the game-preserver, by destroying every one of his most precious wards that shows any sign of infirmity, can hardly be questioned by reason, and no one has more earnestly urged its claims to protection than Mr. G. E. Freeman (Falconry, etc., p. 10).2 ' Nearly allied to this Falcon are several species of which it is impossible here to treat at length, such as F. barbarus of Mauritania, F. minor of South Africa, the Asiatic F. babylonicus, F. peregrinator of India -the Shaheen, and perhaps F. cassini of South America, with some others.

Next to the typical Falcons comes a group known as the "great northern " Falcons (Hierofalco). Of these the most remarkable is the Gyrfalcon (F. gyrfalco), whose home is in the Scandinavian mountains, though the young are yearly visitants to the plains of Holland and Germany. In plumage it very much resembles F. peregrinus, but its flanks have generally a bluer tinge, and its superiority in size is at once manifest. Nearly allied to it is the Icelander (F. islandus), which externally differs in its paler coloring, and in almost entirely wanting the black mandibular patch. Its proportions, however, differ a good deal, its body being elongated. Its country is shown by its name, but it also inhabits South Greenland, and not unfrequently makes its way to the British Islands. Very close to this comes the Greenland Falcon (F. candicans), a native of North Greenland, and perhaps of other countries within the Arctic circle. Like the last, the Greenland Falcon from time to time occurs in

the United Kingdom, but it is always to be distinguished Fig. 1.--Peregrine Falcon.

by wearing a plumage in which at every age the prevailing

color is pure white. In North-Eastern America these birds English epithet “peregrine" (i.e., strange or wandering) are replaced by a kindred form (F. labradorus) first detected has been attached. It is the Falco peregrinus of Tunstall by Audubon, and lately recognized by Mr. Dresser (Orn. (1771) and of most recent ornithologists, though some Miscell., i. p. 135). It is at once distinguished by its very prefer the specific name communis applied by J. F. Gmelin dark coloring, the lower parts being occasionally almost as à few years later (1788) to a bird which, if his diagnosis be deeply tinted at all ages as the upper. correct, could not have been a true Falcon at all, since it All the birds hitherto named possess one character in had yellow irides-a color never met with in the eyes of common. The darker markings of their plumage are longiany bird now called by naturalists a “Falcon." This tudinal before the first real moult takes place, and for ever species inhabits suitable localities throughout the greater afterwards are transverse. In other words, when young the part of the globe, though examples from North America markings are in form of stripes, when old in form of bars. have by some received specific recognition as F. anatum, The variation of tint is very great, especially in F. perethe "Duck-Hawk," and those from Australia have been grinus ; but the experience of falconers, whose business it described as distinct. under the name of F. melanogenys. is to keep their birds in the very highest condition, shows Here, as in so many other cases, it is almost impossible that a Falcon of either of these groups if light-colored in to decide as to which forms should, and which should not, youth is light-colored when adult, and if dark when young be accounted merely local races. In size not surpassing a is also dark when old—age, after the first moull, making no Raven, this Falcon (fig. 1) is perhaps the most powerful difference in the complexion of the bird. The next group Bird-of-Prey for its bulk that flies, and its courage is not is that of the so-called “Desert Falcons" (Gennæa), whereless than its power.

It is the species, in Europe, most in the difference just indicated does not obtain, for long as commonly trained for the sport of hawking (see Fal- the bird may live and often as it may moult, the original CONRY). Volumes have been written upon it, and to at- style of markings never gives way to any other. Foremost tempt a complete account of it is, within the limits now among these are to be considered the Lanner and the Saker available, impossible. The plumage of the adult is gen-(commonly termed F.lanarius and F. sacer), both well known erally blackish-blue above, and white, with a more or less in the palmy days of Falconry, but only within the last deep cream-colored tinge, beneath-the lower parts, except forty years or so re-admitted to full recognition. Both of the chin and throat, being barred transversely with black, these birds belong properly to South-eastern Europe, North while a black patch extends from the bill to the ear-coverts, Africa, and South-western Asia. They are, for their bulk, and descends on either side beneath the mandible. The less powerful than the members of the preceding group, and young have the upper parts deep blackish-brown, and the lower white, more or less strongly tinged with ochraceous It is not to be inferred, however, as many writers have done, that brown, and striped longitudinally with blackish-brown. Falcons habitually prey upon birds in which disease has inade any

