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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

HAROLD L. ICKES, Secretary

FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE

IRA N. GABRIELSON, Director

THE

WILDLIFE

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FISHERY MARKET NEWS

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E INTERIOR

FISH

SERVICE

A REVIEW OF CONDITIONS AND TRENDS OF THE COMMERCIAL FISHERIES
PREPARED IN THE DIVISION OF FISHERY INDUSTRIES

A. W. Anderson, Editor

C. R. Lucas, Associate Editor
TECHNOLOGY

W. H. Dumont - MARKET NEWS
STATISTICS

R. A. Kahn

MARKETING
D. Bloch

CONSUMERS

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Applications for FISHERY MARKET NEWS, which is mailed free to members of the fishery industry and allied interests, should be addressed

to the Director, Fish and Wildlife Service, United States Department of the Interior, Washington 25, D. C.

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In 1941, "Manila," abaca fiber, became a Japanese prisoner. Sisal immediately came into prominence as a substitute for Manila, but competition for shipping space and risks involved in crossing the Caribbean and South Atlantic made it necessary to look for more accessible sources of this and other hard fibers.

Hemp grown in Italy and Hungary, where abundant supplies have been obtained, is now serving the Axis. The extended fighting in Russia has greatly lessened the production of the fine hemp grown there. Jute from India has been partially cut off by action in the Orient, but recent victories in that area have resulted in a steadier supply. Flax from France and Belgium, abundant export centers still is imprisoned. Shipping space and geography have thus had a great effect on our fiber supplies. Because of their importance to the military and to essential production, these fibers were early and wisely placed under the control of the War Production Board. 1/

More Manila hemp," which does not grow near Manila and is not hemp, has been used for marine cordage during the past 100 years than all other fibers combined. When the Philippines were invaded, the loss of this material was indeed serious, but the serviceability of the substitutes and blends over the last two years and tb progress being made in new developments inspire confidence for the future,

Marine cordage, which is the classification used by fisheries, must meet the most exacting requirements. It must be not only tough, durable, and reliable, but must also be able to withstand the effects of constant salt-water immersion. It is the purpose of this article to explain briefly the origin and known characteristics of some of the fibers which now are commercially used or which give promise of successful application in the fisheries. In general, there are two types of natural long fibers from which cordage is produced.

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1. Hard or leaf fibers: These are hard and stiff and grow lengthwise through the pulpy tissues of the long leaves and the outer bark of the stems of plants found almost exclusively in the tropics. This group is used principally for cordage and coarse twine and is typified by abaca (Manila), sisal, and henequen.

2. Soft or bast fibers: These are soft and flexible, extending through the inner bark of the stems and main stalks of plants, and are used in finer twine, thread, and yarn. commercial production of soft fibers is confined to the Temperate Zone; hemp and flax grow in the cooler regions, jute and ramie in the warmer areas. Cotton is also included in this group although these short fibers are really seed hairs.

Hemp and flas were the earliest known fibers to be utilized, originating about 3000 B.C., * Technologist, stationed at Boston, Mass. 1/General Preference Order M-84, as amended October 27, 1943, War Production Board. 2/ Much of the information used here is from Fiber Production in the Western Hemisphere, by Lyster H.

Dewey, Miscellaneous Publication No. 518, V. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. c., 1943.

Page

FIGHTING FIBERS, by Frank E. Firth

2

SMOKING ANGLERFISH, SEA TROUT & SPANISH MACKEREL, by Leo Young & N. D. Jarvis.. 6

Supply of fish for 1944 forecast

Dr. Richard Kahn joins Service's staff

FRESH FISH TRADE

October landings at three New England ports 15 percent below year earlier

New York receipts in November 19 percent above a year earlier

Chicago receipts of fishery products during November show heavy increase

Gulf shrimp production for October below one year earlier

9

Large gain in Gulf production of salt-water fish in November

10

Seattle receipts in October decline from those of last year

10

November receipts in Seattle show gain over 1942

11

Reducing waste of fish in re tail stores stressed

11

FROZEN FISH TRADE

Domestic fish freezing in October comparatively lon

12

U. S. frozen fish stocks on November 1 down 1 percent from month previous 13

November freezings one third greater than October

13

Frozen fish stocks on December 1 show little change from 1942

14

November 24 cold-storage holdings in Boston 18 percent below last year 14

New York cold-storage holdings increase during November

15

Chicago freezer holdings show upward trend during November

15

November fish freezings in Canadian plants drop one third from October total. 16

34 million pounds of frozen fish in Canadian plants on December 1

16

Tests of frozen ready-cooked fish dishes in progress

17

CANNED AND CURED FISH TRADE

November shrimp pack continues decline below previous season

.. 17

1943 tuna and mackerel packs at end of October lead 1942 .

