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which has accumulated during the winter and spring; it is capable of putting the soil in fine mechanical condition, and this condition is as important as fertility; it warms up the soil and sets the plants quickly to work; it turns under the herbage when that herbage is soft and moist and when there is moisture in the soil, so that the herbage soon breaks down and decays. All catch crops on the orchard should be plowed under just as soon as the ground is dry enough in the spring, for these crops soon pump the water from the soil and cause it to bake and cement together, and the longer they remain the more difficult it is to cause them to rot when turned under. Hard and woody herbage, plowed under late in the season, may remain as a foreign body in the soil all summer, breaking the connection between the upper and the lower soil, and thereby preventing the upward movement of the water and causing the top soil to completely dry out. The chief value of crimson clover, rye, or other catch crop in the orchard lies in its fall growth and its protection of the soil in winter, not in its growth in spring.

Few people are aware that the season of growth in most woody plants extends scarcely to midsummer. It is worthy of note that most, if not all, native trees and shrubs cease growing very early in the season. This is no doubt one reason why they are able to endure the winter. Plants which cease to grow early, and which mature their wood well, are often said to be determinate in their growth,

Early Growth of Trees.



while those of opposite habit are said to be indeterminate. It is, of course, apparent that plants of indeterminate growth are not hardy, as a rule. series of careful measurements of growth was made upon various trees and shrubs at Lansing, Michigan, in 1886, and some of the records are presented below.* The last date in each case designates the termination of of growth for the for the year. It will be observed that very few of the plants grew until July. This fact is illustration and proof that in our rigorous climate cultivation should stop early, and that it should be vigorous at the opening of the season.


Acer dasycarpum-May 12th, 1 in.; 16th, 2 in.; 25th, 4 in.; June 6th, 7 in.; 13th, 9 in.; 20th, 10 in.; 29th, 12 in. *Acer Pennsylvanicum-May 12th, 2 in.; 18th, 4 in.; 5 in.; 26th, 7 in.


Acer platanoides-May 12th, 3 in.; 16th, 4 in.; 20th, 5 in. Acer Pseudo-Platanus-May 14th, 6 in.; 18th, 8 in.; 16th, 12 in.; 30th, 13 in.; June 6th, 20 in.; 13th, 23 in.; 20th, 24 in. Acer rubrum-May 26th, 5 in.; 30th, 6 in.; June 6th, 9 in.; 13th, 10 in.

* Bailey, Bull. 31, Mich. Agr. College, 73.

In making the measurements recorded above, one average shoot was selected on each plant, and measured from time to time during the growing season. The drought may have checked growth to some degree, although it did not become severe until the end of June. Most of the plants stood upon the campus, with no cultivation. A few were younger, and stood in the rows of a closely planted arboretum, where they received occasional cultivation, or in a newly-planted group, where the soil was frequently hoed; these plants are designated by asterisks.

Acer spicatum-May 18th, 1 in.; 20th, 2 in.; 30th, 3 in.; June 6th, 5 in.; 13th, 6 in.; 29th, 10 in.; July 5th, 11 in., 11th, 12 in.

Æsculus glabra—May 12th, 5 in.; 14th, 10 in.; 18th, 11 in.; 20th, 12 in.; 26th, 13 in.; 30th, 14 in.

18th, 1 in.; 30th,

Esculus Hippocastanum-May 5th, 2 in.; 12th, 5 in.; 14th, 7 in.; 20th, 10 in.; 25th, 13 in.; 30th, 13 in. Esculus parviflora-May 5th, 2 in.; 25th, 6 in.; June 6th, 8 in.; 10th, 9 in.; 16th, 10 in.; 29th, 12 in. Alnus glutinosa-May 14th, 1⁄2 in.; June 6th, 3 in.; 20th, 4 in. *Alnus maritima-May 20th, 1 in.; Alnus serrulata-May 18th, 4 in., June 6th, 13 in.; 13th, 14 in.; 20th, 16 in. Amelanchier Canadensis-May 12th, 1 in.; 14th, 2 in.; 18th,


26th, 2 in.;

June 1st, 3 in.

25th, 8 in.;

30th, 12 in.;

3 in.; 20th, 4 in.; 26th, 7 in.; 30th, 8 in.

Amorpha fruticosa-May 12th, 1 in.; 14th, 2 in.; 18th, 4 in.; 20th, 6 in.; 26th, 10 in.; 30th, 11 in.; June 6th, 12 in.

Ampelopsis quinquefolia-May 26th, 14 in.; 30th, 16 in.; June 6th, 24 in.; 13th, 30 in.; 20th, 36 in.; 29th, 38 in.

Aralia spinosa-May 26th, 4 in.; 30th, 5 in.; June 13th, 51⁄2 in.; 20th, 6 in.

Berberis vulgaris-May 26th, 8 in.; June 1st, 12 in.; 6th, 14 in.; 13th, 17 in; 20th, 18 in.; 29th, 20 in.

Betula alba, var.-May 12th, in.; 20th, 2 in.; 25th, 4 in.; 30th, 5 in.; June 6th, 7 in.; 10th, 8 in.; 19th, 10 in. *Betula lenta-May 26th, 1 in.;

20th, 10 in.

June 1st, 2 in.; 13th, 6 in.;

Betula lutea-May 25th, 1 in.; 30th, 2 in.; June 6th, 3 in.; 13th, 4 in.; 29th, 5 in.

Betula papyrifera-May 18th, 1 in.; 20th, 2 in.; 26th, 3 in.; June 1st, 31⁄2 in.; 6th, 4 in.; 20th, 5 in.

*Betula alba var. populifolia-May 18th, 1 in.; 20th. 11⁄2 in.; 26th, 3 in.; June 1st, 4 in.; 6th, 6 in.; 13th, 7 in.; 19th, 12 in.; 29th, 14 in.

