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bushels of it to weigh a ton, as it does nearly, and as, by the act of incorporation, the company are allowed to charge tolls, not exceeding twelve and a half cents per ton at each lock below, and eight cents per ton above Reading, this would amount to about twelve cents per bushel on the whole route, if there should be twenty-eight locks ahove, and eight or ten below that borough. This alone would yield a dividend of six per cent per annum upon the sum expended, even supposing it should require six hundred thousand dollars to complete the whole navigation; and they cannot fail to rise as high as the act of incorporation allows them, which is fifteen per cent per annum. · Origin of the North American Indians.-M. Julius Von Klaproth has made a curious discovery respecting the American Indians. He has found a long chain of nations and idioms extending from the canal of Queen Charlotte along tue north-west coast of America, to Southern Canada, the United States, Louisiana, Florida, the Great and Little Antilles, the Carribee Islands, and Guiana, as far as the river of Amazons, where the languages and idioms are all obviously derived from an original language, which has a great deal of affinity with that of the Samojedes and Kampt. chadales. The people all along this vast track, both in their figure and mode of life, have a striking similarity to the free nations in Northern Asia. Mr. Klaproth gives a list of Carribee words which occur in the languages of the Mandshons, the Samojedes, the Korjacks, the Youkaguirs, the Toungouses, the Kamtchadales, the Tchoutchis, &c.

In digging a mound at Chilicothe, Ohio, a short time ago, the remains of a man were found. Over the place where his breast was supposed to have been, was a cross and string of beads. The cross was completely converted into verdigris. The trees which grew on this mound were of the same growth as the surrounding woods.

Steam Engines.-In a letter to Dr. Ingenhauz, dated from Philadelphia, October 24, 1788, we find the following sentence:-“We have no philosophical news here at present, except that a boat moved by a steam engine, rows itself against the tide in our river, and it is apprehended the construction may be so simplified and improved as to become generally useful?'

Arithmetic.-Mr. Von Syngle, of Ghent, having employed ten years of intense study in order to simplify arithmetical calculations, has succeeded in decomposing, producing, and reducing, in one minute, by means of twelve figures, operations which required many bours and whole columns of figures and fractions. His method is applicable to money of all kinds.

It is a trait highly honourable to the Swedish character, that charity boxes, frequently placed in the most exposed situation on the road side, are as safe from being feloniously opened, as if under the strongest guards. Nor, indeed, is any other unguarded property, public or private, liable to depredation from the hand of the barmless rustic. • A Paris paper says, “ The Americans and English educate their chil. dren in the fear of God, and the love of Money:"

Ministerial Answer to Bonaparte's Physician.
You say, that where he is you greatly fear
Napoleon will not live another year;

In sooth, good Doctor, you are wondrous clever

D'ye think we sent him there to last for ever? Anecdote.-Dean Swift happening to be in company with a petulant and conceited young man, who prided himself in saying pert things, and had often felt the retort courteous; at length got up, and with affectation, said, “ Well you must know, Mr. Dean, that I set up for a wit.” “ Do you then,” replied the other, “ take my advice and sit you down again.

Mammoth Girl.- A Catskill paper mentions that Lydia Monroe, who is now living in the town of Windham, Green county, weighs two hundred and thirty-two pounds. She is very healthy and active, and possessed of uncommon strength for a female.

On the 25th of April last, the chief judge of the Supreme court of the state of Ohio was fined one dollar and fifty cents, for not attending a militia-muster, as a private soldier, in strict conformity to the laws of the state of Ohio.

Slave Trade. We perceive in the papers, with great regret, an account of the progress in this abominable traffic at the island of Madagascar, by French, English, Spanish, Portuguese, and American vessels. They elude the English cruizers by using fast-sailing schooners; one of which, a vessel of only forty tons, called the Franklin, was intended to carry slaves across the Atlantic.

Birmingham, in England, is supposed to have 19,000 houses and 110,000 inhabitants. There are also 1500 houses uninhabited. The outcast poor were 20,000, besides hundreds in poor bouses.

A Danish paper says the king of Hayti was formerly the slave of a widow at St. Thomas's, to whom, for her kind treatment of him, he is very grateful. He has invited her to Hayti.

The Intelligencer mentions, as being in or near Washington, a lad of eighteen, who is six feet seven inches in height!

A political work, from the pen of judge Chipman, of Vermont, entitled “The Federal Compact,” &c. is in the press.

Benjamin West, Esq. president of the Royal Academy in England, has been elected a member of the Academy of Painting, in Rome.

