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Al though the tests summarized in this report were limited by the quantity available for trial, it is indicated that hemp sal cordage, made up of East African sisal and domestic hemp in the proportions of 70 to 30, or 50 to 50, respectively, will be fairly dependable for general fishing purposes. Hempsal has been found second to manila and superior to straight African sisal cordage in tensile strength, abrasion resistance, flexibility, and durability. Production of this mixed fiber cordage, in the proportion of 10 percent Am. hemp and 90 percent sisal, is scheduled for the latter half of 1944 and is expected to be available to the fishing industry within a few months.



Continuing the upward trend begun last year, production in the major U. S. fisheries made encouraging increases during the first six months of 1944 as compared with 1943, although catches of a few important species are lagging behind last year's figures, the OCF reported on July 26.

A survey of production, just completed shows that although landings of California pilchards, Pacific mackerel, and shrimp are smaller, than last year, these losses are more than counterbalanced by increases in the production of California tuna, landings at New England ports, and the pack of Maine sardines.

Since the first six months normally account for only a fourth of the year's total landings, the fishing industry still has ample time to increase the present lead over 1943 production,

Landings of fresh fish at the major New England ports--Boston, Gloucester, New Bedford, and Portland, are substantially larger than last year, totaling 207,215,000 pounds or a 16 percent gain over last year's production of 178,989,000 pounds. By the end of June, Gloucester had received 80,356,000 pounds of fish and shellfish, compared with Boston's 75,720,000, New Bedford' 8 43,827,000, and Portland's 7,312,000 pounds. Landings at Gloucester and New Bedford increased about 33 percent over last year, while Boston's receipts were 5 percent less, and Portland also showed a small decline.

The California tuna Pishery, enjoying its best year since 1940, furnishes one of the most important increases. Landings during the first six months were 50 percent larger than last year, totaling 52,948,000 pounds, while the canned pack reached 1,149,370 cases, a gain of 61 percent.

Less successful than the tuna industry, the Pacific mackerel fishery is having a relatively poor year. Landings amounted to 7,868,000 pounds for the first half of the year, as against 9,007,000 in 1943. The canned pack showed a corresponding decrease: 84,982 cases compared with 95,799.

The Maine sardine industry has already packed 1,110,000 cases, or an increase of 35 percent over its production of canned fish last year. A considerable quantity of the sardines packed in Maine canneries is imported from Canada.

In the Gulf area, shrimp and oysters declined while crabs made important gains. Because of labor difficulties and a scarcity of shrimp, production in the important shrimp fishery is 28 percent behind last year, with 73,340 barrels landed as against 101,738 in 1943. Oysters fell from 689,491 barrels to 459,306; while crabs increased from 3,796,000 pounds to 5,115,000.

The Pacific Coast pilchard fishery, which alone produces a fourth of the total poundage taken by U. s. fishermen, is inactive from April through July in California, the center of the fishery. From January through March, however, production amounted to 81,417 tons, or a decline of 8 percent compared with the same period in 1943. Fishing for pilchards will be resumed from northern California ports on August 1,

Fresh fish came into New York's wholesale markets in some what greater quantity than last year, totaling 126,487,000 pounds compared with 113,579,000. On the other hand, in Chicago, most important inland market for fish, receipts declined from 39,735,000 pounds last year to 33,915,000. The scarcity of shrimp and the late opening of the halibut season were probably important reasons for the decline, for these two prodưcts normally outrank all others in volume of sales in Chicago,

Total production by all fisheries last year was approximately 4,000,000,000 pounds, and it is hoped that the yield may reach 4,300,000,000 in 1944. Although the fishing fleet is approaching its pre-war size through new construction and the return of many vessels requisitioned by the Army and Navy, lack of sufficient manpower to operate boats and shore plants, as well as inadequate refrigeration, have hampered production.


