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with which you are acquainted. Can you suggest any yourself?
(2) What examples of the "Geographical treatment of subjects" are you able to find in Dewey? What is meant by the statement that "locality is the arranging characteristic, and works on a subject treated locally go with the subject?" Give examples.
(3) Classify the articles in the current "Nineteenth Century and After" by both schemes.
(4) Classify by both schemes with cross-references. The examples illustrate important points :
Harrison, Frederic. The History of the Manor House at Guildford.
Nevill, H. L. Campaigns on the North-West Frontier of India.
Wallace, A. Russell. Malay Archipelago.
Surrey Parish Registers.
Mummery, A. F.
Around St. Helena.
A History of the American Bar.
My Climbs in the Alps and the Caucasus.
Bryce, James. Holy Roman Empire.
Paine, R. D. Book of Buried Treasure: a true history of the gold, jewels, and plate of pirates, galleons, etc., which are sought for to this day.
(5) Test in Theory. Answer the following in not more than forty minutes without reference to your textbooks :
'Classify by subject and then by form." Define the terms, and the difference between "outer" and "inner" form, and then explain the statement, with examples.
Lesson X History and its Collaterals.
54. This is by far the largest class in the Subject Classification, and employs the letters O-X with a notation extending to nearly 1000 places under each letter. We must turn to the Introduction for some general hints which are of profound importance in this connexion. History "includes civil, church, military, and social history, and, excepting the case of individual churches, all national ecclesiastical histories are assembled at the country to which they relate". The provisions
we have underlined are peculiar to this scheme; in the Decimal Classification ecclesiastical and church history are arranged at 270-279. The remainder of section 24 of the Introduction must be studied with care.
55. First general principle. There is no division between history and geography, as in Dewey. The history and geography of a country go at the same number, but may be differentiated by the categorical number, '10 applied to history, and 33, applied to geography. When this differentiation is made the simple number is used for general works. which partake of the nature of both history and geography. Second general principle. Each country is arranged, as are the divisions 930-990 of Dewey, into Period Divisions and Local Geographical Conditions; and the rules apply to both schemes that
(1) General works go at main number of division.
(2) General works on a period go at the number of the period.
(3) Works on a locality, from whatever aspect, or upon whatever period, go at the number of the locality.
See Lesson IX (par. 52 (3)).
56. Divisions O000-0282 are the generalia of History and Travel, and works on individual countries, churches, campaigns, or archæology or maps of individual countries must not go here, but under their appropriate countries with categorical numbers. In the whole class the local number is to be preferred whenever possible. The only exception to the general nature of Ooo0-0282 is found at 0025-0044, which takes works on certain nations which no longer exist. 57. The outline of the class is simple:
Universal history and geography.
Oceania and Asia.
Europe, General and South.
America and Polar Regions.
It is remarkable in comparison with other schemes for the ample provision made for the British Islands, and the divisions much-desired in Dewey, United Kingdom and British Empire, are supplied.
58. Biography is removed bodily from history, and marked X. This divides into :
Collective Biography, universal.
Collective Biography, by subjects.
(This is a division similar to that of Dewey, but in this scheme
it is restricted to Collective works.)
Genealogy and Heraldry.
Epitaphs, Family Registers, Portraits, Autographs, etc.
In Individual Biography all works are marked X with the
The Life of Browning, X3434.
This alphabetical table is also used for marking individual poets, dramatists, novelists, and any other class of works in which alphabetical order is desirable. Another method, approved by the system (and practised by Mr. Brown at Islington) is to ignore the alphabetical number table, to arrange works in which alphabetical order is desired under the class letter, and to add the three first letters of the author's or biographee's name; as:—
Life of Browning. XBRO.
Final Hints and Conclusion,
59. The student who has followed this course faithfully has done severe and valuable work, such as has not before been exacted from students in this country; and he should now be equipped to apply the Decimal or the Subject Classifications to any type of library. It has been impossible to be exhaustive, and questions of theory have been avoided altogether in the lessons proper, although, in justice to the student, a test in theory has been imposed regularly. We can only urge the student who has the Library Association examination in view to bear in mind the following hints:
(1) To revise the theory of the subject, according to the requirements laid down in the preliminary to these lessons. A quick revision may be made by reading the chapter on Classification in Jevons' "Principles of Science," the writer's paper on "The Grammar of Classification," Richardson's Classification," and Brown's "Manual of Library Classification" in this order.
(2) Go through the lessons as a whole and revise the principles and decisions.
(3) Illustrate answers, wherever possible, by examples. We consider this most important.
(4) In the essay submitted at the examination keep the following points clearly in mind:
It is an examination to show your knowledge of method rather than to add to the total sum of knowledge on the matter. Thus, if you are to prepare a classification scheme, it must show main classes, generalia, subject, and local divisions; it must have an orthodox notation; it must possess an index; it should be set out in summary at the beginning; and it should be prefaced by an introduction explaining the scheme and how to use it.
(5) In your essay and in your answers, as in your writing everywhere," be brief, be brief, be not too brief".
60. It only remains for us to wish the student good fortune, not only in the examination, but in the future pursuit of this subject, which is the highest art of the librarian.
Readings for Lesson X.
BROWN. The Subject Classification.
Read Main Tables O to the end, paying careful attention to the notes.
Re-read the Introduction; make sure now that you grasp it entirely.
Learn U-X on p. 82.
DEWEY. Decimal Classification.
Re-read the Introduction.
Be sure in both schemes that you have an adequate idea of the meaning of all terms used in the main classes, and main divisions, and of as many other terms in the tables as you can master. Look up any articles you can find on the practical guiding of classified libraries.
Revise further any readings in the earlier lessons which you do not remember clearly.
Check your memory to see if you retain the summaries that you were directed to learn.
(1) What advantages, practical or theoretical, do you imagine the arrangement of History and Geography in the
Subject Classification to have over the arrangement of the same subjects in the Decimal Classification?
(2) Biography may be arranged in several ways. Explain them.
(3) Classify by Dewey and Brown :
Strachey, Lady. The Later Letters of Edward Lear.
Turner, Samuel. My Climbing Adventures in Four Continents.
Escott, T. H. S.
Napoleon and His Coronation.
Masters of English Journalism
Hulme. Flags of All the Nations.
Rodway, James. In the Guiana Forest.
Barber, Rev. Henry. British Family Names.
a Study of Per
Smyth, C. P. Madeira Meteorologic: a paper read before the Royal
Cæsar, Julius. Commentaries on the Gallic War.
Cox, J. C.
Terry, C. S.
Rambles in Surrey.
Index to the Papers Relating to Scotland described or calendared in the Historical Manuscripts Commission's Reports.
Schliemann, Henry. Mycena: Researches and Discoveries at
(4) Describe the classification guides, mechanical and otherwise, you would provide in an open-access library arranged by the Subject Classification.
(5) Test in Theory. Answer the following in not more than forty minutes without reference to your textbooks ::(a) Compare the merits of rigid and relative locations. (b) Criticise the axiom that it does not matter where a subject appears in a classification so long as it is indexed.
Test Examination II.
The student should not consult his notes or any textbook of classification in answering the questions. In classifying the titles the Indexes of Dewey and Brown must not be used.
(1) How far is a classification of knowledge likely to differ from a classification of books? Give a typical example of each, bringing out the points of difference. "L.A. Exam. Papers," 1908 (7).
(2) In how many sizes would you range a classified library