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Dr. Wilkinson of Bath, who concludes his observations as follows: “ With Mr. Cooper (professor Cooper) I think, it is most probable, that the good qualities (of the marl) are principally to be attributed to the iron.”
Crops. Letters from gentlemen of great respectability were read on the subject of the crops. It appears that the Hessian fly has destroyed many fields of wheat in the state of Virginia. In Maryland and Delaware, it has done much injury. In Pennsylvania the harvest promises to be abundant. The cut worm has every where seriously affected the corn, and unless the season should be uncommonly favourable, not more than one-third of the usual quantity of Indian corn will be grown.
New plough. T. M. Randolph Esqr. of Virginia has presented to the president of the society a hill-side plough; this implement will no doubt be found an important acquisition to the farmers of Pennsylvania.
Hare's blow-pipe.-From a Letter of Dr. Wilkinson of Bath to the president we make the following extract: “I avail myself of the present opportunity in mentioning that the experiments noticed by Dr. Clarke of Cambridge with an apparatus containing a condensed mixture of the oxygene and hydrogene gases in the same proportion as they enter into the composition of water, have been repeated in Bath about two months since by myself, with the valuable assistance of Sir H. Davy. We observed very little difference in our experiments from those published in the American Memoirs of 1804 by Mr. Hare, although the heat from this inflamed mixture is very intense, yet it only fused the earths, but did not reduce any to the metallic state. On every account I prefer Mr. Hare's mode of conducting the experiments, to the one adopted by Dr. Clarke.
Sheep. Several applications were made from the southward for the broad tail Tunis sheep, experience having proved (as the writers assert) that that breed possesses advantages superior to the Merino.--Meeting of the 12th. June.
CRITICISM.-- The Colonial Policy of Great Britain, considered with Rela
tion to the North American Provinces, and West Indian Possessions, &c. &c. By a British Traveller. 1816.
The following article will be perused with no little interest, by the American reader, because it contains the sentiments of a respectable journal, which is published in the metropolis of a country where we are regarded with a watchful eye. The anxiety of the author and his reviewer, on the subject of Canada, is quite natural, but as long as Great Britain is obliged to give bribes to settlers “to prevent them from repairing to the United States, in preference to remaining in Canada," the population will be small, and the Colony continue to be exposed to great hazard. It is in vain that these writers assume an air of contempt in estimating our strength. It suits their purposes to represent us as a nation, which exhibits “ at once the dissipation of youth, the selfishness of maturer years, and the feebleness of old age." John Bull may swallow all this, because he is a great blockheart, and it is his principle to “ hate all other countries,” and “ to think all other people, fools.” (Ed. Rev.) But in an unguarded moment these writers will admitmas is done in the review before us--that “Great Britain never had an enemy more to be dreaded," than her dissipaled, selfish, and feeble offspring. Reflections on Custon-houses, come with an ill grace from a country whose commercial revenues are protected by a mass of legislative provisions, greater we believe in bulk, than those which contains the whole code of the United States. In the various reports of our collectors to the Treasury Department, it is frequently remarked how seldom frauds occur. These reports are confirmed by an inspection of the calendars of the District Courts, where such offences are cog. nizable. Not long since, a parcel of stones were found concealed in cotion which had been shipped to a foreign port. In the English newspapers such occurrences are published daily, and John Bull shakes his chubby checks at the hoax, as it is there innocently termed. But among us this infamous fraud excited an universal burst of indignation, and the people were urged in the daily gazettes, to vindicate the national character, by detecting the swindler. Because « an eminent divine" took occasion to say, in Boston, that " we are accused of being too greedy of gain, and not over-scrupulous how we obtain it,” the author of the book under consideration, takes it pro confe880 and affirms that we are “ justly characterized.” How it may be in Boston we shall not say, but in the Southern section the very reverse of this is the fact. If a Virginian can get enough to clothe his negroes and entertain bis friends he is satisfied. We fear that there are very few dealers in any country, who could stand the test which the holy minister is commissioned to apply. The most upright dealer who occupies his compter for six days, and on the seventh, instead of resting from his labours, shall sit down to count his gains, will assuredly learn from this authority that he is too greedy of gain. Yet it would be regarded as an atrocious libel to say of this man, that he is “not very nice as to the adoption of means” in his “commercial transactions.” If we were to draw inferences with such facility, what could we say of the state of morals, among our calumniators after reading “ the Book”—the most remarkable speeches of Erskine, Curran and Phillips, the delicate epistles of the “ commander in chief,” and that miracle of piety, as he is described by some writers,-lord Nelson? what could we not say that would not be quite as liberal and as logical as the strictures of the Quarterly Review on Inchiquin's Letters, and Porter's
Has our “cupidity" ever prevailed to so " astonishing a degree,” as to induce us to subjugate an immense empire, by means, which, when described by Burke, produced sensations almost incredible? Do our ministers of justice seek for culprits in the abodes of opulence and the circles of fashion, and knock, in vain, at the gates of the palace?—Why must we be compelled to perform the painful task of exhibiting such profligacy? Far more in unison with our feelings would it be to expatiate on the nobler qualities of the English character; to extol their patience under difficulty, their greatness in action, and their magnanimity in success: to sit at the feet of their philosophers, and gather experience from her statesmen. But the continent is the theatre which they select for the display of their bright side, while to us, who are united to them by the ties of blood and act under the same code of moral and municipal law,--to us they exhibit only the’dark features. Their obstinacy drove us into a political independence;
and it might be feared that their superciliousness and misrepresentations would produce a revolt in the empire of letters, were we not certain that the wand of THE POET would recal us to his own island where Genius has enchanted all the groves and Wisdom crieth aloud in the streets.
