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covered with a cold clammy sweat, with convulsive twitching of the facial muscles, and trembling of the limbs; the jaws were firmly compressed, while the pulse was small, and almost imperceptible. He recovered in about three hours, but there remained some soreness and reddening of the mouth and gullet, with a burning pain at the epigastrium. The urine, which was passed voluntarily, showed traces of albumen, and assumed a dark-green color, which again disappeared in the course of the following day. Simultaneously all symptoms of cystitis disappeared, and the patient made a good recovery, -On the removal of the syringe the patient said something “became numb and commenced to jerk." The respiration was 30 in the minute, and superficial ; the pulse was 168 at first, but in the course of the next two hours it fell to 120,91.-One evening it was observed that after the solution had been thus injected, little or none of it flowed away, and at the same instant the patient uttered an exclamation, and suddenly became unconscious, with tremor of limbs, pallor of skin, clammy sweat, and intermittent laborious respiration, imperceptible pulse, etc. The next day she wholly recovered from the above symptoms. There existed, however, for some days, an irritative vesical catarrh, caused doubtless by the rapid elimination of a considerable quantity of the poison. The urinė, which for the first twenty-four hours, showed the usual dark-greenish color, now became acid and albuminous, depositing a thick sediment of pus," [620.] Great debility; violent burning sensation from the fauces down to and into the stomach; pulse full, slow, regular, and strong; semicomatose condition ; she could only with difficulty be made to understand any ques. tion; she could scarcely move her limbs, and when raised they dropped like those of one dead drunk, as indeed she was, 58. -Insensible (after a few seconds); skin pale, with cold sweat; features livid ; breathing labored ; mucous râles, almost to suffocation; pulse 110, small and hard; pupils partially dilated (after twenty-five minutes); convulsions in fifteen minutes after insensibility, that returned every few minutes, 59:- Immediately slight convulsions set in, followed by unconsciousness, cold sweat, pulse hardly to be felt; the convulsions lasted for an hour, when consciousness returned. Breath smells of Carbolic acid. Lips, gums, pharynx coated with a white membrane. White membranes were ejected by the mouth. Other membranes were thrown off the next day. Stool and urine pass in voluntarily; the latter gives the linen the color of red wine, 59 - Almost immediately afterward she was seized with convulsions, and there was a complete loss of consciousness, cold perspiration, imperceptible pulse, strong odor of Carbolic acid in breath ; lips, tongue, gums, and pharynx covered with a wbite slough. The convulsive attacks continued for an hour, but were not severe. Consciousness returned in an hour; there was great pain in the neck and stomach, and difficulty in swallowing even small quantities of milk; the mouth was filled with a thick saliva. There was vomiting, the vomitus being a white, creamy substance, smelling of Carbolic acid; involuntary fecal discharges, not at all abnormal in appearance; but the urine, which was also voided in voluntarily, left a stain on the linen resembling that made by dark-red wine,36 - Face of a leaden hue, and bathed with cold sweat; eyes fixed, and the pupils slightly dilated; extremities cold and completely insensible; breathing stertorous; slight convulsions,": -In five minutes in a state of collapse, pale, and cold, with clammy perspiration on the forehead. The radial pulse was about 112, and scarcely distinguishable; the conjunctiva was insensible to touch, and the pupils were dilated and immovable; respiratory movements almost imperceptible, about 56 per minute; froth exuded from the nostrils. The breath smelt strongly of Carbolic acid, and marks of erosion were seen on either side of the upper lip,66. —Chill, attended with great nervousness and distress, although profusely warm ; unsteady, weak, and irregular pulse; great giddiness and impending convulsions. He recovered from this “chill,” but continued exceedingly dizzy for three days longer, 6.


Authority. 3, J. Y. Simpson, M.D., Pharm. Journ., vol. vii, 1848, p. 516.