serious progress. Such birds meet their fate from the less noble

Accipitres, or predatory animals of many kinds. But when a bird is 1 Among them Mr. Sharpe, who, in his recent Catalogue of the Birds first affected by any disorder, its power of taking care of itself is at in the British Museum, has besides rejected much of the evidence that once impaired, and hence in the majority of cases it may become an the experience of those who have devoted years of study to the Fal easy victim under circunstances which would enable a perfectly cons has supplied.

sound bird to escape from the attack even of a Falcon.


though they may be trained to high flights are naturally group, but they are considerably larger than either of the captors of humbler game. The precise number of species former. belonging here is very doubtful, but among the many can Lastly, we have the Hobbies (Hypotriorchis), comprising didates for recognition are especially to be named the Lugger a greater number of forms—though how many seems to be (F. jugger) of India, and the Prairie Falcon (F. mexicanus) doubtful. They are in life at once recognizable by their of the western plains of North America.

bold upstanding position, and at any time by their long The systematist finds it hard to decide in what group wings. The type of this group is the English Hobby (F. he should place two somewhat large Australian species subbuteo), a bird of great power of flight, chiefly used in (F. hypoleucus and F. subniger), both of which are rare the capture of insects, which form its ordinary food. It

is a summer visitant to most parts of Europe, including these islands, and is most wantonly and needlessly destroyed by gamekeepers. A second European species of the group is the beautiful F. eleonorce, which hardly comes further north than the countries bordering the Mediterranean, and, though in some places abundant, is an extremely local bird. The largest species of this section seems to be the Neotropical F. femoralis, for F. diroleucus though often ranked here is now supposed to belong to the group of typical Falcons.

(A. N.) FALCONE, ANIELLO (1600–1665), a battle-painter, was the son of a tradesman, and was born in Naples. He showed his artistic tendency at an early age, received some instruction from a relative, and then studied under Ribera (Lo Spagnoletto), of whom he ranks as the most eminent pupil. Besides battle-pictures, large and small, taken from biblical as well as secular history, he painted various religious subjects, which, however, count for little in his general reputation. He became, as a battle-painter, almost as celebrated as Borgognone (Courtois), and was named “L'Oracolo delle Battaglie.” His works have animation, variety, truth to nature, and careful color. Falcone was bold, generous, used to arms, and an excellent fencer. In the insurrection of Masaniello (1647) he resolved to be

bloodily avenged for the death, at the hands of two SpanFig. 2.-Merlin.

iards, of a nephew and of a pupil in the school of art which in collections—the latter especially; and, until more is he had established in Naples. He and many of his scholknown about them, their position must remain doubtful. ars, including Salvator Rosa and Carlo Coppola, formed an We have then a small but very beautiful group-the scoured the streets by day, exulting in slaughter; at night

armed band named the Compagnia della Morte. They Merlins (Æsalon of some writers, Lithofalco of others). The European Merlin (F. æsalon) is perhaps the boldest of they were painters again, and handled the brush with imthe Accipitres, not hesitating to attack birds of twice its Falcone and Rosa made off to Rome; here Borgognone no

petuous zeal. Peace being restored, they had to decamp. own size, and even on occasion threatening human beings. ticed the works of Falcone, and became his friend, and a Yet it readily becomes tame, if not affectionate, when re·laimed, and its ordinary prey consists of the smaller Pas

French gentleman induced him to go to France, where seres. Its “pinion of glossy blue” has become almost pro

ouis XIV. became one of his patrons. Ultimately Colbert

ined permission for the painter to return to Naples, and there he died in 1665. Two of his battle-pieces are to be seen in the Louvre and in the Naples museum ; he painted a portrait of Masaniello, and engraved a few plates. Among his principal scholars, besides Rosa and Coppola (whose works are sometimes ascribed to Falcone himself ), were Domenico Gargiuolo named Micco Spadaro, Paolo Porpora, and Andrea di Lione.