The reviewer complains that we should consider our artists as the best; our men as the strongest, &c. This is a silly vanity which is to be found in all parts of the world, and in no country is it indulged to such an excess as Great Britain. John Bull, say the Edinburg Reviewers
will have it that he is a great patriot, for he hates all other countries; that he is wise, for he thinks all other people fools; that he is honest, for he calls all other people rogues. He beats his wife, quarrels with his neighbours, damns his servants, and gets drunk to kill the time and keep up his spirits, and firmly believes himself the only unexceptionable, accomplished, moral and religious character in christendom. He boasts of the excellence of the laws and the goodness of his own disposition; and yet there are more people hanged in England than in all Europe besides: he boasts of the modesty of his countrywomen, and yet there are more [who have lost all modesty] in the streets of Londou than in all the capitals of Europe put together.
We too must be indulged in boast when we reflect that Americans
go abroad to establish and preside over the most honorable institutions; or remain at home to protect the country; to contend with the pupils of Nelson and the followers of Welling
But it is time to commence the Review.
“ There are many sensible remarks in this little volume, on a subject of great national importance; mixed, however, with no small portion of advice which it would be impossible to follow, and with numerous recommendations which in the mean time it would be impracticable to execute. From the beginning to the end of it, the Americans are represented, not without some truth we believe, as an unaniable, restless, and very ambitious people; jealous in the extreme of British power, envious of our superiority, and filled with the most determined rivalship, first to surpass, and then to humble us. The author, who designates himself a veller,' seems to have lived a good deal amongst them, professing thus to be intimately acquainted with their country, their manners, spirit, and political projects; and we have so far to speak in favour of the genuineness of his characteristics, as to remark that they are not contradicted by any thiug which we have learned
of Independent America, through other sources. Perhaps there is, now and then, a little excess of bitterness against them, and rather two deep a shade thrown over their moral characters, as merchants and politicians, but, on the whole, the picture, we should conceive, is a striking likeness, giving, in strong colours, the distinguishing expression of their national features, and with out any intentional distortion or wilful caricature.
“ The avowed object of this publication is to recommend to our Government a vigorous system of policy with regard to our American provinces; to encourage cmigration to them; and, above all, to foster their trade, to the complete exclusion of the United States, in every article which they can possibly supply, either to the mother country, or to the West India islands. The affairs of Europe have so deeply engrossed the attention of our rulers, during the last twenty years, as to render the concerns of our Transatlantic possessions of very inferior consequence; and it was not, in fact, until a serious attempt had been actually made by the Republicans to wrest them from us altogether, that we began to perceive the necessity, both of strengthening their means of natural defence, and of adding to the military establishment in the frontier provinces; and yet it is well known that, notwithstanding our utmost efforts, the failure of the enemy, in their several enterprises, was niuch more attributable to their want of almost every soldier-like quality, than to the adequacy of our preparations to repel invasion. The expediency, however, of increasing a trusty and efficient population in all the provinces, and particularly in Canada, was thus practically manifested to the Government at home; and, accordingly, in pursuance of this object, various inlucements were held out, upon the termination of hostilities, lo direct the current of emigration, which was then anticipated io England, to British America: and there is reason to believe that the system would have been persevered in, but for the interruption of all our peaceful arrangements which was occasioned almost immediately after by the return of Buonaparte from Elba.”
“ 'The observations of the author, in relation to the subject at large, may be divided into two heads; namely, as they respect the furtherance of commerce; and next, as they respect security and defence. Before, however, we enter upon these topics, we shall exhibit a very short sketch of the genius of the Americans,' meaning thereby, of course, the people of the United States.”.
« In commercial transactions this people are extremely enter. prising, and not very nice, it is alledged, as to the adoption of means whereby to promote their ends. Custom-house oaths, which we regret to say are too frequently regarded even among ourselves as mere matters of form," impose very little restraint upon an American trader, who will swear, observes our traveller, that innuinerable cargoes of rum and sugar were shipped at an island which was well known never to have produced one ounce of either."