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during the first 600 years, in proof contain

contain in them such a magazine of of the several erroneous doctrines all sorts of learning, that all our and practices of the Romish Church, controversors since that time, have which he distinctly enumerated. furnished themselves with arguments

This challenge being thus pub- and authority from it. lished in so great an auditory, start- Queen Elizabeth having steadily led the English papists both at rejected successive solicitations from home and abroad, but none more the Popes, Paul IV. and Pius IV. as than such of our fugitives®as had re- well as from France and Spain, to tired to Lovain, Doway, or St.Omer's, return to the papal authority,-insoin the Low Country provinces be- much that the latter Pope in vain atlonging to the King of Spain. The tempted to procure leave for his business was first agitated by the Nuncio to come into England, in exchange of friendly letters betwixt order to invite her and her Bishops the said Reverend Prelate, and Dr. to the Council of Trent,-one Scipio, Henry Cole, the late Dean of St. a gentleman of Venice, who formerly Paul's; then more violently followed had had some acquaintance with by others in books; but these were Bishop Jewel when he was a student only velitations, or preparatory skir- in Padua, would needs spend some mishes, in reference to the main en- eloquence in labouring to obtain counter, which was reserved for the that point by his private letters, Reverend challenger himself, and Dr. which the nuncio could not gaiu as John Harding, one of the divines of a public mipister;" and to that end Lovain, and the most learned of the he writes his letters of expostulation College. The combatants were born to Bishop Jewel, his old friend, in the same country, bred up in the preferred not long before to the See same grammar school, and studied of Sarum. Which letter did not long in the same University also :-both remain unanswered; that learned zealous Protestants in the time of Prelate was not so unstudied in the King Edward, and both relapsed to nature of councils, as not to know Popery in the time of Queen Mary; how little of a general councii: could Jewel for fear, and Harding upon be found at Trent: and therefore hope of favour and preferment by he returned an answer to the propoit.

sition so elegantly penned, and so Some former differences had elaborately digested, that neither been between them in the Church Scipio bimself, nor any other of that of Sarum *, whereof the one was party, durst reply upon him. In prebendary, and the other Bishop, the year following Bishop Jewel put occasioned by the Bishop's visi. out the Apology of the Church of tation of that Cathedral; in which England in Latin; which, though as Harding had the worst, so was written by him, was published by the it a presage of a second foil which Queen's authority, and with the adhe was to have in this encounter. vice of some of the Bishops, as the Who had the better of the day, public Confession of the Catholic will easily appear to any that con

and Christian Faith of the Church sults the writings, by which it of England, &c. and to give an acwill appear how much the Bishop count of the reasons of our deparwas too hard for him at all manner ture from the See of Rome, and as of weapons. Whose learned answers, an answer to those calumnies that as well in maintenance of his chal- were then raised against the English lenge, as in defence of his Apology, Church and nation, for not submit

ting to the pretended general Coun* Harding was then prebendary when cil of Trent then sitting.–So that it Mr. Jewel was elected, and gave uis vote is not to be esteemed as the private for him. Humpf. p. 140.

work of a single Bishop, but as a

public declaration of that Church following, after he had paid his whose name it bears,

thanks for, and expressed his value This Apology being published of this piece in a letter. during the very time of the last meet- In the year 1664, appeared Harding of the Council of Trent*, was ing's answer to his famous chalread there, and seriously consider. lenge at Paul's Cross, and in the year ed, and great threats made that it after his reply to that answer ; when should be answered ; and accord. the University of Oxford, in honour ingly two learned bishops, one a of his services to the Church, gave Spaniard and the other an Italian, him (though absent) the degree of undertook that task, but neither of D.D. them did any thing in it.

