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transportation by contract cr common carrier the processor may add as a container allowance the actual cost of containers and special refrigerant in which the smoked sablefish is packed, but only if he bills such cost separately on an invoice to the purchaser.
SEC. 5.6 Definitions. (a) "Sablefish" means fish of the species Anoplopoma fimbria and includes the common names black cod, sable carp.
(1) The rail carload freight rate per pound for frozen whitefish from Winnipeg, Canada, to his processing plant, plus
(b) If during the year prior to the effective date of this regulation a processor received at his processing plant the greater part of the whitefish he handled at that plant by shipment from a point or points other than Winnipeg, Canada, he may add as the "freight rate” the sum of the following multiplied by 1.50:
(1) The rail carload freight rate per
(2) Duty, plus
(c) If no common carrier rate is
SEC. 6.3. Sales to a retailer or to a purveyor of meals. The maximum price for sales of smoked whitefish to a retailer or to a .purveyor of meals by a processor where delivery is made to the customer's place of business and the cost of the delivery is borne by the processor is the
price as determined in section 6.1 plus 5 cents per pound.
Sec. 6.4. Sales at retail, : The maximum price for sales of smoked whitefish at retail by a processor is the price as determined in section 6.1 plus the mark-up for smoked fish ("fish, processed") set out in Maximum Price Regulation No. 422.
SEC. 6.5. Container allowances. If a shipment of smoked whitefish involves transportation by contract or common carrier the processor may add as a container allowance the actual cost of containers and special refrigerant in which the smoked whitefish is packed, but only if he bills such cost separately on an invoice to the purchaser.
SEC. 6.6. Definitions. (a) “Whitefish" means fish of the species Coregonus clupeiformis.
ARTICLE VI-SMOKED WHITEFISH SEC. 6.1 Maximum price. (a) The maximum price for sales by a processor of smoked whitefish is 40 cents per pound ex processor's plant or warehouse, plus the "freight rate” as explained in section 6.2, plus the container allowance in section 6.5 where applicable.
(b) The maximum price fixed by this section 6.1 does not apply to sales covered by sections 6.3, “Sales to a retailer or to a purveyor of meals”, and 6.4, “Sales at retail".
Sec. 6.2. Explanation of "freight rate”. (a) If durin gthe year prior to the effective date of this regulation a processor received at his processing plant the greater part of the whitefish he handled at that plant by direct shipment from Winnipeg, Canada, he may add as the "freight rate” the sum of the following multiplied by 1.50:
Effective date. This regulation shall become effective August 21, 1944.
Issued this 16th day of August 1944.
DOGFISH BECOMES MAIN SOURCE OF VITAMIN A
The dogfish shark, once considered a pest by fishermen because of its destructive habits, has become the nation's chief source of Vitamin A, replacing the soupfin shark which in 1943 provided 42 percent of the Vitamin A output of U. S. producers, the Fish and Wildlife Service reported on August 9. At the same time, Service officials called attention to a sharp decline in the total production of Vitamin A, which totaled 30.1 trillion units for the first six months of 1944, or 35 percent below last year's production of 46.6 trillion units during the same period.
Of the total production this year, livers of dogfish accounted for 9.7 trillion units and soupfin shark livers for 8.6 trillion. Although the dogfish livers yield an oil of considerably lower potency than the valuable soupfin livers--averaging about 13 thousand units per gram compared with 105 thousand units--the much larger poundage of dogfish livers landed caused Vitamin A production from the dogfish to exceed that from any other source. Purchases of dogfish livers by processors of vitamin oils totaled 2,816,000 pounds from January 1 to the end of June 1944, which was about four times the purchases during the same period last year.
While landings of dogfish livers rose to unprecedented levels, the yield of the soupfin
Purchases of shark fishery continued the decline which first became evident last fall. soupfin livers fell from 685,000 pounds during the first half of 1943 to 369,000 pounds this year,
According to the normal course of the fishery, which is centered in Seattle, even larger catches of dogfish may be expected during the remaining portion of the year, while the yield of soupfins usually is about the same as in the first 6-month period.
