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reasonable. It was ordered therefore that the order suspending the operations of these schedules be set aside as of April 18.
Foreign Fishery Trade
IMPORT CONTROLS ON CERTAIN FISHERY PRODUCTS REMOVED
Among commodities removed from the import controls of General Imports Order M-63, by amendment of that order by the War Production Board March 30, 1944, were the following: Crabs, fresh or frozen, prepared or preserved
Salts derived from vegetable oils, animal oils, fish oils, animal fats and greases, not elsewhere specified, or from fatty acids thereof
Lobsters, canned and not canned
Tuna fish, fresh or frozen
CHILEAN EXPOSITION PROMOTES FISHERY INDUSTRIES
An exposition designed to promote fishing and related industries was held at San Vicente, Chile, on March 10-12, 1944, according to the American Vice Consul at Concepcion, Chile. San Vicente, one of the principal fishing ports of Chile, is located on Arauco Bay, about nine miles from Concepcion. Lying just across the neck of the Tumbes Peninsula which separates Concepcion Bay from Arauco Bay, it forms a part of the municipality of Talcahuano. The Talcahuano area takes about 50 percent of the total Chilean catch of fish.
Recent Government efforts to promote the fishing industry have included allotment of funds for construction of refrigeration facilities in fishing ports, construction of refrigerator cars for transportation of fresh fish, and compulsory use of fish by government agencies which serve meals. In addition, an extensive educational campaign has been undertaken to popularize fish as a nutritive food.
Fundamental problems have been outlined as follows: Price of fish is ordinarily such as to make it a luxury item, and moreover, fish is foreign to the traditional Chilean popular diet; facilities for marketing fish are inadequate and as a result, a large catch generally sells for only slightly more than a small catch, or perhaps finds no sale whatsoever. An illustration of this latter point is seen in the fact that only one or two cars of fish move out of Talcahuano and San Vicente daily. These, in addition to relatively small canning facilities, handle about half of the entire Chilean catch of fish. As a result, there has been no incentive for fishermen to work systematically to increase the catch, and it is reported that large catches are actually avoided because of the lack of effective demand. Consistently, there has been no incentive to organize a more scientific exploitation of the fishing industry, which is carried on by unorganized, individual fishermen, each operating a single small boat, as a rule.
The projected refrigeration facilities (including a 200-ton capacity refrigerator in San Vicente) should be of considerable value in enabling the fishermen to obtain a moderate price for the catch, no matter how large, and should tend strongly to a stabilization of fishing as a regular occupation.
San Vicente will also have a wharf about 130 meters in length as a part of the development program.
According to newspaper reports (El Sur, January 16, 1944) there are 560 sailboats and 70 motorboars engaged in fishing in Talcahuano and San Vicente. There are about 20 canning and preserving firms, the largest of which is housed in six buildings having a floor space of slightly less than 6,000 square meters. This firm employs over 400 workers and operates seven fishing boats of 20 to 50 tons each. The Inspeccion Regional de Pesca y Caza (regional bureau of fisheries) announced that the products of these establishments in 1943 were valued at over 31,000,000 pesos (approximately $1,000,000 U.S. Cy.) and that they paid wages amounting to 5,500,000 pesos. Their capital totals about 40,000,000 pesos. The same source stated that about 2,000 persons in the area are engaged as fishermen. Their 1943 catch had an estimated value of 14,000,000 pesos, selling at an average price of 1.05 pesos per kilogram.
In addition to ordinary fishing operations, 61 sperm whales were taken in 1943, from which approximately 383,790 kilograms of oil were produced.
The fisheries exposition was sponsored by the municipal government of Talcahuano, the national government granting 100,000 pesos to aid in execution of the plans.
About 18 firms entered exhibits of their products and related items. The Chilean naval base at Talcahuano also had a stand, as did the industrial school in San Vicente. Prominent among the exhibits were the products of the various firms, consisting of canned and dried fish, sardines in oil, sardines in oil and tomato sauce, fillet of anchovy in oil, tuna in oil, etc. One stand exhibited articles and products manufactured from fish skins. Others displayed items of fishing equipment.
Prizes were offered for best products under the following heads: Sardines in oil, fillet of anchovy, other products in oil, shellfish, vitamin oils, dried fish (codfish type), smoked fish, fish meal, and fishing equipment.
The exposition was formally opened by a visit of the local authorities, in the presence of representatives of the national government. In addition to the commercial-industrial exhibits noted, there was offered a series of recreational and sporting events, including dances, boat races, etc. A total of 15,000 persons are reported to have passed through the grounds during the three days.
An item in the program was the launching of a 12-ton fishing boat. Several of these have been completed in San Vicente during the past year.