He had no soouer brought this reBut in the mean time the book ply to a conclusion, but Harding put spread into all the countries in Eu- out an Ant-Apology, or answer to rope, and was much applauded in his Apology for the Church of EngFrance, Flanders, Germany, Spain, land: a defence of which the Bishop Poland, Hungary, Denmark, Swe- forthwith began; which he finished, den, and Scotland; and found at as appears by his epistle to Mr. last a passage into Italy, Naples, Harding at the end of it, the 27th of and Rome itself; and was soon after October, 1567. translated into the German, Italian, The next year after Mr. Harding French, Spanish, Dutch, and last put out another piece, which be into the Greek tongue, in so great entitled, A Detection of sundry foul esteem this book was abroad : and Errors, &c. which was a cavilling at home it was translated into Eng- reply to some passages in his delish by the Lady Bacon, wife to Sir fence of the Apology, which not Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper of the seeming to deserve an answer by great seal of England. It very well itself, he answered rather by a deserves the character Mr. Humfrey preface to a new impression of his has given of it, whose words are former Defence, which he finished these : “ It is so drawn, that the the 11th of December, 1569, and first part of it is an illustration, and dedicated his works to the Queen; as it were a paraphrase of the 12 Harding having told the world that Articles of the Christian Faith (or she was offended with Bishop Jewel Creed); the second is a short and for thus troubling the world. solid confutation of whatever is ob- The same year Pope Pius IV. jected against the Church; if the having published a bull of excomorder be considered, nothing can be munication and deprivation against better distributed; if the perspi- the Queen, Bishop Jewel undertook cuity, nothing can be fuller of light; the defence of his Sovereigo, and if the style, nothing more terse; if wrote a learned examination and the words, nothing more splendid; confutation of that bull; which was if the arguments, nothing stronger." published by John Garbrand, an

The good Bishop was most en. intimate acquaintance of his, togecouraged to publish this Apology ther with a short treatise of the Holy by Peter Martyr (as appears by Mar- Scriptures, both which, as he intyr's letter of the 24th of August) forms us, were delivered by the with whom he had spent the great- Bishop in his Cathedral Church, in est part of his time in exile. But 1570. Besides these he wrote seve. Martyr only lived to see the book ral other large pieces : as, 1. a Pawhich he so much longed for, dying raphrastical Interpretation of the at Zuric on the 12th of November Epistles and Gospels throughout the

whole Year. 2. Divers Treatises of Mr. Camden, in his Annals, expressly the Sacraments and Exhortations to saith it was tirst printed in the year 1562. the Readers. 3. Expositions of the

Lord's Prayer, the Creed, and Ten thin body, and thus restlessly Commandments. And also, 4. An trashing it out with reading, writExposition upon the Epistle to the ing, preaching, and travelling, he Galatians, the 1st of St. Peter, and hastened his death, which happenboth the Epistles to the Thessalo- ed before he was full fifty years nians ; which probably were his ser- of age; of which he had a strange mons; for he was of opinion that it perception a considerable time bewas a better way of teaching, to go fore it happened, and wrote of it to through with a book, than to take several of his friends, but would by here and there a text; and that it no means be persuaded to abate any gave the people a more clear and thing of his former 'excessive laz lasting knowledge.

bours, saying a Bishop should die In the beginning of the next year preaching. --Though he ever goveruwas a Parliament, and consequently ed bis diocese with great diligence, a Convocation, when Thomas Cart yet perceiving his death approach wright, and others of that faction, ing, he began a new and more se. having alarmed the Church by their vere visitation of it; correcting the oppositions to the established reli- vices of the clergy and laity more gion, it was thought fit to obviate sharply; enjoining them in some their bold attempts, and thereupon places tasks of holy tracts to be command was given by the Arch- learned by heart, conferring Orders bishop,—-That all such of the lower more carefully, and preaching ofHouse of Convocation, who had not tener. formerly subscribed unto the Arti. Having promised to preach at Lacles of Religion agreed upon anno cock, in Wilts, a gentleman who met 1562, should subscribe them now; him going thither, observing him to or on their absolute refusal, or de- be very ill by his looks, advised lay, be expelled the House : which him to return home, assuring him it occasioned a general and personal was better the people should want subscription of those Articles. And one sermon, than to be altogether it was also farther ordered,—That deprived of such a preacher. But the book of Articles so approved, he would not be persuaded, but went should be put into print, by the ap- thither and preached bis last serpointment of the Right Rev. Dr. mon, out of Gal. 5. “ Walk in the John Jewel, then Bishop of Sarum. spirit,” &c. which he did not finish