FALCONER, Hugh (1808–1865), a distinguished palaontologist and botanist, descended from an old Scotch family, was born at Forres, 29th February, 1808. In 1826 he graduated as M. A. at Aberdeen, where he began to manifest a decided taste for the study of natural history and botany. He afterwards studied medicine in the university of Edinburgh, taking the degree of M.D. in 1829. Proceeding to India in 1830 as assistant-surgeon on the Bengal establishment of the East India Company, he made on his arrival an examination of the fossil bones from Ava in the possession of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, and a description of the collection which he published immediately gave him a recognized position among the scientists of India. În 1831 he was appointed to the army station at Meerut, in the north-western provinces, and in 1832 he succeeded his friend Dr. Royle as superintendent of the botanic garden of Saharunpoor. He was thus placed in a district particularly

rich in paläontological remains, the existence of which was, Fig. 3.-Hobby.

however, then unknown; and he immediately set to work

to investigate both its natural history and geology. In verbial, and a deep ruddy blush suffuses its lower parts ; 1834 he published a description of the geological character but these are characteristic only of the male--the female of the neighboring Sewalik hills, in the Tertiary strata of maintaining very nearly the sober brown plumage she wore which he discovered bones of crocodiles, tortoises, and other When as a nestling she left her lowly cradle in the heather. fossil remains ; and subsequently, along with other conjoint Very close to this bird comes the Pigeon-Hawk (F. colum- laborers, he brought to light a sub-tropical fossil fauna of barius) of North America—so close, indeed, that none but unexampled extent and richness. For these valuable disan expert ornithologist can detect the difference. The Tu- coveries he and Captain Cautley received in 1837 the ruuti of Anglo-Indians (F. chicquera), and its representa- Wollaston medal in duplicate from the Geological Society tive from Southern Africa (F. ruficollis), also belong to this of London. In 1834 Falconer was appointed to inquire 1 French, Émērillon; Icelandic, Smiril.

into the fitness of India for the growth of the tea-plant, and

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it was on his recommendation that it was introduced into the dramatic writer and lecturer, has been ascribed to that country. He also made large natural history collec- Falconer, but apparently on no authority. It is foreign to tions, not only of the productions of the country round his usual style. Had he been the author he would assuredly Saharunpoor, but also of the valley of Kashmir and the have claimed it. Falconer continued in the merchant service countries to the north of it, exploring at the same time the until the spring of 1762, when he gained the patronage of glacier on the southern flank of the Muztagh range, and Edward, duke of York, by dedicating to him his poem of the great glaciers of Arindoh and of the Braldoh valley; The Shipureck, which appeared in May of that year, He was compelled by illness to leave India in 1842, and “printed for the author.” The duke advised him to enter during his stay in England, besides reading various papers the royal navy, and before the end of summer the poet-sailor on his discoveries before several learned societies, he occu was rated as a midshipman on board the “Royal George." pied himself with the classification and arrangement of the But as this ship was paid off at the peace of 1763, and as Indian fossils presented to the British Museum and East Falconer's period of service had been too short to enable India House, chiefly by himself and Captain Cautley. In him to obtain the commission of lieutenant, he was advised 1848 he was appointed superintendent of the Calcutta to exchange the military for the civil department of the botanical garden, and professor of botany in the medical navy, and in the course of the same year he received an college; and on entering on his duties he was at once em- appointment as purser of the “Glory” frigate, a situation ployed by the Indian Government and the Agricultural and which he held until that vessel was laid up on ordinary at Horticultural Society as their adviser on all matters con- Chatham. In 1764 he published a new edition of The nected with the vegetable products of India. Being com- Shipwreck, corrected and enlarged, and printed, not for the pelled by the state of his health to leave India in 1855, he author, as in the former instance, but for Andrew Millar, spent the remainder of his life chiefly in examining fossil | the publisher of Hume and Robertson, and whom Johnson species in England and the Continent corresponding to called the Mæcenas of the age. About nine hundred lines those which he had discovered in India. In the course of were added to this new edition of the poem, including what his researches he became interested in the question of the may be termed its character-painting and elaborated antiquity of the human race, and actually commenced a description and episodes. In the same year, 1764, Falconer work on “Primeval Man," which, however, he was not published a political satire, a virulent rhyming tirade spared to finish. He died 31st January, 1865. He was a against Wilkes and Churchill, entitled The Demagogue ; member of many learned societies, both British and foreign. and in 1769 appeared his Universal Marine Dictionary, an Shortly after his death a committee was formed for the elaborate and valuable work. While engaged on this promotion of a “Falconer Memorial.” This took the shape dictionary, Mr. Murray, a bookseller in Fleet Street, father of a marble bust, which was placed in the rooms of the of Byron's muniticent publisher and correspondent, wished Royal Society of London, and of a Falconer scholarship him to join him as a partner in business. The poet declined of the annual value of £100, open for competition to the offer, probably because his dictionary. was then near graduates in science or medicine of the university of completion, and he might reasonably anticipate from its Edinburgh.