The dogfish of the Pacific Coast of the United States is a small gray shark about 4 feet long and is closely related to the dogfish of the Atlantic Coast, the South Pacific, and the Indian Ocean. It is found from San Diego as far north as the Aleutian Islands, Before the development of the vitamin industry, fishermen generally considered it a pest because of its habit of tearing holes in their nets and also because of its voracious appetite for fish. The dogfish bears a small, sharp spine on each of the two fins on the back; it is said to use these for defense, curling up like a bow to strike. Like most other sharks, it produces fully developed young instead of depositing eggs.
Supplying the booming market for dogfish livers is a fleet enlarged by the addition of many boats normally engaged in other fisheries. Many of these boats are fishing as far north as Southeastern Alaska, and are devoting their entire time to dogfish.
During the first six months of 1944, fishermen were paid an average price of 54 cents per pound for dogfish livers, compared with 38 cents in 1943. The average price paid for souplin livers was $4.41 this year, as against $3.32 last year.
SPERM OIL RESTRICTIONS SUSPENDED
The War Food Administration has suspended until December 1, 1944, the provisions of War Food Order No. 37 which have limited the use, processing and delivery of sperm oil since early in 1943. As a result of this suspension the use of sperm oil for any purpose is allowable, but users of more than 500 pounds per month still are required to report their use to the Bureau of the Census on Form BM-1.
Until November 1943, this highly important industrial oil, produced from the sperm whale, was allocated only for the most essential war uses, principally extreme pressure lubricants and motor and engine oil additives. More liberal quantities were granted at that time for specific uses, and several months later (March 1, 1944) it was freed from allocation for use in the manufacture of lubricants or lubricant additives, cutting oils or cutting compounds, grinding oils, duplicating stencils, hectograph carbons, carbon papers, mimeograph inks and typewriter ribbon inks,
Because of an improved situation in the supply of fatty acids, the War Food Administration has terminated War Food Order No. 87 which has limited fatty acid inventories to a 60-day supply since October 23, 1943. The termination order is effective August 25, 1944.
WFO-87 was issued when fatty acid stocks were near an all-time low and limitations on the use of fats and oils without glycerine recovery were contributing to an increased demand for these acids in soaps and lubricants. Glycerine recovery limitations have since . been lifted, lessening the demand for fatty acids.
OPA SETS PRICE CEILINGS FOR MUSSEL SHELLS
Maximum prices at which diggers of mussel shells used in the production of "pearl" buttons may sell and deliver "Niggerhead" and "Sandshell" shells secured along the banks of the Tennessee and Ohio Rivers were established by the OPA on August 5, in Amdt, 159 to Rev. Supplementary Regulation 14 to General Maximum Price Regulation.
This amendment makes it clear that the maximum price set forth for "Washboard" shells applies to all types of Washboard" shells. Excerpts follow:
Revised Supplementary Regulation No. 14 is amended in the following respects:
Section 6.45 is amended to read as follows:
SEC. 6.45 Mussel shells. Diggers of mussel shells used in the production of pearl buttons may sell and deliver “Pigtoe”, “Washboard”, “Niggerhead” and "Sandshell” shells secured along the banks of the Tennessee River and Ohio River at prices not to exceed the following maximum prices:
For “Pigtoe” shells, 125% of the maximum prices established under the General Maximum Price Regulation, or $40.00 per ton, whichever is lower, f. o. b. river bank.
For all “Washboard” shells: 125% of the maximum prices established under the General Maximum Price Regulation, or $18.75 per ton, whichever is lower, f. o. b. river bank.
For “Niggerhead” shells: 125% of the maximum prices established under the General Maximum Price Regulation, or
$62.50 per ton, whichever is lower, f. o. b. river bank.