The War Manpower Commission Priority Referral Program which became effective July 1, is designed to benefit industries which are most vital to the Nation's war effort. The order which established this program requires that male labor with few exceptions be hired through the U.S. Employment Service, The application of this program will vary considerably from one local area to another because of the recognized need for flexibility in considering location of employment, types of essential production, and administrative factors.

The priority program sets up the relative importance of industries and plants for the guidance of U. S. Employment Service personnel in referring workers to jobs. Commercial fishing is one of the industries which can benefit from the application of this program. Employers in the fishing industry should take all necessary action to see that they secure the maximum benefit obtainable under this program, In order to secure such benefits each commercial fishing producer and manufacturer of fishery products should:

Apply for a priority rating at his nearest local office of the United States Employment Service. It should be borne in mind that the awarding of a priority rating is not automatic merely because the industry is essential, The United States Employment Service local offices will be in a position to inform employers of the conditions which must be met by the employer in order to obtain and hold a priority rating.

When filing application for priority rating, the employer should indicate the number of workers be currently needs or anticipates he will need in the near future. Any change in numbers of workers needed should be made known to the United States Employment Service Office,

The employer should discuss with the local United States Employment Service office the practical aspects, with respect to his production, of the requirements of the War Manpower Commission order. If it is not practical for hiring to be limited solely through the United States Employment Service, the employer should request authority to continue his own recruitment of workers, subject to such conditions or limitations on direct hiring as may have been found necessary in the particular locality. It is possible for the employer to continue his own recruitment of workers and still receive benefits from the application of the War Manpower Commission order.

Under certain conditions, communities may be exempt from this order. However, it would not be to the best advantage of the commercial fishing industry employer to have his community exempt, especially if the employer has obtained priority rating and permission to hire his workers direct.

The Area Coordinators are empowered to appear before the Area or State Manpower Priorities Committee whenever matters in which the fishery industries are interested are under consideration,

Whenever manpower problems of nation-wide importance will arise or whenever interregional recruitment requests will be discussed, in which the fishery industries are interested, the Coordinator of Fisheries will present the data and demands of the industries before the National Committee.


The Office of the Coordinator of Fisheries announced on July 12, that, with few exceptions, it will not approve applications for priorities for the construction of any additional fishing vessels during the remainder of the year. Construction of fishing vessels during the first half of the year has been so accelerated, Dr. Ira N. Gabrielson, Deputy Coordinator, said, that the materials originally estimated for the entire year of 1944 have been greatly depleted. The action was necessary to keep the vessel construction program at the level approved by the WPB. Since materials were made available by the WPB a year

OCF has recommended priorities for the construction of 1,029 vessels.


"When vessels now under construction or approved have been completed," Dr. Gabrielson said, "and with the addition of requisitioned vessels which are now being returned by the Navy in increasing numbers, the u, s, fishing fleet will be substantially at its pre-war size, although there will be a deficit in certain categories of vessels."

The OCF will not apply to the War Production Board for authorization of additional materials beyond that already programmed for the rest of the year, the Deputy Coordinator said, for the reason that manpower shortages, lack of shore facilities, and inadequate refrigeration are already acting as brakes upon the production of the fisheries in many areas.

In four categories, applications will still be considered.

They are:

1. Applications that have already been submitted to the Office of the Coordinator of

Fisheries, but have not yet been acted on;

2. Requests for increase in previous allotments;

3. Bona fide emergency or hardship cases, such as the loss (not sale) of a boat which

is the owner's means of a livelihood;

4. Applications that are intended to authorize a production schedule and preference

rating only, without allotment of materials, or small projects of the Mackyard"
type where the owner does his own building, and little or no material allotment
is required.



Further restrictions have been placed on the use of manila Piber to conserve available supplies of this critical fiber, the War Production Board reported on July 6.

Amendments, issued June 28, 1944, to Conservation Order M-84, provide for a 25 percent reduction in manila processing quotas. Commencing July 1, 1944, cordage manufacturers may process manila rope only for the 10 end uses listed in the Cordage End Use List of the order. The permitted end uses are life-saving equipment used aboard Great Lakes, coastwise and ocean-going ships, and cables, crackers and torpedo lines required to meet the program for increased drilling of oil and gas wells.

