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per day, plus maintenance. A wall painter received 56 cents per day, plus maintenance. If one translates fish prices into wages paid to fishermen, it is found that they exceed tremendously the wages paid to other laborers at that time. This high rate of pay for fishermen certainly was a recognition of their work, of the difficulties which they encountered, and of the dangers to which they were exposed.

The Regulation of Diocletian was vigorously enforced for a while. A writer of the 4th Century, Lactantius, wrote that many had been executed for violation of the law. But, despite the severe penalty which threatened violators (the capital penalty was the only penalty provided for in the statute), the regulation lasted only 4 years. The failure of the regulation was one of the reasons for Diocletian's abdication in 305, which he accompanied by his famous words: "I would rather raise spinach than to continue being Emperor."

According to the public law of Roman times, an edict expired with the end of the reign of the Emperor if it was not republished by his successor. The regulation of Diocletian was not republished. The main reason for its not being republished was that it was not refined enough to meet the needs of even the primitive economy of ancient times. No differentials were permitted for transportation and other special services. Since the producer could ask for the ceiling price, there was no margin available for the wholesaler or retailer.

Lactantius describes the economic effect of the statute of Diocletian with the following words: "Because of a lack of supplies and of very low prices much blood was shed and nothing offered for sale because of fear that prices might go much higher." Lactantius meant that the ceiling prices actually were so low as to discourage production and trade, and most supplies were offered in an extensive black market. In this black market, the prices rose continuously, which again discouraged sales and production.

Today, the OPA attempts to recognize the necessities of economic life by adjusting the prices to the needs of production and by establishing proper differentials on the different production and distribution levels. May we hope that the OPA is more successful than Diocletian was.

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PRODUCTION OF FISHERY PRODUCTS IN ALABAMA, LOUISIANA, MISSISSIPPI, AND TEXAS DURING 1943

By Lorraine D. Peterson*

Although faced by increasingly severe manpower problems, price ceilings, and numerous other wartime handicaps in 1943, fishery production in the Gulf States generally exceeded that of 1942, reports from the most important fishery production points indicate. The rationing of meat, and the demands of the armed forces placed greater emphasis on fishery products, helping to keep up the production in spite of adverse conditions. Shortage of cannery labor diverted much of the shrimp and oysters usually canned to the fresh and frozen markets. Canned oysters were under price ceilings while fresh-shucked oysters remained uncontrolled, hence the oyster industry placed most of its production in the fresh market, with prices at record levels. The same thing was true in the case of shrimp until ceiling prices were placed on both the frozen and the fresh product.

Production in 1943 totaled 805,991 state barrels of oysters (2,775,807 U. S. standard bushels) and 99,320,621 pounds of other fishery products, according to the records collected by the New Orleans Fishery Market News office. Oyster production was one percent less than in 1942 and other items gained one percent. Increases of 27 percent and il percent, respectively, occurred in production of fresh-water and salt-water fish. The most important decline was a drop of 37 percent in hard crab production, attributable largely to lack of labor.

Production reports have been divided into 51 classifications, including fresh-water fish, 4; salt-water fish, 31; and shellfish and miscellaneous items, 16. The most important item was shrimp, which accounted for 82 percent of the production exclusive of oysters. Oysters ranked second in volume, as the 805,991 barrels taken would produce about 11,880,000 pounds of meats. Crab production, in third place, was followed by the general classifications of salt-water and fresh-water_fish. Among fish, mullet and red snapper produced two* Fishery Marketing Specialist, New Orleans, La.

thirds of the total volume, and catfish, spotted sea trout, grouper, and red drum followed

, in order

Compared with 1942, shrimp production increased 6,306,720 pounds or 8 percent, and hard crab totals fell 5,271,189 pounds, or 37 percent. Production of fresh-cooked crab meat, dropping 389,404 pounds, decreased 27 percent.

Increases of 364,085 pounds in the mullet catch; red drum, 180,480 pounds; spotted sea trout, 135,715 pounds; and catfish, 76,280 pounds, were mainly responsible for rises of 11 percent and 27 percent, respectively, in the salt- and fresh-water fish totals. Red snapper and grouper catches decreased 253,370 and 52,390 pounds or 37 and 20 percent, respectively, these being the only major fish items to suffer declines. Oyster production fell about one percent--a reduction of ll percent in the take of oysters for canning being virtually offset by a 22 percent increase in oysters for other purposes.

