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The 9th of February, 1541, he excellent doctrines, and made such commenced M.A. the charge of it wise and holy reflections, in so pure being borne by his good tutor Mr. and elegant a style, as satistied all Parkhurst, who had then the rich rec- the world of his great ability and tory of Cleave, in the diocese of Glou deserts.. cester. Nor was this the only instance In the same time Mr. Jewel took wherein he did partake of this good a small living, near Oxford, called man's bounty, for he was wont twice Sunningwell, more out of a desire to or thrice in a year 'to invite him to do good, than for the salary, which his house, and not dismiss him with- was but small: whither he went once out presents, money, and other a fortnight on foot, though he was things that were necessary for the lame, and it was troublesome to him carrying on his studies.

to walk; and at the same time time above the rest, coming into his preached frequently, both privately chamber in the morning, when he in his own College, and publicly in was to go back to the University, he the University. seized upon his and his companions' Besides his old friend Mr. Parkpurses, saying, “What money, I won- hurst, amongst others, Mr. Curtop, der, have these miserable, beggarly a Fellow of the same College, after Oxfordians?" And finding them pi- ward

wards Canon of Christ-Church, altifully lean and empty, stuffed them lowed him forty shillings a year; with money till they became both and one Mr. Chambers, who was enfat and weighty.

trusted with distributing the charity Edward VI. succeeding his father of some Londoners to the poor schothe 28th Jan. 1546, the Reforma- lars of Oxford, allowed Mr.Jewel out tion went on more regularly and of it 5l. a year for books. swiftly, and Peter Martyr, being by Edward VI. dying the 6th July, that Prince called out of Germany, 1553, and Queen Mary succeed and made Professor of Divinity at ing him, and being proclaimed the Oxford, Mr. Jewel was one of his 17th of the same month, Jewel most constant hearers; and by the was one of the first that felt the fury help of characters which he had in- of this tempest, and before any law vented for bis own use, took all his was made, or so much as any order lectures almost as perfectly as he given by the Queen, was expelled spoke them.

out of the College by the Fellows, So high was he in favour with upon their private authority; who had Peter Martyr, that upon occasion nothing to object against him, but of the celebrated dispute* held 1. His following Peter Martyr; 2. by that Professor with the Popish His preaching some doctrines conDoctors, Tresham and Chadsy, and trary to Popery; 3. And his taking one Morgan, concerning the Lord's orders according to the laws then in Supper, he was appointed by him force : for as for his life, it was acto take the whole disputation in knowledged to be "angelical and writingt.

extremely honest," by Joha Moren, In 1551, Mr. Jewel took his de- a Fellow of the College", who yet af gree of B.D. when he preached an the same time could not forbear excellent Latin sermon, which is ex- calling him Lutheran, Zuinglian, and tant almost perfect; taking for his heretic; he took his leave of the text the words of St. Peter, Ep. 1. College to this effect: cap. 4. v. 11. If any man speak, let “ In my last lectures I have (said him speak as the oracles of God, &c. be) imitated the custom of famished Upon which words he raised such men, who when they see their meat

This dispute began May 28, 1549, and lasted five days.