The amount of manila allocated for these uses possibly will be sufficient to meet minimum requirements, WPB said. However, if these requirements during the third quarter exceed the amount allocated for these end uses, it will be necessary to use sisal rope as a substitute for manila rope.

Operators of commercial fishing boats, harbor and river tugs, ferries, barges and lighters will be required to use sisal rope because processing quotas do not include any manila rope for the se users. The permitted end uses for rope are included in Schedule A and for twine in Schedule B. (See following pages for Schedules A and B.)

The fishery cordage end uses permitted under the series of M-84 orders have varied considerably, according to a recent report of Frank E. Firth, a Service technologist conducting cordage studies in New England. Previous orders permitted more liberal use of this fiber in the fishing industry. The October 1943 order allowed 23 end uses, while that of April 1944 permitted 20 uses. In May 1943, however, only one end use was permitted in the order issued at that time.

The increase in the uses of manila for our fisheries between October 1943 and July 1944 was due to the WPB's recognition of the great need which the Fish and Wildlife Service pointed out existed for dependable cordage in fishery uses where life or valuable property would be at stake if ropes made of an inferior fiber were substituted. Increases were granted on the strength of reports which indicated that an increased supply of manila fibers was expected

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Bell rope.




Anchor buoy spar rope..

A rope used to steady a spar projecting from the side of a vessel.... Anchor lines-submerged Fishing A line used to fix the position of stationary gear such as pounds or trap nets, sykes, and anchored gar.

gill nets. Anchor lines-sea plane...

The anchor rode of a sea plane.... Anchor rodes...

See anchor lines. Anchor lines-vessel.

A line used to connect the anchor chain and the vessel. Anchor lines-small ships.

The lines carried on small ships for anchoring... Anchor lines--sea anchor...

A rope attached to a canvas sea anchor used to retard the progress of a small boat or lise raft.. Antenna rope...

A rope used for raising or lowering radio antennae for maintaining tension on antenna.. Auxiliary line-Lyle gun..

A 3" circ. hawser-drawn to or from a vessel by means of a whip line and which is used to support

a breeches buoy. Awning rope....

Rope for reinforcing and securing awning in place Awning rope.

A small sized rope used to hoist or lower an awning. Backbone

The rope stitched to the back of the middle of an awning and to which the crows foot is spliced. Backhaul rope.

The rope to haul back a hoisting tackle when it is not heavy enough to return by gravity. Backhaul rope-boom.

A rope used for hauiing in the sounding boom aboard vessels. Bale rope

A heavy wrapping twine for securing large bales or bundles. Barrel chimes.

A special type of sling used only to hoist fuel drums aboard ship where rope is passed through

eyes at each end of drum; hoists 4 drums at a time. Band line..

See Guard rope.. Beckett...

A rope eye or grommet used for the hook of a block. Beckett-Sprit sail

A small piece of rope with an eye spliced in each end to hold the end of a sprit to the mast. Becket-Handle.

See Handles... Becket rowlock

A rowlock formed of a rope grommet secured over a throle pin in a sailing launch.. Beckets-Steering wheel.

Used for lashing the wheel of a trawler when running on a fixed course. Beckets-Trawl lines..

A short loop inserted at regular intervals in the ground line to provide fastening for the spell

or ganging.

A small hand rope suspended or attached to a bell and used for the purpose of ringing the bell. Belly lines-Otter trawl...

Ropes running from the head or foot line to the cod end and seized to the scams joining the top

side and bottom sections of the net. Their purpose is to reinforce the net. Belt shifter rope...

Frequently used on machinery as a medium of shifting belt drive from idler pulley to driving

pulley and vice versa. Berth bottoms.

A network of rope fashioned inside a frame which constitutes the bottom of the berth.. Bight line...

A line used to support a heavy line at the bight... Boat line.

A line used to tend boats when coming alongside. Bobstay.