1943 tuna and mackerel pack above 1942 in first eleven months

18

California sardine pack continues decline in November

19

FOREIGN FISHERY TRADE

Chile produces 71,017,000 pounds of fish and shellfish in 1942

19

Fish catch in Chilean waters in 1942 below 1941

19

Purchases of fishery products by FDA in October $14,304,123

20

November purchases of fishery products by FDA $8,343,776

21

STATISTICAL SUMMARY

Wholesale and retail prices

22

Trends of fishery trade

Inside back cover

Fishery trade indicators

Outside back cover

the furnishing of electricity, gas, light, heat, power or water otherwise than by a public utility.

Revised Maximum Price Regulation No. 165 (Services) becomes effective August 1, 1944, except for Alaska where it goes into effect September 1, 1944.

WFA NET WEIGHTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS FOR FISHERY PRODUCTS SUMMARIZED

The fishery commodities listed in Sections A and B of the War Food Administration's booklets on Conversion Factors and Weights and Measures for Agricultural Commodities and Their Products are included in the following tabulations, Section A, Conversion Factors, is composed primarily of factors used to convert food supplies and requirements into the units used in making allocations. These were developed by the Statistics Division of Requirements and Allocations Control from various sources throughout the WFA, particularly the commodity branches of FDA. Section B, Net Content Weights of Specified Containers, was developed by the Transportation and Warehousing Branch and represents the packaging and net weights of commodities as approved by the commodity branch responsible for their procurement.

Table 1--Relations Between Various Specification Weightse/

Factors for converting to
Round
Reported

Dressed Edible Specification

weight:b/ weight weight weight
1
2

4
FRESH AND FROZEN FISH:
Not packaged
Tresh fish, domestic production:
Round weight ....

1.00 1.00

.70 .50 Dressed weight

1.428

1,00

.714 Edible weight .......

2.00

1.40

1.00 Trozen fish, domestic production and imports, fresh and frozen: Round weight ...

1.00 .85

.70 .50 Reported weight

1.176 1.00

.823

.588 Dressed weight

1.214

1.00

.714 Edible weight

1.70

1.40

1.00 Packaged Round weight

1.00
.35

.35 Packaged weight

2.857
1.00

1.00
SHULLFISH, FRESH AND FROZEN:
Not packaged shrimp, crab, lobster, abalone, squid, etc.:
Reported weight

1.00

.41 Edible weight

. 2.439

1.00 Packaged, including fresh shucked oysters, clams, scallops, mussels, etc. : Reported weight

1.00

1.00 CURED FISH, ALL TYPESA/: Round weight

1.00
.667

.50 Reported weight (cured weight)

1.50 1.00

.75 Edible weight

2.00 1.333

1.00 al Factors are for specified groups and are not applicable to individual species.

Weight of fish as removed from water.
Production and imports as reported to the Fish and Wildlife Service of the Dept. of the Interior

and the U. S. Tariff Commission, a Rough approximations.

Commodity Clams Oysters

Table 2--Net Content Weight Per Gallon of Specified Shellfish

Lbs. per gal. Commodity

8.5 Scallops
8.5

Shrimp, fresh cooked

Lbs. per gal.

9.0 5.0

Table 3-- Miscellaneous Factors 1 pound of dry-salted cod, haddock, hake, pollock, or cusk is equivalent to the following: 1.75 pounds green-salted

1.33 pounds pickled, filleted 1.50 pounds semi-dried

85 pounds inboneless" and "absolutely boneless"

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Table 4--Factors for Obtaining Retail Weightsa/fron Weights at wbuh Allocations are Made

Commodity

Allocation weight
specification

1

Factor

2

Fish:
Fresh and frozen fish ..

Edible weight

6/1.00 Shellfish, fresh and frozen

Edible weight

1.00 Cured fish

Cured weight Factors used for evaluating nutrients, Factor for obtaining edible weight from dressed weight is .50. Factor for obtaining dressed weight from round weight is .70.

1.00

..

448

Net Content Weights of Specified containers--Special Commodities Branch (Cont.)