Mr. Samuel Clegg, engineer to the Gas Light Company, in London, has made two most brilliant improvements in gas lights. They consist of a flat circular retort, divided into compartments, and a gas-governor, so called. The latter is intended to alleviate the unequal pressure of the gasometer, a desideratum that has so long been ardently wished for. By his improved retorts, sixty-two and a half per cent is saved in fuel; where it took eight hours to disengage a given quantity of gas in the old cylindrical retorts, the process is now finished in two hours; and by his improvement, from one chaldron be obtains 18,000 cubic feet, where, in the old way, he could obtain no more than 10,000.

A company is forming in Philadelphia, to be called The Philadelphia and Pittsburgh Transporting Company”-the object of which is to facilitate the trading intercourse between these cities, and the country between them, by reducing the expenses of the transportation of goods to the western country. It is proposed to change horses and drivers once in ten miles, and to travel day and night, at least at the rate of two miles an hour, in all weather. In this way the journey from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh can be performed in thirteen or fourteen days. The expense of freight

VOL. IV.

five cents per pound from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh, and two cents back. By this arrangement even tobacco and hemp from Kentucky, and cotton from Tennessee, may be transported to Philadelphia as cheaply as to New Orleans, including the risks of water-carriage down the Mississippi.

The people of Savannah, taking into consideration the evils arising from the rice-lands contiguous to it, have determined in favour of giving to the proprietors of those lands at the rate of forty cents per acre (in all seventy thousand dollars) as an inducement to abandon the wet cultivation of rice, and adopt the dry mode. This change, by draining the marshy lands, will add much to the health of the city.

Statistics of Italy.--The following table exhibits the present division of Italy, according to the last treaties of Vienna and Paris, and the maps published in May, last year, at Rome, by that celebrated German geographer, William Mayer:

Square Miles.* Inhabitants. Kingdom of Lombardy, Venetian, - • 13,880 4,065,000 Duchy of Lucca, . . . . . . 7,394

131,000 Do. of Massa, - - - -

56

40,000 Do. of Modena, - - - - - 1,457 375,000 Do. of Parma, -

1,626

383,000 State of the Church, - - - - - 11,355 2,425,000 Republic of St. Marino, . • -

17

7,000 Sardinian Possessions (Etat Sarde)

22,471 3,814,000 Kingdom of Naples and Sicily (les Deux Siciles), 31,731 6,766,000 Grand Duchy of Tuscany, .

: 6,019 1,264,000 Island of Corsica, - -

2,723

290,000 Islands of Malta, Grozo, and Canino, . - 143 150,000

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93,872 19,690,000

(Memorial, No. 259.) La Lande, in 1807, estimated the population of Italy at 18,000,000; Pinkerton reduces it to 13,000,000; Guthrie thinks it exceeds 20,000,000.

Two of many of our states will be found nearly equal in territorial extent to the whole of Italy-New-York and Pennsylvania, Virginia and North Carolina, &c.

From the Dublin Freeman's Journal. Steam Boilers. The common safety-valve applied to the boilers of engines, consisting of a plug pressed down by a lever, though useful, is not infallible, and is always secure or dangerous at the will of the attendant, who, by overloading it, renders it the strongest, instead of the weakest part of the boiler. I have long used bigb-pressure boilers, to which, when proved up to a certain point, I attached an inverted syphon of proper dintensions, containing such a column of quicksilver as is required to confine the steam within certain limits, but which suffers it to blow off when it attains such power as rnight endanger the boiler. I am aware that high-pressure engines are perilous-condensing engines are so sometimes the mercurial valve ensures the safety of both. It should be put out of the attendant's reach.

A British reviewer, in reviewing Sketches of the life of lord Barrington, relates, in substance, the following circumstance relating to the separation of this country from the British empire-a circumstance which, we believe, bas been but recently divulged.

• The ratio of the Italian mile to the American is 57 to 100.

At the time when the British government determined on coercing the American colonies, lord Barrington was one of the ministry. His lordship was decidedly in favour of coercion, but insisted that it should be altogether by the operations of the navy. In that sentiment he stood alone; all the other members of the administration being obstinately bent on sending over armies, and marching them through the country.

Had the council of that sagacious statesman prevailed, the issue of the contest might have been very different from what it was. It is more than doubtful whether America could have long maintained her independence, or been long united, under a distressing disheartening species of warfare, in which she would have been capable of retaliating scarcely any of the blows she received. The probability is, that the people, having nothing to , animate, but every thing to discourage them, would, in two or three years, have been wearied out-the states set at variance with each other, and the whole country subjugated.

