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broadly and at once branded with the mark? Surely, the bitterest defamer of the clergy will not deny to them the general credit, that many amongst them are, -we trust, by far the greater number will, by the candid inquirer, be found→ pure and blameless in their lives and conversation, punctual in the discharge of their functions, active promoters of good and orderly habits amongst their parishioners, particularly instrumental in training up the young to upright principles, diligent in reclaiming and discouraging the vicions, in consoling the afflicted, in extending alms to the destitute, in holding out to all within their sphere the light of a good example. Why then is the hard measure dealt out to them, as a body, of being subjected to continually repeated aspersions of the grossest kind, the effect of which no consciousness of having deserved better things can prevent them from feeling and lamenting? The Apostle St. Paul exhorted, as we know, his Thessalonian converts, to esteem those who labour for them, and are over them in the Lord, for their work's sake *.'

But how much at variance with this precept is the too frequent practice of the present day, when to those who labour in the work of the ministry, is assigned no other recompense than obloquy and reproach." P. xv.

The discourse is concluded with the following just and affecting appeal.

"We have here before us, as suitors for our charity, the children of those ministers of the Gospel to whom has been denied in this world a sufficient recompense for their labours; and who now, in the persons of those most dear to them, solicit some portion of that debt, which every considerate mind acknowledges to be their due. These Ministers of the Gospel, after a life spent in the faithful discharge of the highest of all functions, and after a struggle, under scanty circumstances, to maintain that appearance in the world, which previous habits and a sense of the decorum of their station rendered necessary, have been called perhaps to rest from their labours, leaving their families in á state of destitution, aggravated by the remembrance of better fortunes, and of the brighter hope which once was theirs. If then, in every rank and station, the loss of a father be, to children just rising into life, indeed a bitter portion; involving,

1 Thess, v. 12, 13.

for the most part, the loss of the most effectual and authoritative guidance in the path of duty; how much more mixed up with bitterness is the same portion, when, as in a case where the means of subsistence have depended on the parent's life, the loss of many worldly comforts is added to its other sorrows. Here then is no fictitious tale of distress before us, such as too often damps the glow of charity in the heart, and restrains the hand disposed to give. Here is no ambiguous plea preferred for the relief of calamities which have arisen from the culpable misconduct of those who suffer them. Our suitors on the present occasion are not the bold impostor, not the sturdy mendicant, not the lazy profligate; but the young, the helpless, and the innocent; the children of those spiritual guides who have directed others in the path of righteousness; of those faithful shepherds who have fed their flocks in green pastures, and led them forth besides the waters of comfort.

"In conclusion, then be the fervent prayer addressed to the throne of grace, that, as well in this work of love which is now before us, as in other points of Christian duty, we may all, through the aid of God's Holy Spirit, be enabled and disposed to fulfil the measure of Gospel righteousness, in a manner suited to our high calling, in Christ Jesus. And may those especially, who are the appointed labourers in the vineyard, whatever be their present recompense, whether they proceed on earth through evil or through good report, remember that their great object must ever be, to approve themselves in the sight of Him, to whose service they are pledged, and in whose work they are employed. Thus may both they, and the flocks committed to their charge, receive at the last day the crown of righteousness laid up by the Lord, the righteous Judge +."

We add the following notes, which are affixed to the sermon.

"It appears from the returns made to his Majesty in council, and laid before Parliament, in 1818, that of 10,421 benefices returned, 4361 did not exceed 150l. per annum, that 1629 did not exceed 801. per annum, and 735 did not exceed 501. per annum, while several were below 201. in annual value. Thus it is an ascertained fact, that much more than one-third of the benefices in the kingdom are not worth 150l. per annum; and it is probable that

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"It is, unavoidably, difficult to ascertain with any precision the average amount of the value of all ecclesiastical benefices in the kingdom. One of the latest calculations, apparently conducted with considerable care, and proceeding on the surest ground on which such an estimate can be formed, (See Quarterly Review, Vol. XXIX. p. 557.) makes the average value of all the benefices in the kingdom, including the incomes of Bishops, Deans and Chapters, to amount to 3037. per annum; and this calculation, it should be mentioned, affords a higher average than any other which has been given to the public on the authority of specific details. Assuming, then, this average to be not far from the truth; still, when it is re

membered, as has been already stated, that it is formed by including the incomes of persons in all the highest stations in the Church; when it is considered further, that every clergyman qualifies himself for the profession by no inconsiderable expence; that his income is a life income; that out of it he must maintain and pro-' vide for his family; that many calls of charity are constantly made upon him,

with which bis situation makes it often imperative on him to comply; and that he is obliged to sustain a certain outward appearance suited to his station, having often to mix in society with opulent parish joners; when all this is taken into the account, it surely will not be thought, that the expression I have used is too strong; viz. that every considerate person will allow the average income provided for the clergy of the church of England, to be below what is suited to their character

and situation."

