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every Thing fhould be tranfacted by this Prince's Directions while he ftaid at Rome. Juftice was adminiftered in his Name, and by his Officers, those belonging to the Pope not in the leaft intermeddling; and two Gallows were erected there, as Marks of Royal Justice.
The King fet out from Rome, Jan. 28th, having made near a Month's Stay there, accompanied with Borgia, and directed his March towards Naples. The Spanish Ambaffador was very uneafy at the Success that had attended his Majefty, which put him, by the Direction of Ferdinand, upon endeavouring to find fome Pretence for a Rupture with France, in an Audience he was to have with Charles; in which he was fo free as to tell him, That the French intended no 'less than to make themselves Mafters of all Italy, infinuating, That though in the Treaty his Mafter 'made with him, he had promifed not to oppofe him in his Progrefs to conquer the Kingdom of Naples; yet now, as he had taken divers Places from the Florentines and the See of Rome, he conceived it ⚫ concerned his Catholick Majefty to oppofe his fur
ther Proceedings.' Charles fmartly replying, the Difpute grew fo hot, that the Ambaffador tore the Treaty in pieces before his Face. This Behaviour fo incenfed the French Officers, that they could scarce forbear offering Violence to his Perfon in the King's Prefence; whereupon the Ambaffador retired and quitted the Court; and we fhall foon fee Spain joining with his Majefty's Enemies, in order to drive him out of what he afterwards conquered.
The Kingdom of Naples continued quiet till the King's Arrival at Rome; but, as foon as the Rumour was fpread, that the French Army was marching thro' Campagna di Roma, the Malecontents, who hated King Alphonfo no less than they had hated his Father and Grand-father, because of their Cruelty, Avarice, and Impiety, took up Arms in moft Places. The Town
of Aquila, and all the Province of Abruzzo revolted openly, fet up the French Banners, and Fabricius Colonna took Poffeffion of feveral Fortreffes in the Name of King Charles.
This Uproar foon communicated itself thro' the whole Realm, in feveral Places of which there still remained many of the Angevin Party. King Alphonfo feeing the French Army approach, and not daring to quit Naples, for fear it fhould follow the Example of other Parts of the Kingdom, came to an uncommon Resolution, by which he was in hopes of reclaiming the People: He quitted his Crown, and placed it on the Head of his Son Ferdinand, a young Prince of a brave and generous Difpofition, and beloved by the Neapolitans, proclaimed him King at Naples, and, without any further Stay, fled himfelf in his Galleys to Mazara in Sicily.
In the mean time Charles advanced forward, Veletri. and arrived at Veletri, Jan. 29th, having dined at Marigna; from whence Borgia escaped, which from that Time fully fatisfied the King, that the Favour the Pope pretended to fhew him at Rome was only feigned; and, tho' he used all Endeavours to clear himself from having any hand in this Escape, the King did not believe him.
The French King being juft arrived Montefortino. upon the Frontiers of the Kingdom of Naples, Engilbert of Cleves, Count of Nevers, who led the Vanguard of the Army, begun to enter on Action, attacking Montefortino, and feized it Sword in Hand. He then laid Siege to the Fortress of Mount St. John, and forced it with the fame Vigour, put all to the Sword, and reduced it to Ashes ; which was done to terrify the Country.
This Execution made the Kingdom of St. Germans. Naples tremble, and intimidated the new King's Army, who had advanced as far as St. Germans with fifty Squadrons and fix thousand In
fantry, all choice Soldiers, commanded by good Officers. The Place was the Key of Naples, strongly fortified by Situation, and by three well-built Caftles, encompaffed partly with Marshes, and partly with Mountains, very difficult of Accefs. It being neceffary for Charles to pass the River of Garigliano, and a very narrow Lane, before he could go forward, Ferdinand of Naples was determined to guard this Paffage, or perish. Charles was aware of the Difficulty in forcing it, but, trufting to the Bravery of his Troops, he marched up to it.
Lewis of Armagnac, Count of Guife, and afterwards Duke of Nemours, had that Day the Command of the Vanguard, and came up with two thoufand Foot and three hundred Horfe; and as foon as he appeared, he fpread fo great a Terror in the Enemy's Army, that, in fpight of all that Ferdinand could do, they mostly difbanded, forfook him,and, St.Germans furrendering, he had no other Way to take, but to repair with part of his Troops to Capua, whilft others by his Orders getting into Naples and Cajeta, the Remainder deferted.