A rope or chain preventing the bowsprit from jumping and leading from the end of the bow.

sprit to the vessel's stem. Boisch iine.

A line lashed to the foot rope on which the bottom section of the otter trawl is hupg... Bolt rope Sail.

A rope to which a sail is sewed to reinforce the sail and maintain its shape. The efficient action

of a sail depends on the strength and stretching characteristics of the rope both when it is

wet and dry. Boom lift (Fishing vessels)..

A line rove through tackle blocks attached to the mast and boom. It is used to adjust the

angle at which the boom is inclined from the mast and must support the load applied to the

fall lines. Boom-out haul line..---

A line used to hold the boom away from the amidships when men are working and as a stop to

prevent sudden gusts of wind from unsuspected directions, causing the boom to fly over and

strike men in the boat.. Boring machine rope....

A rope used to clean inside of large caliber gun barrels after being bored or filed... Bos'n's chair rope.

The rope to which is suspended a piece of board on which a man working aloft is swung and

used to raise or lower or support man. Bottom line.

See Hanging Rope---Fishing Industry.. Bow lines..

See mooring lines. A line used in mooring or docking to check the vessel from going astern.

Line is led forward through bow check making an angle of less than 45o to the keel. Braces.

The ropes to control the horizontal movement of the yards. Brails.

Ropes used for surling fore and aft sails such as spanker to the mast. Can be foot-throat

or peak braiis. Brailer lifting rope....

A line rove, singly, through a block attached near the outer end of the boom, or suspended

from a pennant between two masts, or a mast and a suitable point on the vessel Used for

various hoisting purposes. Breast line.

See mooring lines. "A line used in mooring or docking vessels and runs at rightangles to keel

and dock. Breast line-30 to 50 ton booms. A stay or gụy used to prevent swinging of boom when lifting heavy load... Breast lines--Pile drive (Fishing). These lines lead from the sides of pile drivers to anchors and control the position of a pile driver

with reference to a definite area in which piling must be spotted for a fish trap. Breast line--Sea Planc and Flying Control surge of seaplane when moored or anchored....

Breast line-Seines & Trawls....... l'sually the breast line is formed by continuing the lead and cork lines vertically at the ends o!

the net and splicing them near the bottom. Its purpose is to prevent the weight of the lead

line from tearing the netting and to take the towing strain on the net. Breast purse line....

A line passed through rings attached to the breast line of a purse seine and fastened near the

lead line. Power is applied to this line to purse the end of the net and lift it clear of the

purse line. Bridles-Seines, submerged traps and A length of line connected to the float and bottom lines of seines and submerged traps and gill gill pets.

nets, the approximate midpoint being attached to an anchor line. Bucket ropes.

A rope attached to a bucket and used to raise or lower the bucket... Bull rope.

A rope working through a hull's eye, especially one used in securing a light yard of mast... Bull ropes..

Oil well and gas drilling-A rope 27 10 3" diam, in lengths 80% to 120 long with eye splices in

cach end; used to transmit power in grooved pulleys from engine to bull wheel. (A bull wheel
is a large reel, with grooved pulleys attached on which are wound cables for drilling or cleaning

out wells.) Bumper rope.

A rope secured to the outside of the gunwale of a small boat and used as a permanent bumper.. Bumpers...

Bumpers are usually made of old rope, the poorer sections used as Alling and the covering made

by lacing a'strand over the filling. New strand is sometimes required for this purpose. Buntlines..

The lines used to haul the foot of a sail above and forward of the yard for convenience in surling..
Buoy lide--fog towing..

See Tow line-Towing spar ..
Buoy line-deep water fishery. A line connecting a surface buoy and the trawl line and the anchor on the bottom
Buoy line-halibut fishery.

Same as above..
Buoy line-shallow water fishery Same as above..

(50 and less). Burton rope (below 3" circ.).

A type or part of a cargo fall- a cargo fall is a rope used in uploading and loading vessels. Burton rope (3" circ. & larger).

Same as above... Busy lines...