Grounds and Principles of the Church of England, considered in a Charge, delivered to the Clergy of the Archdeaconry of London, May 5, 1824. By Joseph Holden Pott, A. M. Archdeacon of London, and Vicar of St. Martin's in the Fields.

THE grounds and principles on which the Church of England was formed, and which have so remark

ably contributed, under the Divine blessing, to her stability and honour, are at all times worthy of our deepest consideration. "Moderate and equal measures," indeed, "do not appear at first sight to be those which are best calculated to work great effects in sublunary things;" but they are of inestimable value in every grave and difficult undertaking, and especially in the preservation of religion. The founders of our Church understood this principle, and acted upon it with wonderful success. Their moderation, however, did not arise from indifference to the truth; it was the result of an exact and sober judgment carefully avoiding opposite extremes, and discerning with singular felicity whatever was essential to the integrity of the Gospel, and the peace and unity of the Church. These points were steadily maintained; while obscure and doubtful matters, which had been too hastily decided by other Protestants, were wisely left without determination.

This important subject has been admirably discussed and illustrated in the Charge before us. The Archdeacon has selected a topic precisely suited to the exigency of the time, and to his own powers. No man is more profoundly versed in the history of the Church of England; none has a more accurate and com

prehensive knowledge of her characWe will not, ter and constitution. however, indulge our own feelings in expatiating on his high qualifications, or on the service he has rendered to the Church of Christ. He has within his own breast a much

greater reward than the praise of men can possibly bestow; and we have the satisfaction of knowing that he is equally beloved and revered by all who come within his influence.

We shall make no apology for laying the greater part of this Charge before our readers, and earnestly recommending it to their attention, as one of the most valuable productions of the Archdeacon's pen.

"Moderate and equal measures may not perhaps appear at first sight to be those which are best calculated to work great effects in sublunary things, or to prevail most in the minds and purposes of men. They who aim at public ends, are accus tomed to pursue a different course. They trust for the furtherance of their designs, to collective efforts, urged with vehemence and prosecuted with alacrity and vigour. The strongest impulses are put in force, or the closest arts are called in aid, in order to win over numbers to the side which is espoused, or to retain men by the ties of partial interest in one band. It is easy to perceive that such ways were not followed in the scheme of Providence adopted for the first establishment of the Christian Church, and calculated for maintaining its perpetual subsistence in all lands, or in any single country.

"Let us consider then what were the first terms of union in the Church of Christ. They consisted principally in the never-failing pledge of faith and practice, The sacramental ordinances of that household were prescribed by the same lips which fixed the rule of faith and duty. The forms of ministerial discipline and worship received the sanction also of the same Lord. In conformity to these, the pattern or first model of government and order was completed in the Church of Christ by those who received the first commission at his hand. The care to preserve itself and to perpetuate its functions, without which no public body can subsist, was further strengthened by the gracious promise which declared so plainly that the sustaining arm of Providence should not be wanting for the succour of the flock of Christ, and that the gates of Hell should not prevail against his Church. Sach were the first provisions made for the fellowship and union of believers in all lands." P. 5.

He then proceeds to shew that our Church has always been distinguished by Christian prudence and Christian candour, and has invariably grounded her belief and practice

on the Word of God.

"That the British Church, from the first call to the knowledge of the truth, and the first profession of the Gospel, adhered to this acknowledged standard both of faith and practice, in things fixed and invariable in their own essential nature, and of things which may be changed upon sufficient grounds-is plain from the resistance which was made here to the early over.

tures of foreign usurpation. What was the answer which was given to the first attempt upon the privileges of the British Church? When the question was raised concerning matters of authority, and when a right to dictate was asserted in favour of a foreign Head, the answer was distinctly, we owe nothing to our brethren in the faith in distant quarters, but to love one another, and that debt we are ready to discharge. When the question was concerning usage, as about the time of celebrating the solemnities of Easter, and when a different rule from that which had been followed in this country, was prescribed, the answer was still given in the words of the Apostle, we have no such custom. These answers were both temperate and prudent: yet they were succeeded by hostility and bloodshed. But the British Church and its accustomed liberties, survived that storm. After those first abortive efforts had been made, it was long before a foreign yoke was imposed upon believers in this land: and the first struggle for the Reformation in this country, was but a more determined effort following after many which had been before exerted, and which from time to time had marked the spirit of resistance to encroachments which were never tamely suffered. The Statutes of the realm prove this beyond the power of contradiction.