* Fuller, in his Church History, saith he was expelled for refusing to be present at likely to be suddenly and unexpect- University of Oxford, more kind edly snatched from ihem, devour it than his College, and to alleviate the with the greater haste and greedi- miseries of his shipwrecked estate, ness. For whereas I intended thus chose him to be her Orator, in to put an end to my lectures, and which capacity he curiously penned perceived that I was like forthwith a gratulatory Address to the Queen, to be silenced, I made no scruple-to on the behalf and in the name of the entertain you (contrary to my former University: expressing in it the counusage) with much unpleasant and tenance of the Romau senators in ill-dressed discourse, for I see I the beginning of Tiberius's reign, have incurred the displeasure and exquisitely tempered and composed, hatred of some, but whether deserv- to keep out joy and sadness, which edly or no, I shall leave to their both sirove at ihe same time to disconsideration; for I am persuaded play their colours in it; the one for that those who have driven me from dead Augustus, the other for reignhence, would not suffer me to live ing Tiberius: and, upon the assurany where, if it were in their power. ance of several of her nobles that But as for me, I willingly yield to the Queen would not change the esthe times, and if they can derive tablished religion, expressing some down to themselves any satisfaction hopes to that effect; their contifrom my calamity, I would not hin- dence being then increased by the der them from it. But as Aristides, promise the Queen had made to the when he went into exile and forsook 'Suffolk and Norfolk Gentry, who had his country, prayed that they might rescued her out of the very jaws of never more think of him; so I beseech ruin. God to grant the same to my Fel- Being thus ejected out of all he low-Collegians, and what can they had, he became obnoxious to the wish for more ? Pardon me, my insolence and pride of all his enehearers, if grief has seized me, mies, which he endeavoured to allay being to be torn from that place by humility and compliance; which against my will, where I have passed yet could not mitigate their rage the first part of my life, where I and fury, but rather in all probabi. bave lived pleasantly, and been in lity heightened their malice, and some honour and employment. But drew more affronts upon the meek wby do I thus delay to put an end man. But amongst all his enemies, to my misery by one word ? Woe is none sought bis ruin more eagerly me, that(as with my extreme sorrow than Dr. Martial, Dean of Christand resentment I at last speak it) I Church, who has changed his relimust say, farewel my studies, fare- gion now twice already; and did afwel to These beloved houses, fare- terwards twice or thrice more in the wel thou pleasant seat of learving, reign of Queen Elizabeth; he havfarewel to the most delightful cou- ing neither conscience nor religion versation with you, farewel Young of his own, was wondrous desirous Men, farewel Lads, farewel Fellows, to make Jewel's conscience or life a farewel Brethren, farewel ye be- papal sacritice. loved as my eyes, farewel ALL, fare- in order to this, he sends to wel !”

† Printed in 1649.

mass,

Jewel by the Inquisitors a bead-roll Thus did he take his leave of his of popish doctrines, to be subscribLecture, Fellowship, and College, ed by him, upon pain of tire and and was reduced at one blow to faggot, and other grievous tortures ; great poverty and desertion; but he the poor man having neither friend found for some time a place of har. nor time allowed him to consult bour in Broadgates Hall, in the same with, took the pen in his hand, and University. Here he met with some saying, Have you a mind to see how short gleams of comfort; for the well I can write?" subscribed his REMEMBRANCER, No. 69.

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name hastily, and with great reluct- fort, in the beginning of the second ance,

year of Queen Mary's reign, be But this no way mitigated the rage found there Mr. Richard Chambers, of his enemies against him, they his old benefactor; Dr. Robert knew his great love to, and fami. Horne, afterwards Bishop of Winliarity with Peter Martyr, and no- chester; Dr. Sandys, Bishop of Lonthing less than his life would satisfy don; Sir Francis Knowles, a Privy these blood-hounds, of which Mar- Counsellor, and afterwards Lord tial was the fiercest: so being for. Treasurer, and his eldest son, &c.: saken by his friends for this his sin- these received Jewel with the more ful compliance, and still pursued kindness, because he came upes. like a wounded deer by his enemies, pectedly and uphoped for, and adbut more exagitated by the inward vised him to make a public recantaremorses and reproaches of his own tion of his subscription ; which he conscience, he resolved at last to willingly did in the pulpit the next fee for his life.

Lord's-day, in these words: “It And it was but time; for if he was my abject and cowardly mind, had staid but one night longer, or and faint heart, that made my weak gone the right way to London, he hand to commit this wickedness." had perished by their fury. One Which when he had uttered as well Augustin Berner, a Switzer, first a as he could for tears and sighs, he servant to Bishop Latimer, and af- applied himself in a fervent prayer

, terwards a Minister, found him lying first to God Almighty for his parupon the ground, almost dead with don, and afterwards to the Church; vexation, weariness (for this lame the whole auditory accompanying man was forced to make his escape him with tears and sighs, and ever on foot) and cold, and setting him after esteeming him more for his upon an horse, conveyed him to the ingenuous repentance, than they Lady Ann Warcupps, a widow, who would, perhaps, have done if he had entertained him for some time, and not fallen. then sent him up to London, where As much of Mr. Jewel's sufferhe was in more safety.