When the vapor is inhaled it causes so great irritation of the throat, that few can persevere in breathing it for such a length of time as to induce anæsthesia. I have latterly, however, seen it inhaled perseveringly until this state, with all its usual phenomena, followed ; and without excitement of the pulse or subsequent headache. When I myself attempted to inhale the Chloride of hydrocarbon, it produced an extreme degree of acrid irritation in the throat, which did not disappear entirely for many hours afterwards,



33 and 34, S. Plymptom, Bost. Med. and Surg. Journ., vol. xix, 1838, p. 325, Goodwin, aged twenty years, and Denvir, aged twenty-six years, put an iron kettle containing charcoal into their sleepingroom; 35, Dr. B. E. Cotting, ibid., vol. liv, 1856, p. 142, F.J., aged twentythree years, slept in a closed room with a coal fire; (36 to 41, from Dr. J. Ch. Herpin, L'Acide Carbonique, Paris, 1864); 36, effects of a bath ; 37, M. Rotureau, effects of a bath ; 38, Dr. Sequin, Annal. de Chem., vol. lxxxix, 1792, experimented on bimself by inhaling the gas; 39, Pilatre de Rozier, descended by a cord attached to the shoulders into the gas caused by the fermentation of beer; 40, Attumonelli, breathed the air of a grotto laden with Carbonic acid gas; 41, Herpen, general effects; (42 to 54, from Friedberg, Die Vergiftung Durch Koblendunst, Berlin, 1866); 42, case of poisoning; 43, a family were poisoned by sleeping in a room coal fire ; 44, poisoning of a man; 45 to 54, other cases ; 55, Dr. McD., New York Journ. of Hom., vol. I, 1873, p. 566, effects on himself of sleeping in the room with a Franklin stove, the draft being shut off; 56, effects on Mrs. McD.; 57, Dr. Quincke, Archiv. für Exper. Path. und Pharm., vol. vii, p. 101, the action of carbonated water.

Urinary Organs.-In a general way it produces a sensation of warmth and tension in the stomach, it excites the peristaltic action of the stomach and intestines, promotes the appetite and digestion, increases the secretions of the stomach, accelerates the respiration and pulse, and according to some authors, causes slowness of the pulse, and diminishes the temperature. The whole organism becomes freshened and energetic, and mental activity is increased. Large quantities cause vertigo and congestion of the brain. The secretion of urine is increased ; carbonated waters are the best diuretics. The object of the present paper is to show the diuretic action of carbonated drinks by a series of observations. The subjects experimented on, healthy, with good and regular appetite; the hours for meals were fixed, and the food and drink were carefully estimated; the carbonated water was always taken in the morning fasting, after the blad

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der had been emptied ; subsequently the urine was gathered every hour or half hour; the specific gravity noticed, etc. The first experiment was made in October and November, the drink used was distilled water artificially impregnated with Carbonic acid gas. 500 cc. were drunk at one time. The amount of urine in the different experiments on average showed an increase of 14.4 per cent. on the days in which the experiments were made. The specific gravity showed a corresponding diminution. The second experiment was made on a healthy person, somewhat chlorotic, æt. twenty-six years, appetite good and regular. He drank, in the morning fasting, a glass of artificial Pyrmont water in two portions, with an interval of ten minutes. Three times during the experiment he drank springwater. The general average showed an excretion of 665 cc. of urine while taking the carbonated agent, 539 cc. when not taking it. A third experiment was made on a man with Pyrmont water, for eleven days, showing during the first three hours after taking the water an average increase of 36 cc. of urine, while the amount secreted during the first hour after the drink was diminished on average 25 cc. The fourth experiment was made on a man in the same way for sixteen days. The urine showed an average increase in the first three hours after the drink 34 cc. In all the experiments the result was the same, increased secretion of urine after the Carbonic acid,

Extremities.- Loss of motion and sensation in the right arm, followed by atrophy. The right leg was cold, somewhat heavy; the arm recovered under galvanism, after many months," --Incomplete paralysis of the left lower extremity, with serous infiltration of the foot, which was painful, not red; and along the dorsal surface of the metatarsus there developed numerous blisters, with brownish-red spots as large as a half dollar,