publication some favorable naval appointment. He did Dr. Falconer's botanical notes, with 450 colored drawings of receive this reward; he was appointed purser of the Kashmir and Indian plants, have been deposited in the library

"Aurora" frigate, which had been commissioned to carry at Kew, and his Palæontological Memoirs and Notes, comprising out to India certain supervisors or superintendents of the all his papers read before learned societies, have been edited, East India Company. Besides his nomination as purser, with a biographical sketch, by Charles Murchison, M.D., Lon Falconer was promised the post of private secretary to the don, 1868.

commissioners. Before sailing he published a third edition FALCONER, WILLIAM, our greatest naval poet,-Charles of his Shipwreck, which had again undergone correction," Dibdin taking rank as second, was born in Edinburgh, but not improvement. Mr. Stanier Clarke conceived that the February 11, 1732. His father was a wig-maker, and car- poet, in his agitation and joy on being appointed to the ried on business in one of the small shops with wooden

Aurora,” had neglected this edition, and left the last fronts at the Netherbow Port, an antique castellated struc- alterations to his friend Mallet; but Mallet had then been ture which remained till 1764, dividing High Street from

more than four years in his grave, and Falconer, in the the Canongate. The old man, who is described as a sort

“ advertisement” which he prefixed to the volume, and of humorist, was unfortunate.' Of his three children two which is dated from Somerset House, October 1, '1769, were deaf and dumb; he became bankrupt, then tried busi- said he had been encouraged by the favorable reception ness as a grocer, and finally died in extreme poverty. the poem had met with to give it “a strict and thorough William, the son, having received a scanty education, was revision.” The day after this announcement the poet put to sea. He served on board a Leith "merchant vessel, sailed in the “ Aurora” from Spithead. The vessel arrived and in his eighteenth year was fortunate enough to obtain safely at the Cape of Good Hope, and having passed a fortthe appointment of second mate of the “ Britannia," a night there, left on the 27th of December. She was never vessel" employed in the Levant trade, and sailed from more heard of, having, as is supposed, foundered at sea. Alexandria for Venice. The “ Britannia” was overtaken The captain was a stranger to the navigation, and had obby a dreadful storm off Cape Colonna and was wrecked, stinately persisted in proceeding by the Mozambique Chanonly three of the crew being saved. Falconer was happily nel instead of stretching as usual into the Indian Ocean one of the three, and the incidents of the voyage and its south of Madagascar. Every commander of a vessel, as disastrous termination formed the subject of his poem of Fielding has remarked, claims absolute dominion in his The Shipwreck. “In all Attica,” says Byron, “if we ex

little wooden world, and in too many instances shows the cept Athens itself and Marathon, there is no scene more in- dangerous consequences of absolute power. teresting than Cape Colonna. To the antiquary and artist,