ings in England had been occasioned Having twice or thrice changed by the great respect he had shewn his lodgings in London, Sir Nicholas to Peter Martyr whilst he lived at Throgmorton, a great Minister of Oxford: so now Peter Martyr never State in those times, furnished hiin left soliciting him to come to bim with money for his journey, and pro- to Strasburgh, where he was now cured him a ship for his transpor- settled and provided for, till be pretation beyond the seas. And well it vailed; where he took him to bis own had been if he had gone sooner : but table, and kept him always with his friend Mr. Parkhurst hearing of him. And here Mr. Jewel was very the restoring of the Mass, fled forth- serviceable to him in his edition of with; and poor Mr. Jewel knowing his Commentaries upon the Book nothing of it, went to Cleave to beg of Judges, which were all transhis advice and assistance, being alo cribed for the press by him; and most killed by his long journey on be used also to read every day some foot, in bitter cold and snowy wea. part of a Father to him, and for the ther, and being forced at last to re- most part St. Augustin, with which turn to Oxford, more dejected and father they were both much deconfounded in his thoughts than he lighted. went out; which miseries were the At Strasburgh Mr. Jewel found occasions of his fall, as God's mercy J. Poynet, Bishop of Winchester; was the procurer both of his escape Edmund Grindal, Archbishop of and recovery.

York; Sir Edwin Sandys, J. Cheeke, Being once arrived at Frank, and Sir Anthony Coke, and se

veral other great men of the Eng- membered the distressed state of lish nation, who were fled thither the Church of England, and put an for their religion ; and with these he end to her sufferings, by removing was in great esteem; which opened that bigotted Lady, Queen Mary; a way for his preferment upon his the news of which flying speedily return into England, after the storm to our exiles, they hasted into Engwas over.

land again, to congratulate the sucPeter Martyr having been a long cession of Queen Elizabeth, of ever time solicited by the senate of Zuric

blessed memory. to go thither, and take upon him the His good benefactor and tutor, place of Professor of Hebrew, and Mr. Parkhurst, upon the arrival of Interpreter of the Scriptures, at last this news, made him a visit in Ger. accepted the office, and carried Mr. many, but fearing Mr. Jewel had Jewel with him to Zuric; where he not chosen the safest way for his chiefly lived still with Peter Mar- return to England, left him and tyr in his own family, until his re- went another way, which seeming turn to England.

more safe, in the end proved otherDuring all the time of his exile, wise: Mr. Jewel arriving safely in which was about four years, he England with what he had, whilst studied very hard, and spent the the other was robbed by the way; rest of his time in consoling and and so at his landing in England, contirming his brethren; for he Mr. Jewel (who was here before would frequently tell them, that him), very gratefully relieved his when their brethren endured such former benefactor. bitter tortures and horrible mar- Upon his return to England, he tyrdoms at home, it was not rea- had the comfort to find all things sonable they should expect to fare well disposed for the reception of deliciously in banishment, conclud- the Reformation *. ing always : “ Hæc non durabunt He was entertained first by Mr. ætatem ;" which he repeated so very often, and with so great an assur

* The Queen, by a proclamation of Deance of mind that it would be so,

cember 30, 1558, ordered that no man, of that many believed it before it came

what quality soever he were, should preto pass, and more took it for a pro. sume to alter any thing in the state of reliphetic sentence afterwards.