Table I indicates the main changes from 1942.

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Table I - Production of Important Species - 1943 Species

Unit

Production Percentage Change From 1942 Catfish

498,350

+18 Blue runner

143,500

+20 Drum, black

190,425

+29 Drum, red

415,840

+77 Grouper

204,460

-20 Kiny whiting ......

161,942

+43 Mullet

2,602,415

+16 Sea trout, spotted

437, 976

+45 Snapper, red

1,917,480

-12 Crabs, hard

8,876,943

-37 Crab meat, fresh-cooked

1,028,908

-27 Oysters: For canning

507,350

-11 Other

298,641

+22 Total

805,991

. 1 Shrimp: For canning

138,874

-26 Other

251,394

+45 To tal

390,268

+ 8

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Monthly indexes of production of the more important varieties during 1943 follow in Table II. This shows the seasonal variations in landings along the Gulf Coast. For each of the varieties listed, the month during which the largest landings were made has been given a value of 100. The landings in other months have been expressed in percentages of the largest. month. The relative sizes of each month's production is quickly ascertainable by noting the relation of its index number to 100.

25,180

70

Table II MONTHLY INDEX OF PRODUCTION OF IMPORTANT SPECIES: Ala., Miss., La., &, Texas, 1943

(Expressed for each item in percentages of its greatest monthly volume Product Unit Year's Largest

Percentages of largest month's landings
Production Month Jan, Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Avg.
FRESH-WATER FISH
Catfish

Lbs.
498,380 78,640 15
43 54 100 73 55 58 56 40 48

50 41 53
SALT-WATER FISH
Drum:
Black
Lbs. 190,425 38,460 55 99 41

20 100

21

5

11 16 36 38 Red (Redfish) 415,840 91,560 100 32

15

29 14 7 Grouper 204,460

61 69

31 65 Mullet 2,602,415 814,400

19 16

ll 14
19

20 22 36 100 21 27 Sea trout: Spotted 437,976 65,010 33 66 41

58 63 67

23 47 100 70 43 56 Snapper, red

215, 270 62

90 88 98 39 29 69 99 95 74 SISTALFISH, ETC. Crabs, hard

Lbs.

8,876,943 1,435,260 7 8. 9 58 82 100 87 88 50 72 41 16 52 Crab meat, Fresh-cooked 1,028,908 161,590 7 8 7 59 83 100 90 92 57

16 53 Oysters: For canning Bbls. 507,350 142,961 55 93 100 88 16 1

2 Other 298,641 42,019 100

95 95 91 40

20 14 10 30 56 78 83 Total 805,991 182,876 66 95 100 90 22 5 3 2 7

18 20 37 Shrimp: For canning 138,874 35,734 16 13 1

12 11 1

100

47 19 32 Other 251,394 40,021 18 27 12 25 82 43 37 79 63 92 100

50

52 To tal

390, 268

67,273 19 23 8 15 55 31 23 100 90 92 85 39 48 Less than one-half of one percent. NOTE: Based on landings reported from production points listed in daily Fishery Products Reports.

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Table III Range of Prices - New Orleans French Market - 1943

(Cents per pound except where indicated otherwise) Species

January
February March

April
May

June Buffalofish

15-17
12-15

12-15
15

12-15 Catfish 15-20 12-20

12-25 12-22 11-25 Gaspergou: Round

17

10-15 Dressed

22 Cabio (lemonfish)

10

10 Croaker

10
3-20

5-12 5-8 Drun, black: Bulls (each)