The Difficulty of fuch Conjunctures as these is, that there are feveral Misfortunes to fear at the fame Time, and one cannot be avoided without being liable to fall into the other. Ferdinand fled to Capua, because a strong Place, and always well-affected to the Houfe of Arragon; but his Prefence was as neceffary at Naples, to encourage that Capital to continue firm to his Intereft, which was quite difmayed at the Lofs of St. Germans. The Queen, whom he had left there, wrote to him, and conjured him to come without a Moment's Delay, to prevent the general Revolt of the People, who were upon the Point of receiving the French.
On this Advice Ferdinand fet out from Capua, promifing the Inhabitants to return the next Day, leaving John James Trivulca, one of his moft experienced Officers, whom he most confided in, to command in
his Abfence: But, as foon as Ferdinand was got to Naples, this Lord went to Charles, and affured him, that himfelf and the Inhabitants of Capua waited only for his Orders to deliver themselves up to him.
Trivulca made too agreeable a Compliment, Capua. not to be received with all the Welcome poffible His Majefty affured him, that neither he nor the Inhabitants of Capua fhould ever repent their having had recourfe to his Clemency; and accordingly the King took Poffeffion of this fine City, and he immediately gave Trivulca a confiderable Command in his Army. Italy was furprized at this Lord's Conduct, who till then had paffed for a Man of fo much Bravery and Integrity, as to be incapable of fuch a Step; but he protefted feveral times afterwards, that he had acted in this particular with Ferdinand's Confent, in hopes of making fome tolerable Agreement for his Maiter with Charles. Be that as it will, Ferdinand, who was coming back to Capua, hearing what had paffed, turned fhort for Naples. On the Way, he was informed, that the Inhabitants had fent a Meffenger to the French King with an Offer to furrender.
Notwithstanding this, he went into the Town again, and, having called together the Chief of the Nobility and People, fpoke to them in fo very affecting a Manner, that Tears fell from the Eyes of feveral of the Standers by, but had no other Effect; this Prince, therefore, refolved to quit à Place which he could not keep, fet fire to the Ships lying in the Port, and went a-board his Galleys, with his Queen, Jane his Daughter, the old Queen his Grandfather's Wife, and a few Lords, who would not forfake him in his Misfortunes, and failed to the Ifle of Ijchia, thirty Miles from Naples, to wait there for fome favourable Opportunity of recovering his Affairs.
Charles, by Ferdinand's Flight, was left Naples. Mafter of almost all the Kingdom, and made his Entry into Naples on the 22d of February
with the Acclamations of the People: He was himfelf furprized at his Succefs, and he had Reafon to be fo, having paffed the Alps without either Money or proper Provifions for fuch a great Expedition; but then, on the other fide, feveral of the Princes of Italy continued quiet, for no other Reason, than that they believed fo rafh a Project would come to nothing: And, had he met with more Oppofition in his Paffage, his Army must have perished for want of Forage and Provifion, through the Rigour of the Seafon alone. His furprising Succefs on fuch an ill-concerted Scheme was, therefore, by all Europe, attributed to the particular Providence of God, who defigned thereby to punish the enormous Crimes of the three laft Kings of Naples.
In the next Place, the Caftles of Naples were attacked, and carried in about eight or ten Days, tho' Ferdinand had left fome Troops to defend them; in which a great Quantity of Artillery, Arms, and Provifion were found. The reft of the Cities foon followed the Example of the Capital; fo that in fifteen Days Charles conquered the whole Kingdom of Naples, except Brindes.
His Majefty's whole Expedition, and the inceffant Succefs of his Arms, if maturely confidered, will not appear inferior to Julius Cæfar himfelf, having conquered, with fo great Eafe, wherever he came, that in all the Expedition he never had occafion to display one Banner, or break a Spear against an Enemy in the open Field; and, as Pope Alexander ufed to fay, The French had over-run all Italy with Wooden Spurs: Nay, a great many Preparations which he had made, were found altogether fuperfluous, particularly his Fleet, which had been equipped at a great Charge, by the Vio-. lence of the Weather being driven to the Inland of Corfica, was not yet arrived in any Part of the Kingdom; fo that on Account of domeftick Broils, the Wisdom of the Italian Princes were baffled, and a large and