It was in some part of this without great labour and difficulty. year also, that he had his con- -The Saturday following, being ference, and preached his last ser- Sept. 22, 1571, he piously and demon at Paul's Cross about the cere voutly rendered up his soul into the monies and state of the Church, hands of God, having first made a which he mentioned on his death- very devout and Christian exhortabed: and about this time also he tion to those that were about him, wrote a paper in answer to Thomas and expressing much dislike of one Cartwright, upon certain frivolous of his servants who prayed for his reobjections against the government of covery. He died * at Monkton Farthe Church of England.

But however this holy man sought * " The Saturday following, nature with nothing but the peace and welfare all her forces being able no longer to hold of the Church, by these gentle and with the disease, he called all his household mild ways of correction; the Dis. servants about him, and after an exposisenters of those times treated him tion of the Lord's Prayer,” (followed by a for it with as little respect as Mr. had actuated him through life, prayers for

solemn declaration of the principles which Harding and bis confraternity had the Queen and the Church, and an exhorbefore.

tation to those around him to pray for him Being naturally of a spare and as they perceived him languishi) • having

sermon.

ley, when he had been a Bishop al. actly in the same order they were set most twelve years ; and was buried down. And another time he did the almost in the middle of the quire of same by ten lines of Erasmus's pahis Cathedral Church, and Agidius raphrase in English, the words of Lawrence preached his funeral which being read sometimes con

He was extremely bewail- fusedly without order, and at other ed by all men; and a great number times in order, by the Lord Keeper of Latio, Greek, and Hebrew versest Bacon, Mr. Jewel thinking a while were made on this occasion by on them, presently repeated them learned men; nor has his name agaiu backward and forward, in their been since mentioned by any man, right order and in the wrong, just without such eulogies and commen. as they were read to him; and he dations as befitted so great, so good, taught his tutor, Mr. Parkhurst, the so learned, and laborious a Pre- same art. late.

Though his memory were so great He had naturally a very strong and so improved, yet he would not meniory, which he had strangely im- entirely rely upon it, but entered proved by art. It was shewn in down into common place books, these two instances. John Hooper, whatever he thought he might afterBishop of Glocester, who was burnt wards bave occasiou to use ; which in the reign of Queen Mary, once to were many in number, and great in try him, wrote about forty Welsh quantity, being a vast treasure of and Irish words; Mr. Jewel going a learning, and a rich repository of little while aside, and recollecting knowledge, into which he had colthem in his memory, and reading lected sacred, profane, poetic, phithem twice or thrice over, said them losophic and divine notes of all by heart backward and forward, ex. sorts; and all these he had again re

duced into a small piece or two,

which were a kind of general inspoken with much pain and interruption, dexes, which he made use of at all he desired them to sing the 71st Psalm, times when he was to speak or write himself joining, as well as he could, with them. And when they recited those words, any thing; which were drawn up in Thou art my hope from my youth, he characters for brevity, and thereby added, “ Thou only wast my whole hope. so obscured, that they were not of And as they went forward saying, Cast me any use, after his death, to any not away in the time of age, &c. he made other person. And besides these, he this application to himseit, . He is an old ever kept diaries, in which he enterman, he is truly grey-beaded, and his ed whatever he heard or saw that was strength faileth him, who lieth on his deatlibed. To which he added thick and short remarkable; which once a year he prayers, as it were pulses ; concluding: perused, and out of them extract

Lord, take from me my spirit;-Lord, ed whatever was more remarkable. now let thy servant depart in peace-- Yet he was so careful in the use of break off delays---suffer thy servant to come unto thee-command him to be with when he was to write his defence of

his own common place books, that thee-Lord, receive my spirit.' And so Mr. Ridley, steward of his house, closed the Apology, and his Reply, he his eyes at Monkton Farley, about three in would not trust entirely to his own the afternoon, Sept. 22, 1571, before he excerpts or transcriptions, but havwas full fifty years of age.”—Prince's ing first carefully read Mr. Harding's Worthies of Devon, folio, Exeter, 1701.“ books, and marked what he thought

* Giles. Lawrence was Archdeacon of deserved an answer, he in the next Wilts.-Prince's Worthies of Devon.

