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ALDEHYDE.

Hydrate of oxide of acetyl.
J. Y. Simpson, M.D., Pharm. Journ., vol. vii, 1848, p. 517.

Out of five of us that attempted to inhale Aldehyde, very carefully prepared and purified, four were driven to suspend the respiration of it in consequence of the coughing and insufferable feelings of dyspnoea which it immediately induced. The sensations of difficult respiration and constriction in the chest which the vapor produced, resembled precisely those of a severe fit of spasmodic asthma. In the fifth case, the experimentalist, after perseveringly breathing the Aldehyde for a minute or two, became entirely insensible; the state of anæsthesia lasted for two or three nuinutes, during which the pulse became excessively small and feeble. On recovering, the bronchial constriction and coughing, which had disappeared as the anesthesia was induced, returned immediately, and was annoying for some time.

ALSTONIA. Alstonia (constricta?).

Dr. Augustus Cathcart, Am. Hom., vol. i, p. 142, effects of large doses (from the bark).

Invariably producing great debility and general prostration, or low fever —often also with diarrhæa-and when pushed sufficiently far, rigors, sweats (usually cold), and other symptoms resembling fever and ague.

ALUMEN.

Authorities. 19, Dr. Barthez, Rec. de Men, de Med., etc., 1835 (Frank's Mag., vol. iii, p. 675); 20, Hicquet, Annal. d'Hyg., 39, p. 192, a man, aged fifty-seven years, took 30 grains Alum in water, by mistake for salts; 21, Helen J. Underwood, M.D., copied from MSS.

Took, fasting, a dose of į dracbm Alum in 1 ounce distilled water. He noticed contraction in the whole mouth, which lasted about a quarter of an hour, with very acute pressure in the stomach. During the rest of the day there were no marked symptoms. Three days afterwards took 1 drachm Aluni in 2 ounces of water. This was followed by more violent contraction than before; the appetite was not diminished, on the contrary, be rather thought that it was improved, and that digestion was rather better than usual. After this he took doses, increasing every time by : a drachm, until he took 2: drachms at once. After the last dose he experienced violent inclination to vomit, lasting nearly a quarter of an hour, followed by vomiting. Through the day there was decided disturbance; the inclination to vomit seemed to depend rather upon the astringency and disagreeable taste of the Alum than upon any irritating influence on the stomach. Six days afterwards he took fasting 3 drachms at a dose, and in three or four minutes vomited twice a portion of the solution. Through the day there were no symptoms and no pain in the abdomen; only two or three days afterwards the stools were more difficult than usual. The vomiting spoken of occurred without effort and without previous nausea,

- Sensation of dryness and burning in the mouth, throat, and stomach. Incessant nausea and vomiting of only blood; extreme anguish. Pulse

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small, rapid ; afterwards intermittent and thready. Respiration rapid. Skin cold. Deglutition impossible, 20. -Every time this patient takes 3c. She feels a sort of metallic sensation about the urethra ; also a feeling in the clitoris as if the urethra lay there, and the urine were pressing to be expelled, and a feeling that the urine could not be retained on account of the pressure on the clitoris. This she never feels except after taking the Alumen,

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AMBROSIA ARTEMISIÆFOLIA.

nose.

Ambrosia artemisiaefolia, L.
Natural order, Compositæ.
Common name, Rag-weed.
Dr. E. J. Marsh, New Remedies, vol. v, 1876, p. 273.

For the past three years I have experimented, intentionally and accidentally, and produced all the earlier symptoms of hay fever, severe coryza, etc., by the direct application of the pollen to the mucous membrane of the

For instance, last week, I wished to observe the pollen of another variety of Ambrosia “trifolia” or giant ray-weed. I gathered a few heads and put them in water to ripen, theo examining the dust pollen under a microscope, and not taking care to prevent it flying in the air, suffered all that day with coryza. I tried the experiment two years ago in the same way, by ripening it prematurely, while I was still well and unaffected, and with the same serious consequences. After going to the White Mountains, and being entirely recovered, I found a small patch of rag-weed, and with another victim made the same experiment, and equally successfully, successfully that we suffered several days.

AMMONIUM BROMATUM.

Authorities. 4, Clark and Amory, Monograph on Bromide of Potassium, p. 165, a student took 40 grains in 1 ounce of water, at 7 P.M. ; 4a, the same, at 2.45 P.M. next day, took a rectal injection of 40 grains in muci. lage of starch ; 5, another student, took 40 grains in a claret glass of water, on an empty stomach, at 10 P.M.; 5 a, same, took 20 grains on a full stomach, at 12 o'clock, before retiring to bed; 6, Dr. Borlow, Lancet, 1877 (1), p. 839, effects on a girl, with laryngismus.

Withiu half an hour, felt as though he had taken a dose of Opium, though less excited; thinks that he fell asleep without the aid of the drug; dreamed of trying to pass urine into a bottle, but could not do so on account of being constantly in a crowd of men or women," --Tightness at the temples (within three hours and a half),'.-Flushing of the face (within three hours and a half),:-Had a dejection during the day; towards evening he noticed uneasiness in the bowels (second day); the next day decided diarrhoea set in, and lasted for twelve hours; no griping or distress was induced, except that the abdoinen felt as if distended with flatus; be never had diarrhea, and could see po cause for this attack except from the drug,". -Slight excitement of the circulation (within three hours and a half ), The same excitement of the circulation as noticed above, besides feeling a slight nervous excitement, such as he has after taking wine (after fortyfive minutes),**—Vascular excitement, and exhilaration as after taking Morphine ; this gradually decreased, and was lost in a fit of drowsiness (after forty minutes),---- [140.) Pulse 80, before taking the dose; 88 (after fifteen minutes); 80 (after thirty minutes),-Found himself nodding and they retired (after one hour and a quarter),'.-Rash villous and pa pillated in the fexures of the neck, persistently for several weeks,".—Prickling sensation in the skin (within three hours and a half ),'.