For "Sandshell” shells: 125% of the maximum prices established under the General Maximum Price Regulation, or $75.00 per ton, whichever is lower, f. o. b. river bank.
This section shall expire on December 31, 1944.
This amendment shall wecome effective
AGAR CONSERVATION ORDER REVOKED BY WPB
Stockpiles of agar, formerly dependent on supplies received exclusively from Japan, have now been improved to such an extent by newly-developed domestic production, and by imports from Mexico that restrictions on the use of agar have been removed, the WPB reported on August 14. This was accomplished by revocation of Order M-96.
Domestic production of agar was accomplished as a result of close cooperation between industry, the Division of Commercial Fisheries of the Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Chemicals Bureau of WPB. To insure fulfillment of any emergency needs for agar, a stockpile is being reserved by the Defense Supplies Corporation, a subsidiary of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation.
Foreian Fishery Trade
CANADIAN HALIBUT VESSELS PERMITTED TO LAND CATCHES IN ALASKA
The Treasury Department on August 2, issued an order waiving compliance with the provisions of Section 4311 Revised Statutes (46 U.S.C. 251) to the extent necessary, for the duration of the calendar year 1944, to permit Canadian fishing vessels engaging in the North Pacific halibut fishery only to land their catch of halibut in ports of entry in Alaska upon compliance with the applicable customs laws. It is deemed that such action is necessary in the conduct of the war.
THE FISH LIVER OIL AND FISH MEAL INDUSTRY OF SOUTH AFRICA
The entire fish liver oil industry of South Africa is in the Cape Province where three companies are engaged in the extraction of fish liver oils, according to a recent report prepared by the Office of Commercial Attache, American Legation, Johannesburg, South Africa, These three companies are all subsidiary plants of other industries--one ships its output principally to the United States, while the other two firms are under contract almost exclusively to the British Ministry of Food Supply. The largest produces approximately 3 trillion USP units of Vitamin A per year, whereas, the second extracts about 2 trillion and the third approximately là trillion per annum.
It has been computed that the livers of the stockfish caught by Union fishermen have a potential annual yield of 60,000 to 70,000 gallons of liver oil, which is equivalent in total amount of Vitamin A to between 600,000 and 700,000 gallons of medicinal cod-liver oil.
From preliminary surveys of other species of South African Pish such as the Yellowtail (Seriola lalandii), King klip-fish (Genypterus capensis), Kabeljaauw (Sciaena hololepidota), Snoek (Thyrsites atun), Geelbek (Atractoscion aequidens) and the Stone-bass (Popyprion americanus), it is clear that oils can be obtained which compare in potency with the average halibut-liver oil. Livers of sharks and dogfish produce oils which have a Vitamin A potency much in excess of that of average cod-liver oil, and these oils are now being produced commercially for veterinary and pharmaceutical purposes.
These oils find usage in numerous industries, in human and animal nutrition, and as actual food products. The present outlet may be grouped under three heads:
1. Industrial uses, in the manufacture of soap, paints, varnishes, linoleum and felt base
papers, waterproof fabrics, the tanning industry, and in insecticides.
Table III, furnished by the largest company, shows the characteristics of the fish liver oils which are at present being manufactured by that firm.
At present, there are four fish meal factories in the Union. Insufficient supplies of raw material appear to be the greatest obstacle in the development of fish meal production, There are factories at Cape Town, Mossel Bay, and other places utilizing mainly fish heads and crawf i sh scrap for the manufacture of white meal. Dark oil meals are not yet being produced since fish such as 'sardines are not caught in this area in large quantities, partly because no surveys have been made as to the richness of the small fish resources, Nevertheless, experts declare that there are ample quantities of sardines very similar to the Californian varieties and harders which are suitable for this purpose. The value of fish meal as an ingredient in foodstuffs for livestock, especially poultry and pigs, has been widely publicised, but South African farmers have not yet used this byproduct to any great extent to improve the status of animal feeding in the Union. In South Africa, very little use has been made of fish scrap as fertilizers. This is an aspect of the byproducts field which is being investigated by the Government in conjunction with the new Fishing Industry Bill.
