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SUB-CLASS 10. Leguminous fruits.

Tamarind, Tamarindus Indica.

St. John's Bread, or Carob, Ceratonia siliqua.

SUB-CLASS 11. Nut-fruits (Nuciculture).

Walnut, Juglans regia.

Japan walnut, Juglans Sieboldiana.

Black walnut, Juglans nigra.

Butternut, Juglans cinerea.

Pecan, Hicoria Pecan.

Shell-bark hickory, Hicoria ovata and H. laciniosa.

The Orchard and Vine Fruits.

European chestnut, Castanea vesca.
American chestnut, Castanea Americana.
Japan chestnut, Castanea Japonica.
Chinquapin, Castanea pumila.
Filbert, Corylus Avellana.
Litchi, Nephelium Litchi.
Ginkgo, Ginkgo biloba.
Almond, Prunus Amygdalus.

Russian almond, Prunus nana.
Tropical almond, Terminalia Catappa.
Cashew, Anacardium occidentale.
Pistacio, Pistacio vera.

SUB-CLASS 12. Palmaceous fruits.

Cocoa-nut, Cocos nucifera.

Date, Phoenix dactylifera.
And others.

SUB-CLASS 13. Miscellaneous tree-fruits.

Olive, Olea Europaa.

Pomegranate, Punica Granatum.

Papaw, Carica Papaya.

Hovenia, Hovenia dulcis.

Jujube, Zizyphus Jujuba, and others.

Myrica, Myrica Nagi (M. rubra).

Sea-grape, Coccoloba uvifera.

Otaheite gooseberry, Phyllanthus disticha.

Spanish lime, Melicocca bijuga.

Alligator pear, Persea gratissima.
Strawberry tree, Arbutus Unedo.
Mammee apple, Mammea Americana.



SUB-CLASS 1. Viticulture; comprising

Wine grape, Vitis vinifera.

Fox grape, Vitis Labrusca.

Summer grape, Vitis æstivalis,

Post-oak grape, Vitis æstivalis, var. Linsecomii.

Muscadine and Scuppernong grapes, Vitis rotundifolia.


Sand grape, Vitis rupestris.
River-bank grape, Vitis vulpina.
And other native species of vitis.

SUB-CLASS 2. Passifloraceous fruits.

Granadilla, Passiflora edulis.
And others.


SUB-CLASS 1. Bush-fruits.

Group a. Rubaceous fruits (cane-fruits, or bramble-fruits).

Raspberry, Rubus Idæus.

Black-cap raspberry, Rubus occidentalis.

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* Small-fruits. A term applied to all small and berry-like fruits which are produced upon bushes or perennial herbaceous plants; as currant, blackberry, raspberry, strawberry. In Europe the strawberry is classed with garden vegetables. Small-fruits is an American term.

Bush-fruits. Fruits which are borne upon bushes, or small woody plants destitute of a central stem or axis. It is an English term, and is equivalent to small fruits, except that it does not include the strawberry.

Non-woody Fruits.

SUB-CLASS 2. Strawberry culture.

Garden strawberry, Fragaria Chiloensis.
Hautbois strawberry, Fragaria moschata.
Alpine strawberry, Fragaria vesca.
Virginian strawberry, Fragaria Virginiana.

SUB-CLASS 3. Cranberry culture.

Common cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon.

SUB-CLASS 1. Musaceous fruits.

Banana, Musa Sapientium.
Plantain, Musa paradisiaca.

SUB-CLASS 2. Pineapple.

Common pineapple, Ananas sativus.


Cactaceous fruits.

Prickly pear, Opuntia Tuna, and others.
Indian fig, Opuntia Ficus-Indica.
Barbadoes gooseberry, Pereskia aculeata.

SUB-CLASS 4. Miscellaneous herb-like fruits.
Cyphomandra, Cyphomandra betacea.
Ceriman, Monstera deliciosa.


Fruit-growing, in common with all agricultural pursuits, thrives best in certain geographical areas. That is, the business is not capable of equal development in all parts of the country. The chiefest determinative factor in the distribution of fruit-culture is climate. The particular quality or factor of climate which determines the fruit-zones differs with each

type or group of fruits; but in general it may be said that the relative annual temperature is the most influential factor.

The temperature determinant. It is customary to recognize three general climatal fruit-zones,—the temperate (typified by the apple and the peach), the semi-tropical (citrous tribes, fig, olive, pomegranate), and the tropical (cocoa-nut, banana, anona, mango). There are no positive limits of temperature which mark off or separate these zones; but it is enough for our purpose to say that the temperate zone is one which is marked by a long winter of freezing and by the deciduous types of fruits; the semitropical zone is one in which the winter is a short season of light frosts or only occasional freezes, and in which the fruit trees are evergreen or very nearly so; and the tropical zone is frostless, and is marked by evergreen and mostly ever-growing fruit-plants.

The limits of these climatal zones are exceedingly devious. In eastern North America, the northern limit of profitable fruit-growing is not far from the forty-fifth parallel, and the limit sinks considerably lower than this in the middle west, and rises much above it on the Pacific slope. The northern limit of the sub-tropical zone in the east is Northern Florida and a narrow area skirting the Gulf of Mexico, and upon the western side of the continent it extends in the valley climates as high as the fortieth parallel. The only portion of the tropical fruit-zone which lies in the United States is in extreme southern Florida, comprising about two

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