Modern Martyr.-On the 12th of May, a youth, eighteen years of age, of the Greek nation, died an heroic death at Constantinople. This youth, who lived at Curutshesene, on the channel of Constantinople, had, at an unfortunate moment, gone over to the Mahometan religion, but soon repented of the step, and returned into the pale of the old Greek church. He was summoned before the grand vizier, who upbraided bim with religious perjury. On his replying that he was born a Christian, and resolved so to die, he was conducted to the istambol effendi (judge of Constantinople), to be again instructed by him in the Mahometan religion; but he declined being instructed, and even went so far as to advise the judge himself to turn Christian. He was upon this beheaded on the 12th of May.

Advertisements from the Hamburg Correspandenten. * We dutifully make known, to our relations and friends that our marriage union was bonourably solemnized yesterday.

F. Von DORING, of Badow.

F. VON DORING—late Von DORING. Kiel, October 11th, 1816. We would acquaint our distant friends, by this notice, that we were married on the 30th of October, and we would in this manner remind them of us, and solicit their good wishes on the occasion.

H. C. HANDER.

CAROLINE HANDER, late CAROLINE PROSCH.
We hereby humbly acquaint our relations and friends, that our mar-
riage was solemnized on the 3d instant.
Hamburgh, Nov. 6th, 1816.

ANTHONY CHRISTIAN FREDERICK ORTH.
MARGARETTA ORTH, late widow of F. W. SACHSE,

formerly SCHLICHTING. At the same time I would humbly give notice to my honoured friends and acquaintance, that the wine-selling business of the late F. W. Sachse will be henceforth carried on by me, on my own account, at No. 35 Horse-market, and I shall endeavour to recommend myself by my diligence and the excellence of my merchandise.

ANTHONY CARISTIAN FREDERICK ORTH. After a long and severe illness, our good father, George Philip Seippel, gently expired on the evening of the 29th of October, aged nearly seventy years. Whilst we make public this sad stroke of death, and our need of condolence, we would at the same time give notice that the wine-selling

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business of the deceased will be carried on under the present firm, with-
out intermission.
Hamburgh; 1816.

GEORGE PAILIP SEIPPEL, ?.
JOHN PHILIP SEIPPEL,
T. E. SEIPPEL, late KRUCKERBERG, ) Daughters

D. M. SEIPPEL, late Holm, S in law. With the deepest affliction of heart, I announce to the public the death of my dearest wife, Antoinette Margaretta, formerly Alberti. She expired, without a groan, at three o'clock, on the morning of the third instant, after a lingering illness. Whoever knew the deceased will justify the profound grief with which myself and my children follow her to the grave. Luneburg, Oct. 26th, 1816.

FREDERICK HENRY NOLTE,

For himself, and in the name of his children. My dear husband, colonel Ulric Augustus Von Rardorff, royal Danish Chamberlain, was suddenly taken from me by death, on the evening of the 27th instant. This intelligence is dedicated to the relations and friends of the deceased, by the afflicted widow.

IDA SOPHIA VON RANDORFF, late I. S. LEPSTEN. • Kiel, Oct. 29th, 1816.

BIRTH AND DEATH NOTICE. The birth of a healthy boy, on the night of the 12th instant, was dearly purchased by the death of my beloved wife, Anna Joanna Agatha, formerly Richards, which followed in a few hours. She died at the age of twenty-five years, and left behind her in me, who had only the happiness of living with her in the happiest of marriages, one year, a most inconsolable and eternally afflicted widower.

CAARLES WESSELHOOFFT,

Royal vice-consul of Great Britain. Patent Rifle.—There has been deposited in this office an “improved patent rifle, made by John A. Hall, of Portland, district of Maine." It is intended for the inspection of gentlemen, who are conversant in the use of fire-arms. It is a curious invention: its great peculiarity being, that it loads near the butt end, instead of at the muzzle. Near the lock there is a spring, which being touched and pressed down, causes the receiver to fly out of a hinge. You introduce the cartridge, containing the powder and ball, press the receiver, which shuts with a catch, and the rifle is loaded. There is of course no ramming down the ball, &c. with a ramrod, the only use of which is occasionally to swab out or wash the rifle.

Some of the advantages of this improvement, as stated in an accompanr. ing pamphlet, are that the patent rifles may be loaded and fired with good aim, more than twice as quick as muskets can be fired with cartridges, They may be fired as often as any gun can bear firing, without soon becoming too hot to be held. In addition to this, they may be loaded with great ease, in almost every situation, either in lying down, sitting on the ground, or on horseback, walking, and even running. « They require, too, less swabbing; and it never interferes with the charge. They cannot be so much overcharged by accident as other guns, and therefore are not so apt to burst, &c. In short, they are very durable, and combine every advantage peculiar to muskets, except of throwing shot, and that pertains to common rifles, with many other important advantages, possessed by neither of those species of fire-arms, but peculiar to this alone."

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