Generalities.-Paralysis of the right arm; involuntary evacuations ; anasarca of the right arm; over the body various spots, which looked as though they had been burnt, where blisters developed, followed by suppurating ulcers; the whole right arm from the shoulder to the fingers was very much swollen, painful on pressure and motion; the whole right thigh was swollen, especially on the outer side, the skin seemed infiltrated; skin of the right side swollen, not painful; large suppurating sores formed in the right axilla ; gangrenous spots on the back of the right hand; sores on the outer side of the right thigh, and on the inner side of both knees, becoming gangrenous,: -Loss of consciousness for a long time; paralysis of the bladder; paralysis of the lower extremities; bed-sores over the sacrum; diabetes ; abscess in the breast; violent convulsions, 3. —[380.] Found in deep coma, followed by bronchitis, herpes of the lips, and sugar in the urine for three days after the poisoning," -Found in a comatose condition; afterwards pleuro-pneumonia of long duration, and transient diabetes, ".Paralysis of the rectum and bladder; persistent idiocy,'*. --Stertorous respiration, paralysis of the limbs, paralysis of the bladder, trismus, convul. sions, pneumonia on the right side,"? - Paralysis of speech; bæmoptysis; recovery only after many months,“ — Loss of consciousness. Surface of the body cold. Stertorous respiration. Frothing from the mouth. After being aroused he complained' of headache, difficulty of swallowing, dryness and scraping in the throat, causing cough ; nausea ; painful pressure in the epigastric region; confusion of the head; coma; chilliness; numbness of the hands and feet. On the third day, the feeling of paralysis had almost entirely disappeared, the pulse was 120, temperature 39.1o. The face was pale, covered with copper-red spots of various sizes and forms, which were also found on parts of the trunk and extremities. These spots varied in color, were darkest on the abdomen, and on the anterior portion of the left thigh, where they were as large as the palm of the hand. Tongue dry, covered with a brownish coat. The mucous membrane of the mouth and fauces swollen and injected. Pressure on the stomach pairful. The bladder was distended above the navel. For two days the patient passed urine only with great effort, and very seldom. There was a short dry cough. Respiration 26; on deep inspiration stitches in the lower portion of the right half of the chest. Dulness in the lower portion of the right side of the chest ; respiratory murmur impaired, with fine râles ; through the other portions of the lungs were coarse râles with increased respiratory murmur. Urine evacuated with the catheter reddish brown. The bladder continued paralyzed; the patient developed pneumonia with infiltration of the right middle and lower portions of the lungs, inflammation of the pharynx and stomach, the vasomotors paralyzed ; general loss of power avd emaciation ; inflammation of the skin ; places formed blisters and ulcers, bed-sores; gradual recovery," - A boy was found dead, a girl, man, and woman were still living. In all the bodies were cold, the limbs were relaxed, pulse imperceptible, pupils dilated, mouth spasmodically closed, respiration irregular and superficial. The blood was very darkcolored. On the second day, the skin and mucous membrane of the woman became gangrenous, the urine dark brown, after which she died, “9. —On waking (waked by wife at 5.30 A.M.), a general vague distress, and on getting up was giddy; tendency to fall to the side obliged him to sit down for security.

