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as to machinery must depend upon the specific purpose for which the appliances are to be used. Apparatus which was devised a few years ago for the distribution of Paris green may be of no value for the application of such a thick compound as the Bordeaux mixture. .Whatever the outfit selected, the pump should be strong and powerful, with hard brass working parts, and capable of throwing much liquid with great force. In respect to nozzles, it may be said that there is no one kind which is best for all purposes. It is desirable that the liquid should reach the plant in the form of a very fine mist; but it is just as important that the nozzle should have the power of throwing the liquid to the desired point. In other words, there are two elements to be considered, the nozzle must have carrying power and delivering power. A fine mist at the orifice of the nozzle is of no use when the nozzle is thirty feet short of the bug. With many of the modern devices, the man who holds the hose in spraying rigs may stand eight or nine feet above the ground and he may use a pole twelve to fifteen feet in
Outfit for spraying strawberries and potatoes.
length, which will elevate his nozzle something like twenty-five feet from the ground; but many of our apple trees are fifty and sixty feet high. It will
therefore be seen that the liquid must carry itself twenty-five to thirty feet beyond the nozzle. For such purposes, a nozzle which distributes the liquid in a spray directly from its orifice is of small use. A nozzle must be had which throws a more or less solid stream, and the stream should break up when it reaches its destination. It will therefore be seen that it is practically impossible to secure a single nozzle which is best for all purposes. The grower should have at least two styles, one for short range and one for long range. The Cyclone types of nozzles are generally best when a very fine spray is desired for short range (consult Fig. 70).
Remarks similar to the above may be made for pumps; that is, there is no one best pump. We might divide all pumps into two general classes, those which deliver the liquid by force of gravity,
NOTE. The pictures of spraying machinery (Figs. 70 to 75, pages 362 to 367) are inserted only for the purpose of familiarizing the reader with a number of the different types of inventions which are useful in the work. They are not inserted for the purpose of recommending any of the devices, and there are many other machines, which are not shown in the engravings, which are equally as good.
Fig. 70. 1, 2, Cyclone Nozzles. 3, 4, Vermorel Nozzles. 5, Double Vermorel. 6, Longshank Vermorel. 7, Bordeaux Nozzle. 8, Undersprayer (Boekel). 9, Y for two nozzles. 10, Carnation Nozzle (Gould). 12, same, with pole attachment. 11, Masson Nozzle (Gould). 13, McGowen. 14, Graduated Spray. 15, 16, Lilly (Rumsey); 18, same, with long tube. 17, Calla (Gould). 19, Boss (Field Force Pump Co.). 20, 21, 22, Nixon Nozzles.
Fig. 71. 1, Galloway Knapsack. 2, Garfield (Field Force Pump Co.). 3, Deming Kerosene Emulsion Knapsack. 4, Eclipse (Morrill & Morley). 5, Excelsior (Stahl). 6, Dandy (Rumsey). 7, Douglas emulsion. 8, Knapsack at work. 9, Obsolete type of pump on a knapsack tank. 10, 11, 12, Wonder Pumps (Lewis).
Pumps and Nozzles.
as many of the potato sprayers do, and those which deliver it by the force of the pump. We have now come to believe that the force of gravity is not sufficient to do the work well, especially when Bordeaux mixture is to be used. Of the pump machines, there are several kinds, as those which derive their force from the suction of a piston and valves, and those which work from the force of compressed air. The accompanying illustrations (Figs. 70-75, pages 362-367) will show the reader some of the forms of pumps which are now manufactured, and will perhaps enable him to make an intelligent choice for his purpose. It may be said that knapsack pumps are very efficient, not only because they are powerful for their size but also because they enable the operator to stand very close to his work; but they are not adapted to work upon trees nor, in fact, upon large areas in this country, because labor is too high priced. For small areas, for experiment
Fig. 72. 1, Eureka Knapsack (Boekel). 2, Success Bucket Pump (Deming). 3, Common Bucket Pump. 4, Dart Bucket Pump (Gould). 5, Success Kerosene Bucket Pump (Deming). 6, Aquanette (Douglas). 7, Double-acting Aquanette (Douglas). 8, Handy cart rig. 9, Cart Sprayer (Field Force Pump Co.). 10, Economy Garden Engine.
Fig. 73. 1, Barrel Pump (Field Force Pump Co.). 2, Barrel Pump (Douglas). 3, Columbian (Douglas). 4, Double-acting Pump (Gould). 5, Nixon Tripod Pump. 6, McGowen's Automatic Poison Injector. 7, Clock Pump, and Dash Agitator (Gould). 8, Bean Pneumatic Pump. 9, Myer's Lever Bucket Pump. 10, Barrel Agitator (Gould). 11, Maud S. Pump (Maud S. Co.).
Fig. 74. 1, Empire (Field Force Pump Co.). 2, Eclipse (Morrill & Morley).' 3, Pomona (Gould). 4, Double Cylinder (Rumsey). 5, Geiger Pump. 6, Florida (Rumsey). 7, Columbia (Columbiana Co.).
Fig. 75. 1, Victor Outfit (Field Force Pump Co.). 2, Caswell Sled Sprayer. 3, Caswell Geared Sprayer. 4, Wagon Outfit (Morrill & Morley). 5, Mounted Barrel Sprayer. 6, Eureka Tank Outfit (Morrill & Morley).