Thus miserably perished William Falconer in the thirtysixteen columns are an inexhaustible source of observation seventh year of his age. Iis fame rests on his poem of and design; to the philosopher the supposed scene of The Shipwreck, and rests securely. In that work he did not Plato's conversations will not be unwelcome; and the aspire to produce a great effect by a few bold touches, or traveller will be struck with the beauty of the prospect over

the rapid and masterly grouping of appalling or horrible ‘isles that crown the Ægean deep.' But for an English- circumstances. He labors in detail

, bringing before us the man Colonna has yet an additional interest, as the actual events as they arise, and conducting us with an interest spot of Falconer's Shipwreck. Pallas and Plato are for constantly increasing towards the catastrophe. Such a tregotten in the recollection of Falconer and Campbell

mendous picture of shipwreck as that which Byron has, in * Here in the dead of night, by Lonna's steep,

wild sportiveness, thrown out in Don Juan, immeasurably The seaman's cry was heard along the deep.'”

transcends the powers of Falconer, and, indeed, stands alone

in its terrible sublimity; but, on the other hand, the naval After the wreck of the “Britannia” and his return to poet, by the truth and reality of his descriptions, ultimately England, Falconer, in his nineteenth year, appeared as a impresses the mind of the reader, if not with such vivid poet. lle printed at Edinburgh an elegy on Frederick, force, perhaps with even more enduring effect. Some of prince of Wales,-a puerile inflated performance,—and the classic invocations to the shores of Greece, and some afterwards contributed short pieces to the Gentleman's descriptive passages, are a little tawdry, but the grand inciMagazine. Some of these descriptive and lyrical effusions dents of the poem are never forgotten. The personification possess merit. The fine naval song of The Storm (“Cease, of the ship in its last struggles is sublime as well as affectrude Boreas”), reputed to be by George Alexander Stevens, I ing, and the reader's anxiety and sympathy with the prin

cipal characters and the hapless crew never slumber. Nor | Elizabeth, were passed from time to time in its interest. are the technical expressions and directions a drawback to Falcons and hawks were allotted to degrees and orders of the general reader. They are explained in footnotes, and men according to rank and station,-for instance, to royalty give a truth and reality to the narrative; and they do not the jerfalcons, to an earl the peregrine, to a yeoman the occur in the more impassioned scenes.

(R. CA.) goshawk, to a priest the sparrow-hawk, and to a knave or FALCONET, ÉTIENNE MAURICE (1716-1791), a French servant the useless kestrel. The writings of Shakespeare sculptor, was born at Paris in 1716. His parents were poor, furnish ample testimony to the high and universal estimaand he was at first apprenticed to a carpenter, but some of tion in which it was held in his days. About the middle his clay-figures, with the making of which he occupied his of the 17th century falconry began to decline in England, leisure hours, having attracted the notice of Lemoine, that to revive somewhat at the Restoration. It never, however, sculptor made him his pupil. While diligently prosecut- completely recovered its former favor, a variety of causes ing his profession he found time to study Greek and Latin, operating against it, such as enclosure of waste lands, agriand also wrote several brochures on art, in which many names cultural improvements, and the introduction of fire-arms both ancient and modern of great reputation are treated in into the sporting field, till it fell, as a national sport, almost a remarkably disparaging way. His artistic productions into oblivion. Yet it has never been even temporarily exare characterized by the same defects as his writings, for tinct, and it is still very successfully practised at the presthough manifesting considerable cleverness and some power ent day. of imagination, they display in many cases a false and fan In Europe the game or “quarry” at which hawks are tastic taste, the result most probably of an excessive striving flown consists of grouse (confined to the British Isles), blackafter originality. One of his most successful statues was game, pheasants, partridges, quails, landrails, ducks, teal, one of Milo of Crotona, which secured his admission to the woodcocks, snipes, herons, rooks, crows, gulls, magpies, membership of the Academy of Fine Arts. Many of his jays, black birds, thrushes, larks, hares, and rabbits. In works, being placed in churches