See buoy lines.. Caisson ropes

See hoisting ropes. Cable laid ropes used for hoisting. Calf rope.

See bull rope. A small size bull rope. Car puller rope.

A rope, either plain or cable laid used for moving railway cars along an industrial sidingL'arriage rope..

See mill carriage rope... asing lines.

Rope used in pulling "casing" out of oil wells. Cathead lines.

Oil well and gas drilling-a rope not smaller than 1/4" diam. used around a drilling rig in oil

and gas drilling for hoisting tools, pipe, etc., by means of power driven capstan. Catljdes.

Same as Cathead lines.
Chinese shrimp bag-Net lines. The lines used by ibe Chinese shrimp bagnet ishing industry generally confined to San Fran.

cisco Bay.
Indicates end use related to fishing industry.







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Dip rope.








The ropes running angularly from the hammock surface to the ring or other fitting whereby the

hammock is supported. Clew line-Sail.

A type of lashing rope used to secure the hem rope of a sail to the mast of a small boat... Clothesline..

A rope approximately 44" diam. used as a drying line... Cod end rope.

This line is passed through the last ineshes or rings attached to the fish bag opening and serves

to close and open the fish bag or cod end. Cod line..

See cod end rope.. Cod lines.

Small sized lines, generally lightly tarred, used for ground fishing .. Come alongs.

Ropes used in the mining industry for emergency stretching of wire ropes. Compressor pull back.

See chain compressor fall.. Concluding line.

A small rope rove through the middle of the steps of a Jacob's ladder.
Construction Rigging Rope (below Used in construction of new machinery and repairs to existing machinery or equipment. Also
1" diam.)

for the maintenance of existing and construction of new structures, including power lines and
coinmunications systems. In shipyards, for uses in building of yards; construction of new

hulls and the repair of existing vessels. Construction Rigging Rope (1" diam. Same as above.

and over). Cork line..

See Float line. Crab line..

Usually a 316" to 44" soft laid rope used as the bait line by inserting bait between strands in the

crab fishing industry. Crackers...

A short length of fiber drilling cable used in conjunction with a wire drilling cable affording Yes....

spring or elasticity to the wire line. Generally 248" diam. and larger. Cringle

A piece of rope splined into an eye over a thimble in the bolt of a sail. Davit rope.

See Falls... Decorticator rope.

The endless rope used in certain types of Aber decorticating machines for holding the leaves for

stripping. Derrick lines..

See hoisting rope.. Dogsled-Gang line.

Main line to which dog harnesses are fastened when pulling a sled..

Usually 7'' circ. rope used in connection with clearing a foul ehain aboard ship. Dock lines.

See Mooring lines. Dory list..

See Falls-Lifeboat. * Down bauls-Pounds and traps. A line

passing around a windlass and trap or pound, and through an eye fastened to a pile, or suspended to a weighted chain, for the purpose of raising or lowering the trap spillers, for

brailing, or fishing. The bottom of the spiller is attached to the down haul. Down hau.

See Hoisting Rope-Sail.... Drag ropes-Shrimp..

Ropes used to drag a trawl on shrimp fishing boats. Drag ropes-Trawls.

Ropes used in small Ashing boats not equipped with drums for wire cables. Dragging rope.....

A rope generally attached to a hook 01 one variety or another and used to locate and recover

objects lying on the bottom of a body of water. Draw line...

See Cod end rope. Dressing lines.

The lines used in the display of national colors (flars) at all mastheads and the flagstaff aboard

ships. Drist line-Gill net fishing..

A line by which the net is secured to the boat wbile drifting.. Drilling cables-gas wells (2" diam. Used for operating the tools in "cable tool" drilling

Yes... and larger). Drilling cables- oil wells (" diam. Used for operating the icol: in "cable tool" drilling..

Yes..... and above). Drilling cables, water wells... Used on portable machine: for drilling water wells. Usually made in size 1/4" diam. 10 1%"

diam. inc. Drilling cables-quarry and mining. Used on drilling machines for drilling blast holes. Usual sizes 1%" diam. to 2' diam. incl.. Drop hammer rope..

