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on which were painted Reprefentations of his great Exploits, as fo many Hiftory Pieces of his vaft Heroifm; at the fame time there were not only a triple Discharge of the Artillery, but mufical Inftruments of feveral forts founded from the Forts: And, to heighten the Grandeur, Cæfar caused a Tower of his own Invention to be erected near the Caftle of St. Angelo, in which were difplayed many other Trophies, in order to fhew him invincible. Thus the triumphant Duke marched in State to the Vatican, from the Balcony of which old Alexander fed his Eyes with the Pomp and Splendor of his Son's Entry. As foon as he came to the Portico of St. Peter's, his Holinefs retired to the Chamber del Papagallo, where he had appointed to give Borgia a publick Audience. Thither Alexander ordered to be brought five Cushions of Gold Brocade, one was placed on the Throne, where himself was feated, another under his Feet, and three others were laid in order near the Foot-ftool of the Throne; then the Doors of the Apartment were thrown open, at which the Foreign Minifters, with the chief Nobility and Generals of the Army, were allowed to enter: The Pope being ready to receive his Son, Borgia entered the Chamber of Audience between two Cardinals; and on his Approach to the Papal Throne he bowed very low, and kneeled; after which, Silence being commanded, he made the following Speech:

'Here am I come, Holy Father, with dutiful Reverence, and the higheft Marks of Affection, to kiss 'the Feet of your Holiness, and to render Thanks for the Honours and Favours beftowed on me, in my 'Absence from your Perfon, tho' I believe not from your Heart. I affure your Holinefs, that on account of these and many others, as I have hitherto ⚫ declared myself an obedient Son of the Church, and under many Obligations to her, fo fhall I always ⚫ endeavour to give Proofs of my Gratitude for the Ff 2 6 fame,

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fame, by employing my whole Life in the Service of the Holy See and this facred College, of which I glory in the Remembrance of having been once a Brother.' To which the Pope answered,

The Effects of your praife-worthy Actions have always been acceptable to us, as is the agreeable Affurance you now give in Words of your future Fidelity in our Service, which we accept as a Pledge for fo doing. On our Part, as Compenfation for the fame, we promife to reward you with new Ho" nours and Favours; for the Holy See wants not Dominions and Riches to make her great, but Princes, who fhall acknowledge their own Great. nefs, as proceeding from her, that fo they may the better procure a Veneration for her from others; fuch a one we will you to be, and accordingly fhall furnish you with Affiftance for that End, in fpight of. thofe who feem lefs dutiful, in proportion as their Obligations to us are the greater.'

After this Valentinois kiffed both the Pope's Feet, and his Hands and Mouth, and then the Ambaffadors and the rest of the Nobility were permitted to touch with their Lips the Crofs on his Holiness's Slipper.

His Holiness did not forget to perform what he had promifed in his Anfwer to his Son's Speech, and accordingly granted him fuch Favours as he requefted. This, joined with the Succefs which had iately attended him, fo puffed up the Duke, that he imagined himfelf inferior to none of the Cafar's among the Romans. Accordingly he affumed the Motto, ut Cæfar, aut nibil; and in the great Market-place, Navona, he ordered a Representation of the Triumphs of Julius Cæfar to be made with twelve very grand Chariots, nobly adorned with Trophies after the Manner of the Antients, wherein, in the laft of thofe Chariots he rode, dreffed in fo pompous a Manner, and with fuch a vaft Number of Attendants on Foot, that nothing could reprefent one


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of their Triumphs better, which was as near to the Description, that the Latin Authors give thereof, as can poffibly be imagined.

But Borgia's Sun-fhine of good Fortune was foon shaded, by his next Train of Proceedings. He had not been long in Rome before he turned his Rage upon the chiefeft Families there, beginning with the noble Family of the Gaetani, who were in Poffeffion of great Eftates in the Country of the Volai, putting to death Honorato and Cola Gaetani; next he fell upon the Colonna's Family, and, having difpoffeffed them of their Lands, forced them to fly to Sicily, where they were received with great Refpect; but, thinking to do the fame to the Urfini, he was difappointed; for they, having entered into a League with other Princes, and raised an Army for their Defence, encountered Borgia, entirely defeated him, and foon forced this bloody-minded Prince to fly, in his Turn, to Imola; where the Pope, being furprized at this unexpected Disaster, had recourfe to his old Refuge, Diffimulation, offering the Confederates fuch Conditions that they themselves, fuccefsful as they were, could hardly expect; and, having thus lulled them afleep, and made them lay down their Arms, in the mean while perfidious Borgia recovered himself, got a new Army, fell upon them moft cruelly, put fome to death, others he banished, and, in a Word, used all the barbarous Means his wicked Heart could invent to effect their Destruction.