, were destroyed at the time former days geese, cranes, kites, ravens, and bustards were of the French Revolution. At the invitation of the em- also flown at. Old German works make much mention of press Catherine he went to St. Petersburg, where he exe- the use of the Iceland falcon for taking the great bustard, cuted a colossal statue of Peter the Great in bronze. On a flight scarcely alluded to by English writers. In Asia the his return to Paris in 1788 he became director of the French list of quarry is longer, and, in addition to all the foreAcademy of Painting. He died 4th January, 1791. going, or their Asiatic representatives, various kinds of Among his writings are Réflexions sur la sculpture (Par. bustards, sand, grouse, storks, ibises, spoonbills

, pea-fowl, 1768), and Observations sur la statue de Marc Aurele (Par: jungle-fowl, kites, vultures, and gazelles are captured by 1771). The whole were collected under the title of Euvres trained hawks. in Mongolia and Chinese Tartary, and littéraires (6 vols., Lausanne, 1781-82; 3 vols., Paris, 1787).

among the nomad tribes of Central Asia, the sport still

flourishes; and though some late accounts are not satisFALCONRY, the art of employing falcons and hawks in factory either to the falconer or the naturalist, yet they the chase,-a sport the practice of which is usually termed leave no doubt that a species of eagle is still trained in bawking. Falconry was for many ages of the Old World's those regions to take large game, as antelopes and wolves. history one of the principal sports. Probably it may be Mr. Atkinson, in his account of his travels in the country considered as having been always as purely a sport as it is of the Amoor, makes particular mention of the sport, as at the present day; for even in the rudest times man must does also Mr. Shaw in his work on Yarkand; and in a letter have been possessed of means and appliances for the cap- from the Yarkand embassy, under Mr. Forsyth, C. B., dated ture of wild birds and beasts more effectual than the agency Camp near Yarkand, Nov. 27, 1873, the following passage of hawks, notwithstanding the high state of efficiency to occurs :-“Hawking appears also to be a favorite amusewhich, as we may still see, well-trained hawks may be ment, the golden eagle taking the place of the falcon or bronght. The antiquity of falconry is very great. It seems hawk. This novel sport seemed very successful.” It is impossible to fix the exact period of its first appearance. questionable whether the bird here spoken of is the golden There appears to be little doubt that it was practised in eagle. In Africa gazelles are taken, and also partridges Asia at a very remote period, for which we have the con- and wildfowl. current testimony of various Chinese and Japanese works, The hawks used in England at the present time are the some of the latter being most quaintly and yet spiritedly three great northern falcons, viz., the Greenland, Iceland, illustrated. It appears to have been known in China some and Norway falcons, the peregrine falcon, the hobby, the 2000 years B.C., and the records of a King Wen Wang, who merlin, the goshawk, and the sparrow-hawk. In former reigned over a province of that country 689 B.C., prove that days the saker, the lanner, and the Barbary or Tunisian the art was at that time in very high favor. In Japan it ap- falcon were also employed. (See Falcon.) pears to have been known at least 600 years B.C., and prob Of the foregoing the easiest to keep, most efficient in the ably at an equally early date in India, Arabia, Persia, and field, and most suitable for general use at the present day Syria. Sir A. H. Layard, as we learn from his work on are the peregrine falcon and the goshawk. Ninereh and Babylon, considers that in a bas-relief found by In all hawks, the female is larger and more powerful him in the ruins of Khorsabad “there appeared to be a than the male. f lconer bearing a hawk on his wrist," from which it would Hawks are divided by falconers all over the world into appear to have been known there some 1700 years B.C. In two great classes. The first class comprises "falcons,” all the above-mentioned countries of Asia it is practised at “long-winged hawks,” or “hawks of the lure,” distinguished the present day.