Then distress in præcordium, a kind of anguish, with sighing respiration, . and slight nausea, caused by this præcordial distress; then a free fecal evacuation, painless, like a relaxation of bowels which follows fear or excitement (soldiers going into action), with a decided urging; rapid action of heart on exertion; pulsations very audible in left ear. Short cough when moving; præcordial distress ; had to sit while dressing; sensitive to outer air; circulation very much depressed, and did not regain its tone for a long time. No inclination to urinate like the urgency to stool. Headache came on after moving around; is a throbbing headache, a headache similar to his usual exhausted headaches. No appetite, could not eat his usual hearty breakfast. Mouth thick and pasty; no bad taste; saliva is thick. Hands moist, inclined to be cool,55 — Has distress across thorax. The distress in præcordium so great that she became moist ; skin hot (also sensitive to cold air as usual), with nausea. Free evacuation of bowels, no appetite. Weak, could not get up. This distress seemed so bad, before she arose, as though she was dying. It stopped menstruation, then three days advanced (usually runs six or seven days). The looseness of the bowels continued and gradually produced tenesmus, six passages in twentyfour hours. Coffee gave decided temporary relief for three hours,56. Head, face, and neck livid, and greatly bloated, so as to destroy all recognizable features; the lower lip immensely swollen and turned outwards ; the skin discolored and cold, without moisture; extremities quite cold; pulse varying in force and frequency, at times almost imperceptible, the number ranging at different times from 80 to 120; breathing labored, blowing, and irregular; eyelids closed, balls rolled up aslant, pupils varying somewhat but generally dilated; entire insensibility to outward impressions, even of the most painful character; no motion of any muscles except those concerned in respiration, which was chiefly diaphragmatic,* . - [390.] His appearance was that of a calm and tranquil sleep; countenance was of a pale leaden aspect; his lips and ears were livid; respiration inaudible at a short distance, extremely short and suffocative, with intervals of suspension; pulse rapid, small, and at times imperceptible; pupils contracted, but the retina was sensible to the impression of light; muscular system relaxed and powerless; he appeared like one whose functions and powers of the system were almost extinguished," --- Face suffused and purple; expression of agonized suffering; the temporal artery distended and prominent; respiration rapid and sonorous, resembling a groan more than snoring; pulse moderately full but frequent; the muscles seemed rigid and contracted; pupils dilated; vomiting,". – If a person be plunged entirely, with the exception of the head, into a bath of Carbonic acid gas at the ordinary temperature, there will be experienced a decided sensation of heat over the parts of the body in contact with the gas. This sensation of heat is pleasant, and may be compared with that produced by a fine soft garment or padding applied to the skin. If the bath be prolonged for a quarter of an hour, the sensation of heat becomes more intense, and accompanied by a peculiar prickling and tingling; in some persons whose skin is very sensitive it reddens, and there is experienced a burning heat. The whole surface of the body then transpires freely. The urinary secretion is decidedly increased. At last, after the gas has remained in contact with the skin for a longer time (some hours), the skin becomes numb, and anesthesia takes place, so that pricking or pinching can be endured without sensation," - Normal condition, pulse 68, saliva alkaline, urine clear, acid, temperature in the axilla 26° R. At 9.46, I entered the cabinet containing the gas, and in one minute afterwards experienced a pleasant sensation of beat over all parts of the body. 9.50, the heat had decidedly increased, was especially pronounced in the pit of the stomach and in the internal portions of the limbs, especially of the thighs, associated with an agreeable tingling in the genital organs. 9.54, the heat had increased and was very difficult to bear; only the feet were somewhat cold. 9.56, experienced along the superior dorsal region slight prickling. 10.1, pulse remained the same; the body was very red and covered with perspiration. Extreme heat was felt over all parts of the body, especially in the palms. Two other persons were in the lower part of the same cabinet; they experienced different degrees of oppression. In one the respiration was very much oppressed, with very great desire to lie down. 10.7, my two companions were obliged to open the window; though I was not so greatly inconvenienced, still the fresh air was very agreeable. 10.16, my pulse had fallen to 60, all my limbs were very supple; the general sensation of health was increased. At another time the pulse fell to 52, and there was some pain in the head. Another person in the bath described the sensation as of a band above the eyes, and a very severe frontal pain. The baths were frequently followed by violent itching over all parts of the body. After the bath the saliva was acid. The capillary circulation was much more active. The following were the effects of a bath taken in the evening, July 15th, pulse 76, respiration 19. I entered the bath at 5.10. At 5.13, the heat steadily increasing, the current of gas passing over the body causes an irresistible desire to sneeze. 5.15, burning heat between the shoulders. 5.18, respiration 16, pulse unchanged. 5.22, perspiration begins on the face. 5.25, sensation of burning heat very intense between the shoulders, and drops of sweat rolling down over my chest. 5.30, perspiration general. 5.40, pulse full, regular, 76; perspiration profuse. If

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