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To avoid this War it was, that Ludovic joined in exciting Charles to undertake the Conquest of Naples, putting him in Hopes of the Affiftance of all his Forces; and had alfo a further Design to make ufe of Charles's Aid to become Master of the Dutchy of Milan, and difpoffefs his Nephew, for which End he had already taken fome private Meafures.

There were at that Time two eminent Statesmen that wholly influenced King Charles's Mind, who were Stephen de Vers, his Chamberlain, and William Briconnet, his Treasurer, General, and Bishop of St. Malo, and the War was at firft agreed on by their Advice: But Briconnet, having afterwards more thoroughly confidered the Confequences that might enfue from the Undertaking, became of a quite contrary Opinion; whereby the Matter was then laid afide, but foon after it came again under Confideration, and was debated in Council. At length his first Determination for War prevailing, he rejected the pacifick Counfels of his beft Advifers, and concluded a Treaty with Ludovic's Ambaffadors. The Substance of which was, 'That his Majefty's Army fhould have

a free Paffage thro' the State of Milan, and that the < faid Dutchy fhould at their own Charge provide him with 500 Men, to be ready to join the French Army, and affift them in their Undertaking. Moreover, that the French in Genoa fhould be allowed




to equip what Number of Veffels they pleafed for their own Service during the War; alfo, that Ludevic, before the March of his Army, fhould lend C Charles 20,000 Ducats. On the other hand, the King obliged himself to defend that Dutchy against any Power whatsoever, to maintain Ludovic in his Government, and during the War to keep 200 of his Troops within the City offt, for the Service of Milan; and at laft, if the War was fuccefsful, to beftow the Principality of Tarranto on Ludovic.'


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The French Writers take notice on this Occafion, that there was not Wisdom in the King's Council, nor Money in his Coffers, nor Affurance of Allies, fufficient to carry on the War; for in Italy he had none but the perfidious Ludovic attached to his Intereft.



Guicciardin, on the other fide, fays, This was the Estate of the Kingdom of France; it was very populous in Multitudes of Men; for Wealth and Riches, every particular Region most fertile and plentiful; for Glory in Arms most flourishing and ' renowned; a Policy well directed, Difcipline adminiftred, an Authority dreadful, and in Opinion and Hope most mighty; laftly, their general Conditions and Faculties fo well furnished, as perhaps it was not more happy in thefe mortal Felicities, fince 'the Days of Charlemain, and was newly amplified in C every one of the three Parts, wherein Gaul stood di'vided by the Antients for 40 Years before Charles


the VIIth reduced Normandy, and the Dutchy of Guyenne, holden by the English, to the Obedience of 'the French Crown: Lewis the XIth reduced Provence, Part of Burgundy, and almost all Picardy, and Charles the VIIIth, by Marriage, annexed Brittany to the Crown of France.'


Therefore the King could not defire to be in a better Situation for the Conqueft of Naples, a fit Opportunity now offering to make him furmount the Renown of his Predeceffors; for, if he overcame Naples, a ready Way would be opened to bring under Subjection the Empire of the Turks.

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There then refided at Charles's Court Fonfeca, Ambaffador from Ferdinand and Ifabella of Spain, whofe Commiffion was, as Charles had fo generously restored to Ferdinand the Countries by his Father mortgag'd to Lewis the XIth, in return for that Favour, to enter into a League with Charles, not to difturb or oppofe him in his defigned Expedition on Naples;


and for this End a Treaty was figned by the refpective


However, on the Rumours of this War, the King of Naples fent to offer Charles Homage, and to pay him a yearly Tribute of 50,000 Crowns This he rejected, and publickly declared, he would carry on the War with Vigour, which made fo great an Impreffion on the poor King of Naples, that, about the Begin ning of the Year 1494, he died of Grief, and was fucceeded by Alphonfo.


In the mean time Charles was getting his Army ready, in order to proceed to Naples, Lyons. and in July the King departed for Lyons, (having first conferred the Regency of his Kingdom upon Peter, Duke of Bourbon) where he remained fome Time, being divided in his Mind, whether he fhould go on with the War, or return back: At last he paffed on to Vienne, where again he was doubtful a-while, and then fet out for Aft; but here, being taken ill of the Small-pox, and likely to die, he was obliged to continue there above a Month to recover his Health. During this Stay his Soldiers were employ'd in drawing his Cannon over the Mountains, which they with great Difficulty effected.