by Eastern falconers as “dark-eyed hawks.” In these the Little is known of the early history of falconry in Africa, wings are pointed, the second feather in the wing is the but from very ancient Egyptian carvings and drawings it longest, and the irides are dark-brown. Merlins must, seems to have been known there many ages ago. It was however, be excepted; and here it would seem that the probably also in vogue in the countries of Morocco, Oran, Eastern distinction is the best, for though merlins are much Algiers, Tunis, and Egypt, at the same time as in Europe. more falcons than they are hawks, they differ from falcons The older writers on falconry, English and Continental, in having the third feather in the wing the longest, while often mention Barbary and Tunisian falcons. It is still prac- they are certainly “dark-eyed hawks." tised in Africa; the present writer has visited two hawking The second class is that of "hawks," "short-winged establishments in Egypt.

hawks,” or “hawks of the fist,” called by Eastern falconers Perhaps the oldest records of falconry in Europe are ‘yellow (or rose) eyed hawks." In these the wings are supplied by the writings of Pliny, Aristotle, and Martial. rounded, the fourth feather is the longest in the wing, and Although their notices of the sport are slight and some the irides are yellow, orange, or deep-orange. what vague, yet they are quite sufficient to show clearly that The following glossary of the principal terms used in it was practised in their days—between the years 384 B.C. falconry may, with the accompanying woodcut, assist the and 40 A.D. It was probably introduced into England from reader in perusing this notice of the practice of the art. the Continent about 860 A.D., and from that time down to Useless or obsolete terms are omitted :the middle of the 17th century falconry was followed with Bate. A hawk is said to “ bate” when she flutters off from the an ardor that perhaps no sport in our country has ever

fist, perch or block, whether from wildness, or for exercise, called forth, not even our grand national sport of fox-hunt

or in the attempt to chase. ing. Stringent laws and enactments

, notably in the reigns Bewits.—Straps of leather by which the bells are fastened to a of William the Conqueror, Edward III., Henry VIII., and

hawk's legs.



Bind.-A hawk is said to "bind " when she seizes a bird in the Eyas.-A hawk which has been brought up from the nest is an

air and clings to it. This term is properly only applied to "eyas."

the seizure of large quarry, taken at a height in the air. Eyry.- The nest of a hawk. Block.— The conical piece of wood, of the form of an inverted Foot.-A hawk is said to “ foot " well or to be a “good footer"

flower-pot, used for bawks to sit upon; for a peregrine it when she is successful in killing. Many hawks are very should be about 10 to 12 inches high, 5 to 6 in diameter at fine flyers without being “good footers." top, and 8 to 9 in diameter at base.

Frounce.- A disease in the mouth and throat of hawks. Brail. -A thong of soft leather used to secure, when desirable, Get in.—To go up to a hawk when she has killed her quarry is

the wing of a hawk. It has a slit to admit the pinion to "get in." joint, and the ends are tied together.

Huck.—The state of partial liberty in which young hawks Cadge.-The wooden frame on which hawks, when numerous, must always at first be kept-loose to fly about where are carried to the field.

they like, but punctually fed early in the morning and Cadger.— The person who carries the cadge.

again in the day, to keep them from seeking food for Calling off.Luring a hawk (see Lure) from the hand of an as themselves as long as possible.

sistant at a distance for training or exercise is called “call Haggard.--A wild-caught hawk in the adult plumage. ing off.”

Hood.—The cap of leather used for the purpose of blindfoldCarry.—A hawk is said to "carry” when she flies away with ing the hawk. (See woodcut.) the quarry on the approach of the falconer.

Hoodshy.-A hawk is said to be “hoodshy" when she is afraid Cast.-Two hawks which may be used for flying together are of, or resists, having her hood put on. called a “cast."

Imping.—The process of mending broken feathers is called

“imping." (See 8 in cut.) Imping-needle.- A piece of tough soft iron wire from about

11 to 2 inches long, rough filed so as to be three-sided and tapering from the middle to the ends. (See 4 in

cut.) Intermiered.- A hawk moulted in confinement is said to be


Jesse8.–Strips of light but very tough leather, some 6 to 8 3

inches long, which always remain on a hawk's legs

one on each leg. (See cut.) Leash.—A strong leathern thong, some 24 or 3 feet long,

with a knot or button at one end. (See 7 in cut.) Lure.—The instrument used for calling long-winged hawks,

-a dead pigeon, or an artificial lure made of leather

and feathers or wings of birds, tied to a string. Man a hauk.-To tame a hawk and accustom her to stran.