Size and/or type

Net weight Commodity

of container

in pounds 1

2 Fish, Cured Dry Salt, Pickléd and Smoked

Half drum

64 Druim

128 Cusk, Dry Salt

Drum

112 Codfish, Dry Salt

Bor

100 Haddock, Dry Salt

Box

112 Hake, Dry Salt

Barrel

224 Shark, Fillets, Dry Salt

Half barrel

112 Half cask

224 Cask Tierce

300 Alewives, Salted Pickled

Barrel

200 Barrel

250 Alewives, Smoked ...

Box

18 Blue Runners, Salted

Barrel

250 Barrel

300 Boni to Fillets, Salted Pickled

Box (Approx.)

430 , Cod Fillets, Pickled, Skin on: Large

Barrel

240 Medium

Barrel

250 Small

Barrel

260 Codfish, Boneless, Salted

Case

30 Haddies, Smoked Finnan

Case

50 Herring, Brined Split

Barrel

200 Barrel

225 Herring, Smoked Bloater

Box

18 Mullet, Pickled

Barrel

300 Pilchards, Salted

Kit

45 Barrel

125 Salmon, Pickled

Barrel

200 MISCELLANEOUS PRODUCTS Feeding Oil

55-gal, drum

412.5 54-gal, drum

405 Fish Meal ..

100-lb. bag

100 VITAMIN PRODUCTS Fish Liver Oil (Vitamin A Conc.

Indicate in U.S.P. millions of units Fish Liver Oil (vitamin A and D)

Indicate in U.S.P. millions of units, broken down as to "A" and "D", 7.5 lbs. to 7.7 lbs. per gallon depending on potency.

Fish Oil (Fats and Oils Branch)

Tank car

Approx. 60,000

in oz.

42

48

Net Content Weights of Specified Containers--Special Commodities Branch

Net weight

Size and/or type Per canPer case Commodity

of container

in lbs, 1

2
Fish and Sea Food, Canned
Bonito, Tuna, and Yellowtail:
Flaked or Grated

48/4's or 3072113

6 18 487*'s or 3072113

19.5 48/i's or 401x206

12

36 Standard and Fancy

.....
4871's or 307113

7

21 48/i's or 401x206 13

39 48's or 211,109

10.5 Clams, Canned

48/7's

21 48/1's picnic

31.5 Flaked Fish, Canned

24/1's or 300x407

14

21 48/1's or 300x407

15 45 48/i's or 300x407 14 48/1-16.

16 Ground Fish, Canned: Garfish

48/1's or 300x407 Manbaden

14 42 Trash (Spots, Whiting, Trouts)

48/1's or 300x409 15 45 Menbaden

24/2's

20

30 Pilchards

6/10's' or 603x407 104 39 Herring, Canned: Round or Oval Dans

24/1's or 300-407 14

21 24/1's or 300x407 15 22.5 24/95's

17

25.5 24/18-oz.

18 27 48/1's or 300x407 14 42 48/1's or 300,407

15

45 Canned Kippered

100/4's

20.3125 48/4's

37 9.75 12/12-oz.

12

9 Meckerel Canned (East or West Coast)

24/1's or 300

14

2 24/1's or 300

15 22.5 24/1's or 300

16

24 48/1's or 300

14 42 48/i's or 300

15 45 48/1's or 300

16 Miscellaneous Canned Fish: Cod Fish Cakes

12/10-02.

10

7.5 Salt Mackerel Fillets

12/12-oz.

12

9 Menbaden

48/1's or 300x407 15 45 Squid

48/1's or 300x407 15 45 Oysters ..

48/1's picnic

105 31.5 Pilchards, Canned

100/5-oz.

31.25 96/£'s buffet or oblong 48/1's tall or 300 15 45 48/1's oval

15 45 Salmon, Canned (Alaska): Columbia River and Puget Sound

48A-1b. flat or oval

11,25 96/4-1b. flat or ovel

22.5 Puget Sound

48/1-1b. flat or oval

22.5 Columbia River

4872-1b. flat or oval

23.25 Alaska

*48/1-1b. flat

24 Continental U. S.

48/i's tall or oval

48 Alaska ..

48/1's tall or flat 16 Continental U. S.

48/1's flat

15 Sardines, Canned

100's

20.3125 1007's

21.875 48/7's

9

27 48/2's

10

30 48/7's oblong

8 24 247300x407

14 24/300x407

15 22.5 48/1's oval

15 45 Sardines, Canned (Fillets)

48/1's oblong

8

24 Shrimp, Canned - Wet Pack

48/i's picnic

7

21 Shrimp, Canned Dry Pack

48/1's picnic

6 19.5

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