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more than it does upon the accident of immunity from insects and fungi. There are four fundamental operations upon which all permanent success in most kinds of orchard culture depend, and their importance lies in something like the following order,- tillage, fertilizing, pruning, spraying. Spraying is the last to be understood, but this fact should not obscure the importance of the other three.
2. Spraying is an insurance.-There are always elements of risk in the growing of fruit. The chief of these is frost, a difficulty which can never be completely under our control. The second great element of risk is the injury wrought by insects and fungi, and the greater part of this injury can be averted by the sprays. Now, it is impossible to foretell by any considerable length of time, if any or all of the difficulties which are liable to harass the fruit-raiser will actually appear. One does not know if his buildings will burn, yet he insures them. We know that in four years out of five, some serious injury of insects or fungi may be confidently expected, and it is the part of wisdom to insure against it. The year 1894 was a season of remarkable invasion of apple-scab fungus in New York, and those persons who sprayed their orchards thoroughly had phenomenal results. These experiences, aided by many publications upon the subject, so advertised the value of the sprays that much more spraying was done in the state the next year than ever before. But it so happened, probably because of the dry spring, that comparatively few invasions of enemies
Spray Every Year.
occurred the next year; and the sprays generally gave small results. There arose, therefore, a considerable indifference or even opposition to spraying, which may be regretted when years of serious invasion arise. It is a common fault with farmers that they draw their conclusions from the behavior or experiences of each recurring season, and do not consider the aggregate results of a series of years. Every operation should rest upon some fundamental reason or philosophy, rather than upon any single half-understood experience.
3. Spraying is of some is of some value every year, upon apples, pears, plums, quinces, grapes, and various other fruits. Even in years of great immunity, nearly all sprayed orchards carry a better foliage than those which are untreated. So, wholly aside from the idea of insuring against risk, it is advisable to spray for those insects which are more or less abundant every year. Some insects and diseases appear late in the season, so that in any year the spray may be needed at some epoch in the season. It is, perhaps, useless to urge people to spray their orchards. Those per
sons who will not spare the trees this much of their attention will not be likely to do much in the way of tilling and fertilizing. One must grasp the entire body of principles of orchard management before he can hope for permanent rewards.
4. Spray thoroughly, or not at all.-Fully half the spraying which is commonly done is a waste of time and material. Squirting a few quarts of water at a tree as one hurries past it, is not spray
ing. A tree is thoroughly and honestly sprayed when it is wet all over, on all the branches and on both sides of all the leaves. An insect or a fungus is not killed until the poison is placed where the pest is. Bugs do not search for the poison, in order that they may accommodate the orchardist by committing suicide. The one spot which is not sprayed may be the very place where a bud-moth is getting
Fig. 66. Rack for spraying rig.
his dinner. On the other hand, there are many fruit-growers who spray with the greatest thoroughness and accuracy, and they are the ones who, in the long run, will get the fruit.
5. Prepare for next year's work during the winter.- Secure nozzles and pumps, and fix up the wagons. It is especially important that the wagons be handy. In very low orchards, a low truck may be needed, and in some cases a stone-boat is best; but most orchards will need some kind of a high rig, to enable the operator to reach the tops of the trees. Fig. 66 is a rig used by T. G. Yeomans & Sons, Walworth, N. Y. The tank holds 300 gallons. The pump is placed on the front of the rig (in the seat-rack), and one man drives and pumps. The horses are stopped at every tree. Two leads of hose are used, and two men stand on the rear platform
and direct the nozzle. These men have ample space, and the railing gives them security. A boy has been employed until recently to agitate the liquid with a large hoe. These three men and the boy cost $5.50 per day, and they can spray thoroughly about five acres of full-grown apple trees in a day. An automatic agitator has now been employed in place of the boy, with good
used by A. H. Dutton, Youngstown, N. Y. Many other efficient spraying outfits are in use, but these two will serve to illustrate the kind of work which is needed to be done.
The greater number of fruit-growers an ordinary
wagon, with box or
Fig. 67. Rig for spraying.
rack, and a single 50-gallon barrel; but if one has much spraying to do, it is generally economy to use a larger tank, especially if water has to be hauled some distance; and more thorough work can be done in old orchards if the operator is elevated above the barrel. The use of long pieces
of half-inch gas-pipe with the nozzle attached to the end, is advisable when one is working in the tops of the trees, but they are apt to be a nui
sance if one works from the ground. They are awkward if more than ten feet long. We generally prefer to use a bamboo fishingpole, and secure the hose to it near its upper end, letting the lower part of the pole remain free. Most operators have insufficient
hose. For work in old or
chards, the run should be at least fifteen feet long. For yards and ornamental plants, a cart-like rig, like that shown in Fig. 68, is handy and efficient, and others are shown in Fig. 72. A home-made rig for spraying strawberries and potatoes is seen in Fig. 69. It is simply a barrel pump mounted on wheels, with three Vermorel nozzles rigged on the tail-board, so as to cover as many rows of plants.
6. The style of pump and nozzle to be used depends almost wholly upon the particular kind of work to be done.*-The reader will now see that the advice
*The reader should consult Lodeman's "Spraying of Plants" for more specific advice on this subject.