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the largest and most fruitful of the Archipelago; this island retains the same name which it.did in Cicero's time, as we
many of his letters directed to his friends there. ducts in vod wine, and wheat in great abundance; it lies near : tuve encrance of the gulf of Smyrna, and on the other hand is
in this last some pretend Homer was born, and the spot... zu suli pointed out where they say he kept a school.
I arrived in the bay of Smyrna April twenty-six, and anchora ed ncar the castle, about five miles below the town, and found : there a large Danish ship bound into the Black sea, to Odessa,,, with cotton. The next morning I went to town in a Turkish : boat called a kyike which rows or sails very fast. We landed at the castle to see the Aga, and got permission to pass. He : . was an oli inan with a venerable gray beard, and I found him, şitting cross-legged upon a carpet smoking with a very long pipe. He waved his hand to me to sit down, and after aşking # fewuestions, and talking a few words to his guards, he waves his haid again as a signal that I might go, first however signit -fyia; that he should expect a present of sugar and coffee, which À proinised him. In this castle I saw several of those large. fuos from which they throw stone balls of a prodigious weight. . I bare been told that at Constantinople there are guns that car-, sy i ball of one thousand pounds, and it is certain that when the English were driven out of the Dardanells the last year, a ball of eight hundred pounds struck the main mast of the Windsor Clusive, it remained on board, and was carried to England, where it is preserved as a curiosity. The largest I saw in this castle was a lour hundred pounder, and there were several piles of the hunds, which would apparently weigh four or five hundred pounds; thosc, balls were of hard granite, and cut round and smooth, the guns were long and very fine brass pieces. The Turks wlic rowed me to town were very civil, and offered me a piper. which is che usual compliment.
: The city of Smyrna did not answer my.expectations; but I saw.Dui little of it. The houses are principally of wood and smail, and they appeared to be out of repair. The landingsplaees: were, dirty and not convenient; no quay.s, but a few piles, with broken planks and boards on them; and in other places only the bare beach:
As I was not permitted to enter my vessel and trade bere my stay was short, and I left the place the next morning American vessels have never before been denied a free trade with Turkey and it will be amusing, perhaps, to know something of the powers ful-influence of the French in this country, by which they are en abled to drive away all neutrals, and to put almost a total stop to the trade of this great commercial city.
A French consul resides at Smyrna, and he takes his orders from Sebastiani, who is the French minister at the Porte. I un derstood it was necessary to wait upon this consul, and I had some expectations by entering from Messina, a neutral country as' res pected the Turks, that I should be admitted. The consul, however, knew very well I had been at Malta, and his sources of information were so good, that he knew of my being expected, and has looked for me a week he received me with the usual French paliteness, but told me we were not permitted to trade there, by the French decrees, and he had been particularly instructed, lately, from his .minister, to forbid the entrance of any yessel of what country or nation soever, that had touched at Malta,
Messina, or any port at which the English had influence or a friendly inter
It was in vain to make any further plea here, but I was determined to appeal from this decision, to the Turkish government. In fact my friend at Smyrna had already been to the go-vernor of the city, and obtained his permission without difficulty; he told me indeed the governor was very desirous to have us trade there, and he knew he would be very angry to hear that the consul had forbidden me. This encouraged me in my appeal, for I could not imagine that a powerful prince like the Aga of Smyrna, who has forty thousand men at his command, and who in some respects feels almost independent of the Grand Segnior himself, should submit his will to the arbitrary decisions of a paltry French consul. I had however the mortification to find that in this instance the consul was the ruling power. Cara Osman Oglou, who was this great officer, Prince, and Aga of Smyrna, on being informed that the consul had ordered me to depart, was exceedingly enraged, but he judged it most prudent to suppress or stifle his displeasure. I was extremely at a loss to know why he should sacrifice his opinion or desire in this instance; but I was informed,
that had he had insisted upon my trading there, against the orders of the French consul, the latter would immediately; have the ported him to Sebastiani, who had so much influence at the Portes that probably at his request the Aga would have been fined ito a very heavy amount. The Grand Segnior being fond of enriching his coffers by these kind of penal exactions on his great officers I obtained so much, however, from the good will of the Aga, that I should be protected in any of the adjacent ports without the district of the French consul. Accordingly I left my first anchor ing place, and went down behind the island of Oulach neat. the entrance of the gulf. Here it was agreed that we should discharge our cargo, and send it to town in lighters. There are no inhabitants on this island, it being rather a barren piece of ground, three or four miles in extent, producing nothing but furze, some wild flowers, and a few scattering pine trees. On one of these pines our sailors found an eagle's nest, and took from thence an eagle not yet able to fly. This was a hazardous enterprize, for probably the old one would have killed the man who climbed the tree had she returned and