15-2,25 50-2.00
75-2,25 75-2.25

40-1.75 Medium

6-15 12-25

8-22

7-20 6-20 Drum, red Tredfish Bulls (each

1.00-1.75

1.50-2.75 2.50 1.50-3.00 1.50-2.50 Medium 9-20

20-30 15-25

12-25 Rats

15-221 126-20

17-20
25-35 221_36

25-30 Flounders

17-2019 12-20

5-15
5-25
10-15

& 20 Garfish: Round

5
4

3 Dressed

5-12
8-13
5-8

8-10 Grouper

12 Jewlish (Warsaw)

12 King whiting ground mullet)

31-11

2-15

3-15 21-10 Mullet

3-8
2-10
2-8
5-8

3-7 Sawfish

8-10
5-10

ő Gea catfish

8-12 7-15

7-12 Sea trout, spotted: Large

17-40
221-35.
221-50 25-50

221-50 22-45 Mecium

12-30 17-21

15-40
22-40 17-45

15-40 Small

9-25
12-25
10-30
10-30
10-25

8-20 Sea trout, white

25

3-12 3-12 Shark

4-8 Sheepshead 7-17 10-17

17-25 17-25 10-25 Snapper, red

25

28
Spanish mackerel
Spot

10
15

5 Common

3-12
2-10
3-15 2015

2-10 21-10 Crabs, hard (bskt.

1.00-3.00 1.00-4.00 1.00-4.00 1.00-2.50 75-2.00 40-2.50 Crabs, soft (doz.)

75-3.00 50-3.00 50-2.50 1.00-2.50 Crayfish

7-15
6-10

810 Shrimp: (bbl.) Jumbo

32.00-36.00 Large

26.00-48.00 26.00-42.00 36.00-48.00 36.00-51.00 22.00-18.00 30.00-54.00 Medium

15.00-33.00 16.50-30.00 25.50-45.00 24.00-15.00 18.50-42.00 21.00-42.00 Small

9.00-30.00 12.00-24.00 12.00-36.00 12.00-32.00 8.00-24.00 10.00-30.00 Sea bobs 9.00-12.00 7.00-15.00 8.50-15.00 12.00-24.00

9.00-15.00 (Under 9) 9-12) (12-15) (15-18 (18-25) 26-39)

(40-Over) Sea turtle Terrapin (each)

25-50 Squid

7-12 5 Turtle

11-12 4-12

6-10

10 Turtle meat

10 Species

July August September October November December Buffalofish

12-15 Catfish

15-25
12-27

15-25 15-25 20-25 12-25 Gaspergou:

Round

Dressed
Cabio (lemonfish)
Croaker

5-20
7-20
10

8
Drum, black:
Bulls (each)

50-1.25

1.50 1.00-1.50 1.00-1.50 65-1.25 Medium

5-20
20
10-20

10-20 15-17 10-15 Drum, red (redfish): Buils (each) 2.00-2.50 1.75-2.50 2.25

2.00-2.50 2.00-2.50 1.25-2.50 Medium

20-25
20-30
20-30 221-30 17-25

17-25 Rats

25-30
20-30
173-20

15-25 15-22 Flounders

10-20

6-20
Garfish:
Round

3-4
5

3 Dressed

7

7-10 Grouper

14 Jewfish (Warsaw) King whiting (ground millet)

121

7-121

5-10

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Range of Prices - New Orleans French Market :- 1943 (Contimed)
Cents per pound except where indicated otherwise)
July
August September October November December

ber . 5-9

68
10-12
27-45 30-45

30-45
222-40

25-40 20-40
20-35
20-35 225-35

17-30 20.30 224_30 10-25 15-25. 12

10-20 15-20

10-20 5-15 10-172

6-15 8-10
4

5
8-20
14-25

10
15-22 124-20

12-20
28-30
15-25 30-35 30-35

10
3-20
5-15
5-20

5-10 5-10
75-2.50 75-2.50 1.00-2.50 50-2.50 1.00-2.50 1.25–3.00
50-2.00 75-2,25 1.00-2.50

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Species
Mullot
Saw ish
Sea catfish
Sea trout, spotted:

Large
Medium
Small
Sea trout, white
Shark
Sheopshead
Snapper, red
Spanish mackerel
Spot
Common
Crabs, hard (bakt,
Crabs, soft (doz.)
Crayfish
Shrimp (bbl.)

Jumbo
Large
Medium
Small
Şea bobs
(Under 9)
9-12)
(12-15)
(15-18)
(18-25)
26-39)

(40-Over) Sea turtle

.