The building of the Escuela Industrial de Pesca (Industrial Fishing School) formed the center of the exposition. This government establishment was founded in 1936. It now has about 150 students, offering a five-year course. The first year is a preparatory course designed to insure that all pupils entering the subsequent special course have a minimum background equivalent to four years of elementary school. The last four years of the course cover marine biology, navigation, meteorology, communications, sailing, fishing, mechanics and the processing of fish and shellfish. This is stated to be the only school of the type
in South America.
RESULTS OF AUSTRALIAN FISHERIES INVESTIGATIONS REPORTED
In an 8-page statement of conclusions published in the Journal of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research for November 1943, Dr. Harold Thompson, Chief of the Division of Fisheries, reported the results of studies made from the research vessel Warreen from 1938 to 1943. Dr. Thompson summarizes the conclusions as follows:
1. Marine conditions in the Australian region are tropical and sub-tropical in nature, there being an absence of effective cold water incursions such as are largely responsible for the great fisheries of the East Pacific. They resemble the conditions found in similar latitudes elsewhere in the West Pacific, and it is considered probable that the ultimate scope and development of the fisheries will resemble those in other portions of the latter area, where output is on a moderate rather than a great scale.
2. This conclusion is supported by the moderate scale of operations hitherto found to be possible (chiefly in the demersal fisheries); by the fact that large sheltered bays, and extensive offshore banks, are not a feature of the region; and by the fact that it has not, on the whole, been found to be possible, in experimental fishing, repeatedly to locate large pelagic fish shoals over a season.
3. It is also supported by the fact that, even on a relatively limited scale of exploitation, many of the commoner species of fish have in the past shown signs of being overfished.
4. Expansion of the fishing industry is, however, considered to be possible in the following directions:
(a) By development of a national whaling industry, based on winter (coastal) and
(b) By extending the trawling industry to the regions of Tasmania, the Great Aus-
(c) By further developinent of the oyster and crayfish industries.
(a) By development of the pelagic fisheries, particularly of that for the common
(e) By stabilizing (through the use of scientific measures of conservation) the
5. It is further considered that by these means the yield of the fishery might ultimately be doubled and that further possibilities of extension should be examined in the tropics, the neighbouring islands, and in the antarctic region.
BRITISH FISH DEALERS PRESENT TRADE TRAINING CLASSES
A training course for the fish trade in the London area was recently announced in a British fishery periodical. A group of classes, to begin on March 28 at the Smithfield Institute, was organized by the London County Council under the sponsorship of the London Fish and Poultry Retailers Association. The following schedule is an excerpt from the Fish Trades Gazette of March 25, 1944:
Tuesdays, 3-4 p.m.
Methods of fishing and fishing vessels--Captain R. S. Hewett, C. C.
Food fishes--Mr. K. P. Keywood, F. R. San. I., Chief Inspector, Worshipful Company of Fishmongers.
Tuesdays, 4-5 p.m.
Fish commodity, shop work--Mr. F. A. Blackwell, member of the council of the association and a practical fishmonger.
Tuesdays, 5:30-6:30 p.m.
English and calculations--Mr. Shepherd.
The syllabus includes:
Scientific principles--Physical, chemical, and biological, forming the basis of fish technology. English and calculations--The work includes the cultivation of good English, written and spoken; the elements of business economics, current business practice, trade calculations, and a sound simple system of bookkeeping.
Food fishes, methods of fishing and fishing vessels--The shop slab and fittings; fishing grounds and methods; food fishes--approximately 45 British varieties; freshwater fish; salmon family; shellfish (crustacea and molluscs); seasonal variation; processed fish; problems of handling a perishable commodity.
Fish commodity--Hygienic maintenance of equipment and tools; recognition and nomenclature of types; gutting, cleaning, filleting, etc.; boiling of lobsters, etc.; slab dressing; blackboard.
Students of 21 and under if engaged in the trade and released for at least 50 percent of their employer's time to attend the courses will incur no fees. For students under 18, the fee for one session of three hours per week is 3/4 ($0.67 U.S. currency). The 12 lectures to be given by Captain Hewett and Mr. Keywood are also regarded as a refresher course for older members of the trade. The fee for this course for seniors will be 10/0 ($2.02 U. S. currency).
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL PRICES
Wholesale prices for all foods and retail prices for fishery products decreased during the month ending in mid-February, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retail prices
for canned salmon rose a small amount, but all other fishery items for which the Bureau publishes retail indexes showed minor decreases.
While the wholesale index for all foods showed a slight decline for the 12 months ending in mid-February, the retail index for this classification showed a small gain. All retail indexes for fishery items increased as compared with a year previous.
The February purchases of fishery products by the War Food Administration included large purchases of canned salmon, Vitamin A fish liver oil, canned pilchards, and pickled fish, as well as a number of minor items, according to the WFA. Purchases totaled $5,107,830, bringing the total for the first two months of 1944 to $8,007,680.