+ Collected and printed by Mr. Law. place drew up the heads of his inrence Humfrey, Regius Professor of Di

tended Answer, and resolved what vinity at Oxford, in the end of his Life authorities he would make use of written in Latin by the order of that Uni- upon each head, and then, by the versity.

directions of his common place book,

lead and marked all those passages being a Bishop he travelled for the he had occasion to make use of, and most part a foot, both at home and delivered them to some scholars to beyond the seas; he was contented be transcribed under their proper in every condition, and endeavoured heads, that he might have them to make all others so, by telling together under his eye when he them when he was in exile, that nei. came to write.

ther would their calamity last an He was an excellent Grecian, and age, neither was it reason they not unacquainted with the Italian should bear no share of the cross of tongue; and as to the Latin, he Christ, when their brethren in Eng. wrote and spoke it with that ele- land fared so much worse. He was gance, politeness, purity, and flu- so extremely grateful to all that had ency, that it might very well be done him good, that when he could taken for his mother tongue; and not express his gratitude to Mr. certainly he took the right course to Bowin, his schoolmaster, he paid it be master of it, having made him- to his name, and did good to all self in his youth perfectly master of that were so called for his sake, Horace (upon whom he wrote a though they were not related to that large commentary), Tully, and Eras- good man.--He was a most labomus, all whose voluminous and ex- rious preacher, always travelling cellent works he read over, excerpt- about his diocese, and preaching ed and imitated every day he lived, wherever he came ; wherein he la. especially during his continuance at boured to speak to the apprehenOxford, and he was then wont also sions of the people, bating all light to declaim extempore to himself, in jingling discourses and phrases, as Latin, in the woods and groves as he beneath the dignity of that sacred walked.--And when the Lady Bacon place, yet he was careful here too wrote him a letter in Greek, he re- in the choice of his words, and enplied in the same language.--He was deavoured to move the affections of excellently read in all the Greek his auditory by pathetic and zealous poets, orators, and historians, espe- applications, avoiding all high-flown cially in the ecclesiastical historians, expressions, and using a grave and and above all others loved Gregory sedate, rather than sweet way of Nazianzen, and quoted him on all speaking, and never venturing in occasions.

the meanest auditory to preach exHis learning was much improved tempore *. by his exile, in which, besides his He was no encourager of faction conversation with Peter Martyr, and by excessive lenity and toleration ; the other learned men at Strasburgh though he was a man of great moand Zuric, and his society with Mr. deration, and expressed a lively Sandys, afterwards Archbishop of sense of the frailties of mankind; York, his curiosity led him over the

as appears by his letter to Dr. Alps into Italy, and he studied some Parkhurst, when Bishop of Nortime in Padua, and by the acquaint- wich. “Let your chancellor,” saith ance he contracted with Seignior he, “ be harder, but you easier; let Scipio, a great man, seems to have bim wound, but do you heal; let lveen very much esteemed there. him lance, do you plaster; wise cleHe was of a pleasant debonaire hu- mency will do more good than rigid mour, extremely civil and obliging severity; one man may move more to all ; but withal of great gravity, with an engine, than six with the and of so severe a probity and vir- force of their hands." And accordtue, that he extorted from his bitterest enemies a confession, that he

* That is, without premeditation. lived the life of an angel; and See Wordsworth's Eccles, Biog. Life of though he were lame, yet till his Jewel. REMEMBRANCER, No. 69.

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