Carpinus Caroliniana-May 25th, 1 in.; 30th, 2 in.; June 6th, 4 in.; 13th, 5 in.; 20th, 6 in.

Early growth of Trees.


Carya alba-May 20th, 3 in.; 30th, 8 in.; June 6th, 9 in.; 13th, 91⁄2 in.

Carya amara-May 25th, 3 in.; 30th, 31⁄2 in.; June 3rd, 4 in.; 13th, 41⁄2 in.

*Carya sulcata-May 18th, 6 in.; 20th, 8 in.; 26th, 12 in.; June 1st, 14 in.

*Castanea pumila-May 18th, 3 in.; 20th, 4 in.; June 19th,

12 in.

Castanea vesca-May 16, 1 in.; 26tn, 2 in.; June 1st, 21⁄2 in.; 13th, 3 in.

*Catalpa Kampferi-May 16th, 5 in.; 18th, 6 in.; 26th, 12 in.; 30th, 14 in.; June 6th, 16 in.; 13th, 20 in.; 20th, 24 in.; 29th, 28 in.

June 13th, 10 in.
June 29th, 15 in.
June 20th, 18 in.

Celtis occidentalis-May 18th, 3 in.; *Cercis Canadensis-May 18th, 2 in., Cladrastis tinctoria-May 9th, 1 in.; Cornus florida-May 25th, 2 in.; 30th, 21⁄2 in.; June 6th, 3 in.; 13th, 4 in.; 20th, 5 in.; 29th, 6 in.

*Cornus Sibirica-May 16th, 1 in.; June 29th, 12 in. Crataegus Crus-galli-May 9th, 1 in.; June 13th, 7 in. Crataegus Oxyacantha-May 12th, 3 in.; June 29th, 22 in. *Euonymus atropurpureus-May 18th, 6 in.; June 19th, 13 in. Fagus ferruginea-May 18th, 2 in.; 26th, 5 in.; 30th, 8 in. *Fraxinus pubescens-May 14th, 2 in.; 18th, 4 in.; 20th, 6 in.; 26th, 8 in.

Gleditschia triacanthos-June 1st, 2 in.; 20th, 12 in.

July 10th, 37 in.
June 29th, 6 in.

Liriodendron Tulipifera—May 26th, 1 in.; 30th, 2 in.; June 6th, 3 in.; 29th, 5 in.; July 5th, 6 in. *Maclura aurantiaca-May 18th, 1 in.; Magnolia acuminata-May 20th, 1 in.; Philadelphus coronarius-May 12th, 3 in.: June 19th, 19 in. Platanus occidentalis-May 26th, 1 in.; July 5th, 9 in. *Platanus orientalis-May 18th, 3 in.; 20th, 4 in.; 26th, 8 in.; June 1st, 12 in.; 6th, 16 in.; 13th, 24 in.; 29th, 40 in.; July 11th, 44 in.; 25th, 52 in.; Aug. 3d, 56 in., still growing.

*Populus alba var. Bolleana — May 12th, 2 in.; August 3rd,

Populus grandidentata var. pendula-May 12th, 21⁄2 in.; June 29th, 17 in.

Populus monilifera-May 16th, 2 in.; June 19th, 6 in.

Prunus nana—.
-May 16th, 3 in.; 26th, 5 in.; June 1st, 7 in.
Prunus Pissardii-May 8th, 5 in.;

Prunus serotina-May 12th, 7 in.;

June 13th 10 in.

30th, 14 in.

Prunus Virginiana-May 12th, 3 in.; 26th, 6 in.

Pyrus Aucuparia-May 3d, 1⁄2 *Pyrus Malus-May 9th, 2 in.;

Quercus alba-May 12th, 2 in.;

in.; June 6th, 12 in.
26th, 8 in.

18th, 6 in.; 26th, 13 in.

*Quercus bicolor-May 9th, 2 in.; July 5th, 12 in.

Quercus coccinea var. tinctoria-May 12th, 1 in.; June 13th, 7 in.

*Quercus ilicifolia-May 14th, 3 in.; June 6th, 13 in.
*Quercus imbricaria-May 12th, 2 in.; June 6th, 20 in.

Quercus macrocarpa-May 16th, 4 in.; 20th, 6 in.; 25th,

12 in.; 30th, 13 in.; June 6th, 14 in.

Quercus nigra-May 12th, 5 in.; June 6th, 14 in.

Ribes floridum-May 12th, 2 in.;
Robinia hispida-May 18th, 2 in.;
Robinia Pseudacacia-May 12th, 1

June 6th, 12 in.

June 19th, 12 in.

in.; 18th, 2 in.; 26th,

3 in.; 30th, 4 in.: June 6th, 5 in.; 13th 6 in.; 20th, 7 in.; 29th, 9 in.; Jnly 5th, 10 in.

*Salix Babylonica-May 9th, 1⁄2 in.; 12th, 2 in.; 16th, 3 in.; 20th, 4 in.; 26th, 6 in.; June 1st, 12 in.; 13th, 16 in.; July 11th, 27 in.; 19th, 34 in.; 25th, 40 in.; Aug. 3d, 42 in.

Syringa vulgaris-May 3d, 4 in.; 9th, 8 in.; 12th, 12 in.; 18th, 13 in.; 26th, 14 in.

Tilia Americana-May 14th, 2 in.; 18th, 3 in.; 20th, 5 in.; 26th, 11 in.; June 1, 12 in.; 6th, 13 in.

Vitis riparia-May 14th, 1 in.; 30th, 15 in.

3. Tillage should generally be stopped in late sumor very early fall. The tree has completed its growth. It must now ripen and prepare for winter. It can spare some of the moisture which comes with

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