The Revenues of the Church * not being fufficient to maintain Cafar Borgia's Army, and the Expences of his Court, Alexander made a new College of fourfcore Italy, having in Breadth, from one Sea to another, above one hundred Miles, and in Length above three hundred Miles. The Archbishops here are no less than 44, and Bishops 57.

*The Lands of the Church, or the Pope's Dominions in Italy, lie Weft of the Kingdom of Naples, extend North and South from the Adriatic to the Tufcan Seas they lie in the middle of

fcore Writers of Briefs, felling every Place for 250 Crowns of Gold, and received even into Rome fome of thofe Moors that the King of Spain had driven out of his Dominions, who, to enjoy their Liberty, gave him great Sums of Money; and, all this being too little, he fold divers Cardinals Caps, and at last came to the Refolution of difpatching by Poifon the richeft Prelates of his Court, and amongst them fome very rich Cardinals, whofe Eftates he intended to make himself Master of, in order to fatiate the inhuman Greedinefs of his Son. All this while the old Debauchee, the Father, was taking his Delight in the Arms of the famous Courtefan before fpoken of; at the fame time receiving the News of his Son's Cruelties with the utmoft Joy and Satisfaction: But, before Alexander could put his direful Scheme in Execution, the Year 1499 expired, and the enfuing Year the Pope was otherwife employed.

Further Account
of the Affairs of
England and
Scotland, 1500.

Let us now return home, fpeak of the English Affairs, and open the Year 1500, which proved fatal to two Archbifhops and three Bishops in England, who all died in a little Time of each

other, namely,

1. Thomas Rotherham, Archbishop of York, died at his Palace of Cawood, in the Month of May, aged 76, and was buried in a Marble Tomb in the Cathedral at York. This great Prelate, generally called Scot, was educated at Rotheram in Yorkshire, and from thence removed to King's College in Cambridge, where in proper Time he was made one of the Fellows of the College, then Chaplain to King Edward the, and Keeper of the Privy Seal; afterwards Bishop of Rochefter, from thence tranflated to Lincoln, and there he continued nine Years; being efteemed a Man of great Wifdom, King Edward alfo preferred him to the high Office of Lord Chancellor, (which he enjoyed

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ed till that King's Death) and, laftly, to the Archbifhoprick of York: He erected a College at Rotheram, and dedicated it to the Name of Jefus, which confifted of a Provost, five Priests, fix Choristers, three Schoolmasters, one for finging, a fecond for Grammar, and a third for Writing: He gave a rich Mitre to the Church of York, was at great Expences in repairing and beautifying the different Palaces belonging to his See. Thomas Savage, Bishop of London, fucceeded him, whereupon Dr. William Warham was promoted to London in his ftead. This laft-mentioned Prelate was now greatly in Favour with the King.

2. John Alcock, Bishop of Ely, died alfo in the Month of May, and was fucceeded by Richard Redman Alcock. Finding the Monaftery of St. Redigond was deferted by the Nuns, and run to Ruin, he converted it into a College about the Year 1446; he also laid out great Sums of Money in new Buildings, both at his Palaces in London and in the Country.

3. John Morton, Cardinal, Archbishop of Canterbury, Lord High Chancellor, and Prime Minister to King Henry the VIIth, died at Knoll the 16th of October, who was Son of Andrew Morton, of St. Andrew's, Milbourn in Dorfetfpire, and educated firft at Corn Abbey, then at Baliol College, Oxford, where he commenced Doctor of Laws, Anno 1446, and was that Year Vice-chancellor of the University, and Moderator of the Civil Law School. Anno 1453 he became Head of Peckwater-inn, afterwards Advocate in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, and, being taken notice of by Archbishop Bourchier, he was made Prebendary of Fordington and Wathrington in Sarum; then, applying himself to Court, he grew in Favour with K. Edward the IVth, who preferred him to be Master of the Rolls in 1473, being alfo at that time Rector of St. Dunstan's in the Weft: In 1474 he was created Archdeacon of Winchester, and, on the Death of William Gray, elected Bishop of Ely, the 8th of Aug. 1478. This


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