"But the tone of moderation was not changed when that resistance proved at length successful. There was zeal indeed, enough to prompt men to meet and to sustain an arduous contest: and without zeal, in no ordinary measure, it must have proved impossible to face the difficulties of that day of trial: but the movements which were then made by the Guides and Rulers, Civil and Ecclesiastical, in this land, toward the great design of reformation, shew plainly, that there was not only zeal but patience for the work: a patience which could attend the desultory and uncertain humours of one capricious monarch; a patience which, with a step as firm and sober, could accompany the next advances which were made under by a hand not yet matured in growth, the kindly influence of a sceptre wielded

though pledged already to every good and salutary purpose. But the triumph, and the palm of fortitude and patience, were not yet: they followed in the sanguinary reign which recalled the days of martyrdom, and transferred from Pagan scaffolds to those of Christendom, the fire and steel, the rage and horrors of relentless persecution. When that storm was overpast, the sun which went down in that

ruddy cloud, rose soon with unabated splendour and again, that new and happy dawn, was marked with a mild effulgence, and displayed a temperate aspect. Mode ration and forbearance supplied the place of eager and vindictive measures. For many years together, there was no desertion of our Courts of public worship, on the part of those who continued to adhere still to a foreign Head. It was the Papal maudate which first sealed the separation, Nor was the arm of power, in public and extreme degrees of punishment, exerted or employed on this account, until every art of secret machination, and every varied effort of determined treason had provoked the rigour of the laws.

"The reformation of our Church was in all points temperate and orderly. It was not effected by popular commotion: concerning which we read that a great Council of the Church, the Council of Eliberis, an elder Council to that of Nice, had long since determined, that if any man should lose his life by endeavouring to overturn idolatry itself by public tumult, his name should not be put into the list of martyrs. The Reformation in this land began under the sanction and di rection of the supreme Powers of the realm. The Liturgy was reformed by Episcopal men, well versed in ancient ri tuals, men of whom more than one obtained the palm of martyrdom. The Articles of our Church were compiled by Convocations; by two Provincial Assemblies. They were confirmed by the Legislature-and that particular Churches may be so reformed by their own authority, and that for this purpose Provincial Councils may suffice, is a thing confessed on all sides. In this behalf we may take the word of the learned Chancellor of Paris, a man of chief note in his day, who in the first stage of the reformation admitted this right as it stood excepted from the reasons for which a General Council might be needful †.

* Concil. Elib, sub Marcello habitum A. D. 305, cap. 60. F. Longi summa Conciliorum, p. 42.

+"Nolo tamen dicere quin in multis partibus possit Ecclesia per suas partes reformari: immo hoc necesse esset; sed ad hoc agendum sufficerent concilia provincialia et ad quædam satis essent Concilia Diocesana et Synodalia, prout super hac re jam aliqua scripta sunt et avisata, si quis vellet ad opus manum mittere et ad fortia*."

* Quædam per Joan Gerson edita, tempore Schismatis Ecclesia. P. 222. Gerson. Opera, Paris. 1606.

From this point, then, we may proceed to trace the exercise of a moderate and equal temper in our Church; a spirit which has not failed to adapt its rules and ministries to the compass and capacities of men, * and to employ its best exertions for the purpose of promoting every hopeful measure of their spiritual growth.

"The terms then of faith, worship, and communion of discipline and practice, by which we are united, come next before us. And here I trust the moderation will appear, by which, as a public teacher, our Church has been so signally distinguished. Every Christian Church is invested with that character, and is raised of God to be a public witness and a public teacher in an eminent degree, discharging this trust by those who exercise the ministry committed to them for the common good.

"The Articles of our Church, in stating the particulars of our faith, were so framed as to secure the main foundations, and to cast out what had been added with no better warrant than corrupt inventions. They were not drawn and settled until after some diversity had grown up in the several Churches of the reformation; and it has been often shewn with what moderation those points about which the differences have existed, were determined on our part. It is not true, that our Ar ticles were contrived to comprehend men of various sentiments by means of dubious language and equivocal expressions. Such a mode would have been ill calculated for the cause of truth. But the care to conciliate and unite, was much more happily exerted by declining many points of difference in things which were most contested at that time. Accordingly our Articles were so framed as to retain men who would have differed widely if some things had been brought forward and defined, which had been more eagerly determined by foreign Churches of the Protestant communion. The great object therefore, was not obtained by adopting vague and uncertain forms of speech. Such a method was once followed in constructing what was called the Interim, in Germany; which for that reason became the scorn of both parties for whom it was in our case by passing many things iu siintended. But the purpose was effected lence, which others had decided; declaring only what was needful to secure the profession of the faith in things which the special errors which were the objects are necessary to salvation, and to exclude of rejection.