gion, or innovate in any of the rites and Some of the English who bad fed ceremonies thereunto belonging, &c. until

some further order should be taken there. to Geneva and other places, which

in. Only it was permitted, and withal rehad adopted the inodel of Reforma

quired, that the Litany, the Lord's Prayer, tion settled by Calvin, beginning the Creed, and the Ten Commandments, now to be infected with Calvinistic

should be said in the English tongue, and principles, and to produce a schism

that the Epistle and Gospel should be read in the Church, by altering the Litur. in English at the time of the High Mass, gy, and adopting the forms of which was done (saith Dr. Heylyn) in all

the Churches of London, on the next SunGeneva, Mr. Jewel being at Zu

day after, being New Year's-day; and by ric, used his utmost endeavour to

degrees in all the other Churches of the reclaim these men, and put a stop kingdom: further than this, she thought it to this rising schism, exhorting them not convenient to proceed at the present, “ as brethren to lay aside all strife only she probibited the elevation of the and emulation, especially about such sacrament at the altar of the Chapel Royal : small matters; lest thereby they

which was likewise forborne in all other should greatly offend the minds of Charches : and she set at liberty all that all good men; which thing (he said) sister's time, and ordered the Liturgy to be they ought to have a principal care

revised with great care, and that a Parof."

liament should be summoned to sit at The 17th of Nov. 1558, God re- Westminster the 25th of January, 1559.

Nicholas Culverwell for almost six usage, civility and reason, than to months, and then falling into a sick- terrify or awe them by that great ness, was invited by Dr. William authority the Queen bad armed him Thames, to lodge at his house. and his-fellow Commissioners with.

The first use that was made of Returning to London, and giving him after his return, was the no- the Qneen a good and satisfactory minating him one of the disputants account of their visitation, the 21st for the reformed party, at the pub- January following, Mr. Jewel, who lic disputation * appointed on the was then only B.D. was consecrated 3012 March following; and though Bishop of Sarisbury; which he at he was the last in number and place, first inodestly declined, but at last yes lie was not the least, either in accepted, in obedience to the Queen's desert or esteem, having made great command. This See had been void additions to his former learning in by the death of John Capon, his imhis four years exile and travel: mediate predecessor, who died in which is a great improvement to in- 1557, now near three years. Mr. genious spirits. But this disputa- Jewel's bishopric had been misertion was broken off by the popish ably impoverished by his predecesparty, who would not stand to the

sor; so that he complained afterorder appointed; so that Mr. Jewel wards, that there was never a good in all probability had no occasion to living left him that would maintain shew either his zeal or learning. a leurned man: for (said he) the

By virtue of an act of Parliament, Capon has devoured all; because he soon after Midsummer the Queen hath either given away or sold all the made a visitation of all the dioceses ecclesiastical dignities and livings." in England, by Commissioners, for So that the good Bishop was forced rectifying all such things as they all his life-time after to take extrafound amiss, and could not be re- ordinary pains in travelling and dressed by any ordinary episcopal preaching in all parts of his diocese, power, without spending of more which brought him to his grave the time than the exigencies of the sooner. Church could then admit of. And

The Sunday before Easter of this this was done by a book of articles year, Bishop Jewel preached at printed for that purpose, and the Paul's Cross, his famous sermon inquiry was made upon oath by the upon 1 Cor. xi. 23. For I hare recommissioners. Here Mr. Jewel was ceived of the Lord that which I also taken in again, and made one of these delivered unto you, that the Lord Commissioners for the west; when Jesus, the same night in which he he visited his own native country, was betrayed, took bread, &c. This which till then perhaps he had not

sermon gave a fatal blow to the seen since his return from exile, popish religion here in England, when also he preached to and dis- which was become very odious to all puted with his countrymen, and en

men, by reason of the barbarous deavoured more to win them to em- cruelty used by those of that perbrace the Reformation by good suasion in the reign of Queen Mary;

but the challenge which he then * It was to be managed by a mutual made, and afterwards several times interchange of writings upon every point and in several places repeated, -each writing to be answered the next the most stinging part of this serday, and so from day to day aptil the whole were ended. The questions were three : adversaries to produce any one sutti

mon; in which he called upon his concerning Prayers in the vulgar tongue cient sentence out of any old cathothe Power of the Church, for the changing lic Doctor, or Father, or general of rites and ceremonies—and the propitiatory sacrifice of the Mass for the living Council, or Holy Scripture, or any and the dead,

one example in the primitive Church,

was

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