In aircraft and auto industry used to raise the drop hammer for forming metal parts. Dumbwaiter hand rope..

The rope used for operating a dumbwaiter.. Earing-...

A shori piece of rope secured to a cringle for hauling out the cringle. Easing out line.

A line used in clearing hawse and in mooring for easing out a chain which has been unshackled.. Eelpot Rope

See Buoy line... Electric coil Aller...

A rope filler in double deck coils for securing insulation, used principally in electric traction

motors. Electric Linemen's Rope...

Used by linemen on high voltage work as a general utility line.... Elevator Rope..

A hoisting rope which supports an elevator..... Elevator Pull Rope...

A rope used to stop and start power of a power driven elevator; : Iso a hand rope to raise or

lower a hand powered elevator. Elevator Gatı Rope...

A rope attached to a gate or door ant attached 10 counterbalance to facilitate operation of

gate. Emergency Line-Bristo Bay Gill An emergency all-purpose ine used by Bristol Bay Fish-rmen..

Net Boats.
Exccution rope.

A rope used to carry out the death sentence of a court..
Falls-Acconimodation ladder.. A rope used to lower, hoist or support a ship's ladder or pilot's ladder over to side of a vessel.
The hoisting rope used to raise and lower ammunition.


T'he tackle used for hoisting an anchor to the deck, usually used in connection with davits.. Falls-Awning tackle...

See awning rope..--Falls-Boat....

A rope used, generally in conjunction with a pair of davits to raise or lower small boats, other

than lifeboats. Falls-- Boom tackle (fishing vessels).. A tackle attached near the outer end of the booni or suspended from a pendant attached to one

orttwo masts or a pendant between the mast and a suitable point on the vessel. Falls--Cargo (below 3'' circ.).

A 3 or 4 strand rope used in loading or discharging cargoes......
Falls-Cargo (3'' circ and larger). Same as above.
Falls-Chain compressor...

A rope used to check the speed and direction of the anchor chain.

A 3 or 4 strand hard laid rope used in discharging coal cargoes. Falls--Flagstaff.

See Halyard-flag and signal. Falls--Fishing dory.

See Falls-lifeboat... Falls--F. 0. Ilose Davit.

Rope used to raise, lower or otherwise handle fuel oil hose for refueling vessels. Falls--Kingpost..

See topping list fall Falls-Lifeboat...

A rope used generally in conjunction with a pair of davits, used to raise or lower lifeboats wbicb Yes.

contain people. * Falls Purse boat.....

A pair of tack les suspended from davits used ti raise and lower the purse boats and seine which

weigh about 5 tons. Falls, Powder tank. Used in handling powder tanks (lowering and hoisting)....

Yes. Falls-Topping lift (below 78" diame. The falls used for raising and lowering the boom..

ter). Falls-Topping list (if" dia. or larger). Same as above.. Falls-Ventilation.

Rope for adjusting windsails (ventilators) in position. Fenders...

See bumpers. Fire escape rope.

Rope used for fire escape in hotel rooms, etc., not connected with outside stairways. Fisherman's cable.

See anchor lines. Cable laid rope, sometimes tarred, for use off the fishing banks for anchor line. Fisb bag release line..

See cod end rope... Float line-Fyke Dets.

The floatline is used to support the leader netting of fyke nets.. Float line-Gill nets....

A line to which the corks or floats are attached and supports the nettingFloat line-Haul seine..

The line which contains the floats and is used to float a haul seine.
Float line Otter trawls..

The main line to which the top petting of an otter trawl is attached.
Float line Purse seines and ring nets. The buoyed line to which the top of the petting is hung....
Float line-Submerged gill net. A buoyed line which supports the webbing..
Foot rope-Otter trawl.

The main bottom line of a trawl to which the foot rope banging line is secured. "Bolsch'

weigbt and roller line may also be attached. *Indicates end use related to fishing industry.





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