Manile.- A hawk is said to “mantle" when she stretches 5

out a leg and a wing simultaneously, a common action of hawks when at ease; also when she spreads out her wings and feathers to hide any quarry or food she may have seized from another hawk, or from man. In the

last case it is a fault. 6


Make hawk.- A hawk is called a "make hawk" when, as

a thoroughly trained and steady hawk, she is flown

with young ones to teach them their work. Mex.-A hawk is said to “mew” when she moults. The

place where a hawk was kept to moult was in olden times called her “mew." Buildings where establishments of hawks were kept were called "mews"-an appellation which in many cases they have retained

to this day. 8

Pannel.—The stomach of a hawk, corresponding with the

gizzard of a fowl, is called her pannel. In it the

casting is formed.

Passage.—The line herons take over a tract of country on b

their way to and from the heronry when procuring

food in the breeding season is called a passage." Implements used in Falconry.

Passage hawks.- Are hawks captured when on their pas1. Hood; 2. Back view of hood, showing braces, a, a, b, b; by draw.

sage or migration. This passage takes place twice a ing the braces b, b, the hood, now open, is closed; 3. Rufter hood; year, in spring and autumn. 4. Imping-needle; 5. Jess; d is the space for the hawk's leg; the Pelt. -The dead body of any quarry the hawk has killed. point and slit a, a, are brought round the leg and passed through Pitch.—The height to which a hawk, when waiting for slit b, after which the point c and slit c, and also the whole remaining length of jess, are pulled through slits a and b; c is the slit to

game to be flushed, rises in the air is called her which the upper ring of swivel is attached ; 6. Hawk's leg with

“pitch." bell a, bewit 6, jess c; 7. Jesses, swivel and leash ; 8. Portion of Plume.—A hawk is said to “plume" a bird when she pulls first wing-feather of male peregrine falcon, “tiercel," half natural off the feathers. size in process of imping; a, the living hawk's feather; b, piece Point.—A hawk “makes her point" when she rises in the supplied from another tiercel, with the imping-needle e pushed half its length into it and ready to be pushed home into the living

air in a peculiar manner over the spot where quarry bird's feather.

has saved itself from capture by dashing into a hedge,

or has otherwise secreted itself. Casting.—The oblong or egg-shaped ball, consisting of feathers, Pull through the hood.—A hawk is said to pull through the

bones, etc., which all hawks (and insectivorous birds) throw hood when she eats with it on.

up after the nutritious part of their food has been digested. Put in.— A bird is said to “put in ” when it saves itself from Cere. — The naked wax-like skin above the beak.

the hawk by dashing into covert or other place of security. Check.-A hawk is said to fly at "check” when she flies at a Quarry.—The bird or beast flown at.

bird other than the intended object of pursuit,-for in Rake out.-A hawk is said to "rake out" when she flies, while stance, if a hawk slipped at a heron goes off at a rook, “ waiting on" (see Wait on), too far and wide from her she flies at check.

master. Clutching.–Taking the quarry in the feet as the short-winged Red hawk.-Hawks of the first year, in the young plumage, are hawks do. Falcons occasionally “clutch.”

called “red hawks." Come to.—A hawk is said to "come to” when she begins to Ringing.A bird is said to "ring ” when it rises spirally in get tame.

the air. Coping.-Cutting the beak or talons of a hawk is called "cop Rufter hood.--An easy fitting hood, not, however, convenient ing."

for hooding and unhooding-used only for hawks when Crabbing.—Hawks are said to “crab” when they seize one an first captured (see 3 in cut). other fighting.

Seeling.Closing the eyes by a fine thread drawn through the Creance.-A long line or string.

lid of each eye, the threads being then twisted together Crop, to put away.-A hawk is said to "put away her crop" above the head,—a practice long disused in England.

when the food passes out of the crop into the stomach. Serving a hauk.-Driving out quarry which has taken refuge, Deck-feathers.—The two centre tail-feathers.

or has "put in."

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