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Table showing the Decrements of Life (equalized for each Period of

Ten Years) with the Number of the Living at all Ages, among the Members of the Society of Friends resident in London and Middlesex, from the 3rd of January 1795 to the 2nd of March 1812.

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Under 1 1468 224 34 799 10 68 356 25
1 1244 79 35 789

10 69 331 25
2 1165 43 36 779 10 70 306 25
3 1122 30 37 769 0

281

25
1092 21 38 759 10 72 256 25
5 1071
39 749

73 231 24 6 1057

12

40 739 10 74 207 7 1045

41 729 10 75 184 21 8 1035 10 42 719 10 76 16.

20 9 1025 9 43 709 10 77 143

18 10 1016 9

44 699 10. 78 125
1007
8 45 689 10

79 109 14
12 999
46 679 10 80

95 13
13
991 7 47 669 10

81.
82

12 14 984 7 48 659 10 82

70

12 15 977 8 49 649 11 83 58

11 16 969 8 50 638 11 84

47 10 17 961 8 51 627 12 85

37

9 18 953

52
615 12 86 28

8
945
53 603 12

20

7
20
936

9
54 591 12 88

13

5
21
927

9
55
579 13

89
8

3
22
918 9
56 566 13 90

5

1
23 909
10 57 553 13

91
4

1 24 899 10 58 540 13

3
25
889
10 59 527 .14

2

1 26 879 10. 60 513 14 27. 869 10 61 499

15

Totals 57560 1468
28 859 10 62 484 17
29
10 63 467

19
30
839 | 10

64 448 | 21
31

829 10 65 427 23 32 819 10

404

24 33 809 10

380

24 The result of the whole may be thus expressed :--Half of the born in the first table live to the age of 57 years—in the second table to 43 years—in the third table to 40 years.

Dr. Price informs us that half of the born live in London to 2 years—in the Pays de Vaud to 41 years—in a country parish in Brandenburg to 254 years-in the parish of Holy Cross (near Shrewsbury), to 27 years—in Vienna to 2 yearsin Berlin to 2ỉ years.

The proportion of persons who arrive at 80 years of age is in the first table l. in 81-in the second table 1 in 9-in the third table 1 in 134 in the Pays de Vaud 1 in 211-parish in Brandenburg 1 in 221-Holy Cross 1 in 11---London Tin 40-Vienna i in 41---Berlin 1 in 37.

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Table showing the Expectation of Life at every Age, as deduced from

the Registers of the Society of Friends residing in London and Mid-
dlesex, from the London Bills of Mortality, by Simpson), and from
a Register of Mortality at Northampton, by Dr. Price.
Friends Bills of Northamp.

Friends Bills of Northamp. Age. Register. Mortality Register. | Age. Register. Mortality Register. at birth 38.5

19.2 25 2 48 20.5 16.7 19.
1 44.5 27. 32.7 49 20. 16.3 18.5
2 46.5 32. 37.8 50 19.5 16. 18.
3. 47.5
395 51 18.5

15.6

17.5
47.5 35.6 40.6 52 18. 15.2 17.
5 47.5 36. 41. 53 17.5 14.9 16.5
6 47.

36. 41. 54 16.5 14.5 16.
7

46.5 35.8 41. 55 16. 14.2 15.6
8 46. 35.6 40.8 56 15.5 13.8

15.1
45.5
9

35.2 40.4 57 15. 13.4 14,6
10 45. 34.8

39.8 58 14. 13.1 14.1 11 44.5 34.3 39.1 59

13.5 12.7 13.7 12 44. 33.7 385 60

13. 12.4 13.2 13 43. 33.1 37.8

12.

12. 12.7
14 42.5 32.5 37.2 62 11.5 11.6 12.3
15 415 31.9 36.5 63 il. 11.2 11.8
16

31.3 35.8 64 10,5 10.8 113
17
405 30.7

35.2
65 9,5 10.5

109
39.5 30.1 34.6

9. 101 10,4 39

29.5 34. 67 8.5 9.8 10. 20 38.5 28.9

33.4 68 8. 21 38. 28.3 32.9

69 8.

9.
22 37. 27 7
324 | 70 7.5

8.6
23 36.5

27.2 31.9 71 7. 8.4 8.2
24
36.

26.6 31.4 72 7. 8.1 7.7
25 35.5 26.1 30.8 73

6.5 7.8 7.3
26 34.5 25.6

30.3
74

7.5

6.9 27 34. 25.1 29.8 75

6. 7.2 6.5 33.5 24.6 29.3 76

5.5

-6.2
29 33.
24.1 28.8

77
5.5

6.4 5.8
30
32,5 23.6 28.3

78 5. 6. 5.5
3! 31.5 23.1 27.7 79

5. 5.5 5.1 32 | 31.

27.2

80 4.5 5. 4.7
30 5
22.3 26.7 81

4.4
30.
21.9
26.2 82 3.5

4.1
35 29. 21 5 25.7 83 35

3.8 36 28.5 21.1 25.2

84 3.