caught him in the act, or even if she had seen him afterwards with her young one it would have been extremely dangerous for him. They are a powerful bird, and the extent and force of their talons are sufficient to take off a man's face at one gripe. The people of the country when they attempt to rob one of these nests, go with a party of five or six, and well armed with muskets, to defend themselves. This young bird was kept. on board above three months, at which age his wings extended from tip to tip nearly eight feet. We lay at this station only two or three days, and then removed over to the east side of the gulf to a little town and port called Foggia, (anciently I believe Phocia) here we found a safe, snug harbour, secure from any sea, a good depth of water and clean bottom. My friends at Smyrna had procured me a protection here, from Cara Osman Oglou, and a letter of friendly introduction from him to the Aga of this place. The letter was in three lines and a half, wrote backwards, and instead of a signature had the seal of the Aga's ring. As soon as I anchored I went on shore, and found several Turks sitting : under a rough kind of piazza, peaceably smoking their pipes; they took little or no notice of me this is characteristic of
Turks, they seem to have no curiosity, take little notice of any thing, and express wonder or astonishment at nothing I showed them my letter, and made them understand that I wanted to go to the Aga. One of them, who appeared to be an officer, who was dressed smart, with stockings of red cloth laced with gold; got up and conducted me into the city, through a stone arch, the town being walled; we passed along some dirty streets and I was introduced to another great officer that could not read. They both seated themselves on a carpet, ordered a slave to bring pipes, looked at the writing of my short letter, then folded up the paper and smoked with silent
After their pipes were out, they asked me how long I would stay in this port, what I wanted, &c. and then signified that I might go. Here finished this interview. After I had been returned on board about an hour, the gentleman with the gold laced stockings, came off and said I must come on shore to the Aga. So I went on shore again, and was conducted to a house where I found three great men, if I might judge from their turbans, which were each the size of a half. barrel. They were sitting on a rich carpet, and lolled upon cushions which were placed round the sides of the room; and the hall below and antichamber were filled with soldiers in arms and other attendants. One of these three was the Aga, or governor of the place. The officer to whom I had been first conducted, finding that the letter was directed to the Aga had sent it to him, and he immediately sent for
He received me with civility, asked a few questions, and lifting up the letter in his fingers, intimated that that would procure me any thing I wanted. So I left him, satisfied that my letter of introduction, though short, was influential and efficacious.
The houses of the town are no more than miserable huts, the walls of which are rough stone and mud, and from a peep inside of them they appear .not much superior either in convenience or cleanliness to our hog-sties. Though, by the way, they have no hogs here, the Turks, like the jews holding swine's flesh in abhorrence. Their principal animal food is mutton, of which they have very good. The breed of sheep are something of the Cape of Good Hope kind, having very large flat tails; these tails are from six to ten inches broad, and almost entirely flat. : The. Turks seldom make use of larger meat than mutton; one reason for
which, I am told, is their manner of cooking, which does not So conveniently admit of larger meats; their messes are always Hashed ap fire in cooking, and they eat with their fingers they kñow of no such superfluous utensils as knives and forks, and of course a joint of meat is never served on their carpets. They aré fond of little sweet messes, sweet meatsá preserves, &c. štiroke their pipes and drink coffee; these are what a Turkregafés upon, and having these, he appears to be contented and happy. They are a serious, sedate, peaceable people, seldom have any disputes, take little notice of what is passing in the World, or about their streets, and never seem much interested. in any thing
There are several small burying places near the town (for the Turks never bury their dead within their cities). These burying places are full of cypress, which give them an agreeaśle, though melancholy appearance; when a Turk buries a friend he plants a cypress at the head of the grave and another at the foot; these grow up, and thus where we have a barren clustre of toinb stones, they have a forest of cypress trees.
The Turkish women keep themselves much concealed, seldoma go abroad, and when they do, they cover their heads with a white veil, which comes over the upper part of their face, and another covers the mouth and chin; thus masked, it is with difficulty they can be known even by their acquaintances, as very little of the face appears except the nose.
Since I have been here I have got plenty of milk, and milk variously modified, as curdled milk, sweet milk, fresh cheese, and cheese-cakes, &c. There are abundance of flocks and herds, and I was quite pleased in having occasion to remark an instance of primitive times and manners in seeing a real shepherd with his appropriate emblems of crook and bag. The crook makes a fine figure in every pastoral story we read, and I could not help tracing the bag up to the royal David, who had onie by his side when he slew Goliah. This country also produces a great deal of honey, so that the properties of ancient Palestitve (from which we are not very distant) extends even there, it is a land of milk and honey.
ii. The camel is the useful beast of burthen here, and it is-curious to see with what docility they kneel down to receive and