Whilft Charles was at Aft, he sent Comines AmAft. baffador to the feveral States of Italy, particularly Venice, Rome, and Florence, to defire their Advice and Affiftance in his defigned Expedition, and to declare, that his Mafter had no Defign on their Towns or Liberties; that his only Aim was to procure the Reftitution of the Kingdom of Naples; and that, when he had conquered it, his Intention was, with God's Affiftance, to make War on the Turks, for the Advantage of Chriftianity. The Senate of Venice answered Charles's Ambaffador, That it was


not for them to give Advice to fo great a King; that they could not affift him in his Expedition, for Fear of the Turks; but that they fhould be glad to

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• fee him in Italy, and fhould be more difpofed to affift him, than traverse his Designs.'

Charles's Ambaffadors, both at Rome and Florence, received only general Anfwers, without any Affurance of Affiftance, yet the Expedition went on; the Army raised for this great Enterprize confifted of no more than 1600 Gens d'Arms, each having two Archers on Horfeback; befides 200 Gentlemen, three or four hundred Light-horse, and 12,000 Foot, half Swiss, and half French: The Commanders under the King were the Duke of Orleans, Lewis de la Tremoville, the Marfhals de Gie, de Rieux, and D'Aubigny the Scot, all Men of uncommon Merit in the Field, wherein they had fignalized their Prudence and Valour on many Occafions. Charles was alfo accompanied by a great Number of young Noblemen, who went Voluntiers, all very fit for a Day of Battle, but no ways proper in Affairs that required great Fatigue, or length of Time to accomplish them, not being able to undergo Hardships.

Alphonfo of Naples was not wanting on his Part in making Preparations to oppofe the French, and, as he was well affured Ludovic was one of those who stirred up France to undertake the Conqueft of Naples, he came to a Refolution to attack Ludovic in his Nephew's Country, hoping thereby to drive him out of Milan before the French could arrive in Italy, and for that Purpose sent an Army into Romania, commanded by young Ferdinand his Son, and another on board his Fleet, under the Command of his Brother Frederick ; the latter landed at Rapulo, in hopes that the Genoefe would take Arms for his Affiftance; but at that Inftant the French Fleet, under the Command of the


*Robert Stuart, Lord of Aubigny, and Marshal of France, called the Scot, from being born in Scotland, was Knight of the Order of St. Michael, and commanded the Forces fent over by Charles the VIIIth to affift our Henry the VIIth, when Earl of Richmond, and was at the Battle of Bofworth; he was in great Favour with Lewis the XIth, and was filed by the French the Flower of Chivalry.

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Duke of Orleans, came up with the Neapolitans, engaged and beat them, fo that they were obliged to retire to Leghorn.

And at the fame time the Marshal D'Aubigny fet out from France with Troops, in order to oppose Alphonfo's Designs, who put his Inftructions fo expeditiously in Execution, that he out-marched Ferdinand's Army, and got before them, whereby their getting into Remania was prevented. By thefe Means neither of Alphonfo's Armies were of any Service, and foon after they were difbanded; so that Frederick had nothing to do but to return to Naples, to prevent his being taken Prifoner, which accordingly he did, and Ferdinand made the best of his Way to Rome; and it may be properly faid of these two Armies, that they appeared and disappeared in a Moment.


Such was the first Action of this War, that happened on the eighth of September, the News of which the King received with great Joy on his Arrival at Turin.

The Anfwer Comines receiv'd from the Senate of Venice to his Propofal, being by no means fatisfactory to the King, his Majefty fent him again to that Republick, to try whether he could not perfuade them to affift him, but the Ambaffador found them immoveable in their Refolution to continue neuter: Still that did not deter Charles, he perfifted in his Refolution of proceeding, in which he was not a little encouraged, through the Succefs his Troops first met with; but being in want of Money, he borrowed the Dutchefs of Savoy's Rings, and at Caffal he took the fame Caffal. Freedom with the Marchionefs of Monferrat's Jewels, which he pawn'd for 20,000 Ducats.

Ludovic Sforza and his Spouse came to meet the King at Vigene, and accompanied him as far as Piacenza.



Charles arrived at Pavia the thirteenth of October, where he found Duke Galeazzo very

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