30.00-60.00 52.00-57.00 23.00-30.00
24.00-45.00 15.00-32.00 16.50-30.00
12.00-45.00 9.00-21.00 12.00-21.00
10.00-21.00

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35.00-39.90 35.00-39.90 28.00-39.90 24.00_36.00 27.00-39.90 27.00-34.00 20.00-30.00 24.00-39.90 21.00-30.00 17.00-29.40 17.00-28.35 21.00-30.00 14.00-24.00 15.00-24.00115.00-23.00 11.00-21.00 10.00-20.00 12.00-16.00 8-12

7

Price ranges of important items sold in the New Orleans' French Market in 1943 are shown in Table III. Large black and red drum are listed as "bulls." These may weigh from 15 to 35 pounds. Baskets of hard crabs contain about 40 pounds, while soft crabs average 4. pounds to a dozen. Shrimp with heads on average 210 pounds per barrel.

While no standard styles and sizes are applied generally in marketing fish and shellfish in the ports of the Gulf, dealers who do use standards for commercial purposes usually employ the classifications in Table IV.

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Table IV - Market Classifications and Approximate Weights of Gulf Species
Market

Approximate
Species

Remarks1
Classification

weight, etc. FRCSH-WATER FISH

In Pounds Buffalofish

3 - 20

Round Carp

2.8

Round Catfish

1.40

Round Gaspergou

1 5.

Round
SAIT-WATER FISH
Bluefish

1 6

Round Blue minnet

1

Round Cabio (Lemonfish)

10-50

Round Crevalle (Jacks)

10-20

Round Croaker

-1

Round
Drum:
Bulls

15-35 Black

Round
Medium

2 -15
Bulls

15-35
Red (Redfish)
Medium
4 -15

Round
Rats

2.4

1.5 Flounder Small 를 1

Round Garfish

10-60

Round, or skinned and

dressed. Grouper

5-15

Drawn Jewfish (Warsaw)

50-500

Round King whiting (Ground mullet)

Ž - 1

Round
For explanation of footnote, see following page,

Large

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Table IV - Market Classifications and Approximate Weights of Gulf Species (Continued)
Market
Approximate

Remarks1
Species
Classification

weight, etc. SAL T-WATER FISH (Cont.)

In Pounds

Round
Mullet

Round
Pompano
Sawf ish

50-200

Round Sea catfish

3.

Round
Sea trout:
Large

1 4
Spotted
Medium

Round
Small

Round
White
Shark

30-200

Round Sheepshead

3.8

Round Snapper, red

3 -15

Drawn
Spanish mackerel

1.3
-

Round
Spot

1 - 1

Round Tripletail(Blackfish)

2-10

Round
SHILLFISH, ETC.
Crabs:
Hard

1/3 - 2/3

Live Soft

1/6 - 12

Live Crayfish

20-25 per lb.

Live Frogs

1 / 2 : 1

Live
State barrel:
Ala. and Miss.

8,478.6 cu, in.
Oysters
Louisiana
6,445.4 cu. in.

In shell
Texas

8,100,0 cu, in,
Large

Under 18 per lb.
Medium
18 to 35

Heads on
Small

Over 35
Under 9 count

Under 9
9-12

9-12 12-15 Shrimp3/

12-15

Heads on 15-18

15-18 18-25

18-25 26-39

26-39 40 & over"

40 & over
Jumbo

Under 25 per lb.
Large
25 to 30

Listed "heads off" but Shrimp!

medium
28 to 30

landed meads on," Medium

30 to 35 Small

35 and

up Under 15 count

Under 15 15 - 20

15 - 20
21 - 25

21 25
26 - 30
26 - 30

Heads off
31 - 42

31 - 42 43 - 65

43 - 65
66 & over

66 & over
210 lbs,

Heads on
Shrimp
Barrel
125 lbs,

Heads off
Sea turtle

50-150

Live Squid

9-12 per lb.

Round Turtle

1-10

Live 1 Round - fish as caught. Drawn - entrails only removed, Dressed Entrails, head, and sometimes tail

and other fins removed. 2 New Orleans French Market, prior to use of OPA classifications.

count set by OPA, effective September 21, 1943. New York Salt-water Market, prior to use of OPA classifications,

count set by OPA, effective September 21, 1943.

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