"This moderation has accordingly been followed by the happiest consequences; and the several attempts which were made

in successive reigns to counteract this prudent management, and to introduce those doctrines which had been omitted, would, if they had succeeded, have proved a ground of separation beyond any which has subsisted among those who hold the same foundation. If any thing in this world can tend to promote that union for which the best men have expressed their earnest wishes in all ages, it must still be sought in moderate and equal measures; in the temper of a Church which has pursued the line of its hallowed call so steadily, which has preserved its regular and continued ordinations, and which has shewn such caution and indulgence in declaring the settled terms of her communion. Of these terms,

we

can say without a boast, that the Churches of the Protestant communion in all lands, have testified their full and cordial approbation, and have remonstrated as plainly with the censors and dividers in our own land. Those applauding testimonies have often been collected: they remain a solid evidence of the moderate counsels which prevailed here, and of the favourable circumstances which permitted the retention in this country of that entire and perfect form of government, the want of which, in some chief points, was openly deplored in foreign Churches, and excused upon the hard plea of necessity.

"Non

sumus adeo felices," was the answer of the President of Dort, when our pattern was proposed to him for the cure of those defects, by a Prelate of our own Church. The plea was accepted with a fair allow ance on our part; with much brotherly regard; and with the pious wish that what was wanting might one day, by Divine favour, be supplied.

"Of those terms of communion which form the bond of public concord in our Church, we can say with truth, that no sober man has ever ventured to pronounce them sinful: although the bare circumstance of a requisite compliance has been unhappily regarded as a burden for the conscience.

"But we cannot treat this subject better than by referring to the grounds upon which the terms themselves were built. Our Church, then, resolves the motives for belief into the testimony of God's sacred word. Where that seal is ascertained most gladly she receives the message, and accepts the written word. Of that word she claims to be a faithful guardian, an authorized and uncorrupted witness, although not an infallible interpreter. They who claim to be infallible,

if they hope to convince us, must allow us to judge of the reasons which they bring to REMEMBRANCER, No. 66.

means.

support the challenge; but if we who are
to weigh the reasons, are not infallible, we
can reach no ground of certainty by such
It is enough to confirm and settle
our belief that the rule itself is sure, and
was given by inspiration of God. It is
enough for us to know, that if they who
spake the word had the promised guidance
of the Holy Spirit to lead them into all
truth, the same seal of inspiration must
have accompanied the written word; un-
less we can bring ourselves to think that
what was to be most permanent and fixed
in character, was, against all ground of
reason, to bear a warrant less certain and
authentic to commend it to the hearts of
men, than what was spoken. But if they
who unquestionably had the gift of inspi-
ration, and who proved their claim to it by '
sufficient evidence, may be allowed to
speak in their own behalf, they will decide
this point;
for they tell us plainly that the
word was reduced by them to writing, in
order that we might know the certainty of
such things, and that we might believe *.

"The word of Scripture, then, which
indeed is witnessed by the Church, but de-
rives its authority from God alone, forms
the solid and unerring basis of our union.
As the Church was able from the beginning
to ascertain what was Scripture and what
was not, and has so formed the Canon, on
the evidence and attestation of those
first witnesses with whom these oracles
were entrusted, we have all the certainty
that we can desire, that we possess the
written word, although the witnesses them-
selves distinctly disavowed infallible pre-
tensions, and referred that claim to the
Word itself, to which, in all disputed
We're-
points, they made their appeal.
ceive that Word from those who lived at or
near the time of the Apostles; and who
were careful above measure in examining
the testimony of every Church which had
the custody of any portion of the Sacred
writings. To which it may be added, that
in the first ages more especially, a nar-
rower limit and a closer correspondence
rendered it more easy to resist emergent
heresies, against which the Church is bound
at all times to give her public testimony.
Nor does this regard to the testimony of
the Church create an undue value for tra-
ditionary record. We take indeed all the
assistance we can get from the known
sense and early usage of the Church; we
employ its authorities and precedents for
many useful purposes; but we never can
consider them as necessary to supply sup
posed defects of Scripture. That which is
* Luke i. 4. John xx. 31.

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