3.6
28. 20.7

24.6 85
2.5

3.4
38 27. 20.3

24.1
86 2.5

3.2
39
26.5 19.9 23.6 87 2.5

3.
40 26.
19.6 23.1

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Let us

The connection of longevity with wealth may not at first sight be quite apparent; but a little consideration will render it plain. Out of a fixed number of persons, the more aged and middle-aged there are, the fewer in youth and infancy; therefore the less the proportion of those unable to maintain themselves. suppose that a child is able to earn its own living at the age of fifteen, and not before. Now from the third of the above tables it appears that out of 57.566 persons*, members of the Society of Friends in London and its neighbourhood, 16.321 would consist of children under the age of fifteen, and 41.245 of that age and upwards. Or, in round numbers, that out of 1000 persons, 283 would be below fifteen, and 717 above. On the other hand, in Dr. Price's table of the probabilities of life, as deduced from the bills of mortality from 1771 to 1780, it may be seen that out of 572.781 persons, 210.472 consist of children under fifteen, and 362.309 above. In round numbers 367 and 633 out of 1000 persons. We may thus calculate the larger share which the former are enabled to coinnand of the necessaries and conveniences of life : Earnings of 358 men at 14s. per week each £250 12 0

Ditto of 359 women at 6s. per week each 107 14 0

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This sum divided by 1000 leaves: 7s. 2il. per week for the maintenance of each individual. Earnings of 316 men at 14s. per week each £221 4 0

Ditto of 317 women at 6s. per week each 95 2 0

733 Adults

£316

6. 0

This sum divided by 1000 leaves 6s. 4d. per week for the maintenance of each individual, making a difference of 10d. per week in favour of the former, or 4s. 2d. to each family, supposing them to consist, one with another, of five persons. The same calculation might easily be extended to the other tables.

All this proceeds upon a supposition that the numbers of the society are stationary, or at least that they do not increase at a quicker rate than the other inhabitants of the metropolis, or of the kingdom, with whom they are compared. If they increase

* This far exceeds the whole members of the Society, as will be seen hereafter; these numbers relate merely to the proportion of the living at different ages. It would occupy too much space to explain in detail the construction of these tables ; nor is it necessary, as it would be merely repeating what Dr. Price has written upon the subject.

faster, as well as live longer, there may be as large a proportion, or even a larger proportion, in a state of infancy than among their neighbours. Fortunately this point has been ascertained with considerable accuracy. At the time of the last census, accounts were furnished from every district in England and Wales, of the number of births, deaths, and marriages among the Friends during the ten years from 1801 to 1810. The total was as follows ; Births.

Deaths.

Marriages. Males. Females. Males. Females. 2283 2105

1887 2306 922 Deducting the burials from the births, the surplus is only 195, or 19 per annum. This is in fact a little below the truth ; for in some cases it happens that when a resident in one county is buried in another, the burial is recorded in both. But after making ample allowance for this source of inaccuracy, it cannot be supposed that population in this Society increases faster than, if as fast as, in the nation at large.

Having then proved that persons of this Society live longer than others, and also that their numbers are nearly stationary; it is demonstrable that the number of births must be less in proportion, for it has been shown that the births are nearly equal to the deaths. And out of a certain number of persons, the deaths that occur annually will be fewer in proportion as the average length of life is greater. If all died at one year of age, the annual deaths would be just equal to the population. If all died at two years of age, the annual deaths would be equal to half the population. If all died at thirty years of age, or (which comes to the same thing) if the average length of life he thirty years, the annual deaths would be equal to 1-30th part of the population. Now in the first of the above tables it appears, that the deaths are equal to 1 in 48 annually. In the second table it appears that the deaths are equal to 1 in 38 annually. The births must be in the same proportion.

On the other hand, in Simpson's table, the deaths are equal to 1 in 19 annually. In the Northampton table the deaths are equal to 1 in 25 annually.

A smaller proportion of births must arise froin fewer mar-, riages, or from their taking place at a later period of life, probably from both. We are in possession of materials for forming a tolerably correct estimate of the annual proportion of marriages. Reckoning the numbers of the Society at eighteen thousand, this being the number at which they are commonly computed, and which agrees very well with the above statement of the

number of deaths, compared with the expectation of life in different situations; and dividing 18,000 by 92, the annual nunber of marriages, we have l in 195. Dividing the population of England and Wales hy, the average number of marriages entered annually in the parish registers, we have 1 in 149. It remains for those who contend that early marriages are the most effectual preventives of vice, either to disprove the authenticity of these facts, or to show that the Quakers are the most licentious members of the community.

To sum up the whole, it appears then that fewer deaths take. place in infancy among the members of this Society than among other persons,—that their superior longevity is not accompanied by any rapid increase of numbers,—that the number of persons in the helpless state of infaney must therefore be peculiarly small,--that this satisfactorily accounts for the greater degree of competence which they enjoy :--and lastly, that such a state of things does of necessity imply a smaller proportion of birtlis and of marriages than among the community at large.

Why the proportion of marriages among persons of this persuasion should be smaller, must be left to every one to explain in his own way—I shall only mention one cause — The children of members of this Society generally have for many years past received a thoroughly good education, not grudgingly confined to “reading the Bible," though they value it beyond every other book, but comprehending writing, arithmetic, English grammar, and the elements of geography and mathematics.

JOHN BARTOX.

A remarkable Institution for Education in Switzerland.

Our readers will recollect the account which in a late Number of The PhiLANTHROPIST we rendered of this interesting establishment. The seminary to which we allude is that which has been erected at Hofwyl in Switzerland, by a philanthropic and public-spirited gentleman, M. de Fellenberg. His plan includes some features of great novelty, which deserve to be considered with profound attention; and the success which has attended the execution is represented as very great, in improving both the intellectual and moral pait of the frame of those who are subjected to its beneficent operation.

It is a most gratifying circumstance to be able to state, that this institution has on the continerit attracted the highest atten

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