Tables I and III from the report follow:
Table I. Principal Food Fishes of the Union of South Africa - Cape of Good Hope and Natal Provinces Natal Name
Cape Name Other Common Names Scientific Name Albacore, Yellowtail
Geel-staart, Half cord Seriola lalandii
White Barger, Red Galeichthys feliceps
Barger Barracouda, Lineolate
Scomberomorus lineolatus Katonkel Kingfish, or Natal
Diplodus rondele ti
Cape Salmon; Teraglin (Australia) Atractoscion as quidens
Caranx forsteri or carangus
Genyp terus capensis
Trachyno tus russellii Mullet: Grey and Blue tail Harder
Trachyno tus ovatus
Sardinella gibbosa Prodigal son, Runner
Lutianus argentimaculatus or
Table 1 - Principal Food Fishes of the Union of South Africa - Cape of Good Hope & Natal Provinces (Con.)
Cape Name Other Common Names Scientific Name
Le thrinus nebulosys
Dentex ar grozone
Barracouta Austra- Thyrsites atun
Various genera and species
Scorpis lithophilus Stumpnose, white
Sparus globiceps Stumpnose, red
Pagrus gibbiceps Surgeon-fish
Teu this nigrofuscus Tasselfish
Umbrina robinsoni Thread-fin
Polynemus sextarius Trigger-fish, Leather jacket
Balistes capistratus. Wrasse, Deep sea wrasse
Various genera and species of the
Diplodus cer inus
Table III Characteristics of South African Fish Liver Oils* (The figures are for the usual range of values. Extremes are indicated in brackets.) Scientific
Vitamin D Name
Percent USP Units Per Gram 1.U. Per Gram Merluccius capensis Hake, Stockfish, Cape Cod 2.0 - 3.0 11,000 - 23,750 126 - 380
(1.5-4.2) Galeorhinus canis Vaalhaai, Soupfin Shark;
1.5 - 5.5 15,000 - 75,000 Trace Tope Squalus acutipinnis. Common Cape Doglish,
7,500 - 17,500 Nil Squalus acanthias
5.5 - 12,0 18,750 - 31,250 Probably Nil Genyp terus capensis King klip-fish
2-3 12,500 - 35,000 85 - 130 Koning Klipuis
(2.0 - 3.9) Plyprion americanus Stone bass, Bafaro
5 - 36 93.750 - 687.500 650 - 1300 Sciaena bololepidota Kabeljaauw, Cob, Salmon-bass 7 - 19 68,750 - 200,000 1700 - 7000 Sarda sarda Vonito, kar tonkel, Bonito
118,750 - 312,500 40,000 Thyrsites atun Liver oil Snoek, Barracouda
2.5 - 6.0 37,500 - 300,000 500 7000
(2.2 -18.7) Visceral Oil
31,250 - 250,000 20
(4.6 -32.3) Atractoscion aequidens Geelbek, Salmon
2 - 3
53,750 - 412,500 Seriola lalandii Yellow-tail, Albacore
3 - 20
112,500 Zeus capensis Cape John Dory
2 - 3
15,000 - 50,000 Trachurus trachurus Maas banker,
7,500 -106,250 Horse-Mackerel
(2 • 27) *1,600 International Units (1.V.) equal 2,000 United States Pharmacopolla units (U.S.P.)
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL PRICES
Slight gains in the prices of fresh and frozen fish were indicated for the month ending in mid-July in reports issued by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the Department of Labor. Food and fish prices, in general, remained below the levels of 1943, however,
From mid-June, wholesale prices of all commodities and food s rose 0.2 and 0.7 percent, respectively, and retail prices of all foods gained 1.3 percent. During this period, fresh and canned and fresh and frozen fish rose 0.4 and 0.5 percent, respectively.