AMMONIUM CARBONICUM. 21, Buckner's Repert. für Pharm. (Wibmer), Buckner's experiments on himself.

October 20th, a pulse of 76, took 1! grain. Immediately after a strong odor of Ammonia was noticed in the nose. After twenty minutes the dose was repeated, the pulse remaining the same. Twenty minutes after took 3.grains; taste and odor as before. Half an hour after the last dose took again 3 grains, feels quite well, pulse 70; ate dinner with good appetite. On the next day, pulse 68, in the morning, took 3 grains. After fifteen minutes, noticed a throbbing headache in the left frontal region, lasting two minutes, pulse 72. Twenty minutes afterward took 6 grains. After a quarter of an hour the head was heavy and full, lasting about half an hour. After twenty minutes the pulse was 74. About 10 o'clock I breakfasted with appetite. 1 o'clock, pulse 76, took 6 grains, and repeated the dose after fifteen minutes. In the afternoon I noticed transient slight headache. On the third day, pulse 71, took 6 grains. After five minutes noticed slight dulness and heaviness in the forehead, which lasted ten minutes, and afterwards for five minutes, slight throbbing in the frontal region. Twenty minutes afterwards took again 6 grains. Ten minutes after this dose the head was somewhat heavy. Twenty minutes afterwards took again 6 graips; ten minutes after this I noticed a feeling of distension in the brain, especially in the right side; scraping in the throat provoking a dry cough. Finally, about 10 o'clock, I took 12 grains, followed by increased inclination to cough, and increased secretion of mucus in the trachea. Ate dinner with great appetite, and through the day felt quite well,a.

AMMONIUM CAUSTICUM.

Authorities. 15, E. P. Wilkins, Lancet, 1846 (1), p. 385, a woman, æt. twenty-four years, took a quantity of liquid Ammonia; 16, J. W. Trotter, Lancet, 1852 (1), p. 261, P. W., æt. thirty-six years, took 1 ounce hartshorn in milk, afterwards he took copious draughts of warm water; 17, Dr. Barclay, Med. Times and Gaz., 1853 (2), p. 554, a girl, aged nineteen years, when faint from fright had some hartshorn given her; 18, H. W. Reed, M.D., ibid., 1855, p. 59, a man, æt. thirty-five years, swallowed at one draught 3 drachms each of strong Ammonia and Ammonia sesquicarb.; 19, A. Patterson, M.D., Edinb. Med. Journ., vol. iii, 1857–8, p. 236, a man took 1 ounce into his mouth, but probably none of it reached his stomach; 20, John E. Bean, M.D., Pacific Med. and Surg. Journ., June, 1867, p. 13, Dr. John H. Pike swallowed some “ Liq. Ammon. fort.,” death after twentyone hours; (21 to 27 from Tardieu); 21, Dr. Pellarin, Union Méd., 1857, effects of a large dose; 22, Prof. Foussagrives, ibid., poisoning by 30 grams; 23, Dr. Chapplain, Archives du Méd., 1845, p. 84; 24, Gaz. Méd. du Santé, 21 Mai, 1816; 25, M. Potain, Union Méd., 1862, t. 12, p. 119; 26, M. Geneuil ; 27, M. Albert Robin, Journ. de Therap. 1re aun., No. 5, p. 194; 28, Dr. F. R. Quinton, Lancet, 1876 (1), p. 280, a man, æt. fortyfour years, swallowed about 5 or 6 drachms liquor Ammon., death in thirtytwo hours ; 29, Dr. W. Dyson, Med. Times and Gaz., 1878 (1), p. 35, a child, æt. twenty months, swallowed a quantity of strong Ammonia, death; 30. Mr. Gillam, ibid. (2), p. 706, T. B., æt. sixty-four years, swallowed half a pint of liquor Ammonia.

Mind.-Mental despondency,':--Extreme anguish,24: —Anguish, with suffocation and constriction of the throat,25:- Insensibility,18 —Comatose, 20.

Eye.-Yellowish chemosis of the eyes,25 — Intense yellow discoloration of the conjunctiva, 25. —Eves spasmodically turned up, and eyelids closed,". -Pupils dilated,26

. — [170.] Pupils dilated and eyes inverted, 20. — Pupils contracted, 23.

Nose.-Profuse accumulation of serous liquid from the nasal fossa, 24.

Face.-Face pale, *)- Face pale, eyes haggard, injected, and lids swollen,^.-Face flushed, 18 19. — Upper part of the face of a violet-red color, lower part blanched, " -- Aspect anxious in two hours)," : - Lips and tongue red and denuded,18 — Lips cyanotic, — [180.] Lips livid, 18 18

Mouth.-Tongue dry,26. —Mouth open,16. - Profuse albuminous, viscid, bloody secretion pouring from mouth and nares," : – Inside of his upper lip, tongue, roof of mouth, and fauces were white, and other parts excoriated, 16. -Inside of mouth, tongue, and fauces, as far as visible, red, raw, and fierylooking. When asked where pain was seated, he pointed to pomum Adami, under the left ear (in two hours),': -Intense and excruciating burning in the mouth, esophagus, and stomach,18.-Salivation profuse, 27 28 -Profuse salivation,28 — Enormous secretion of limpid mucus from the salivary glands and mucous membrane of the pharynx, etc., not less than three liters of liquid a day (wonderfully controlled by Chlorate of potassium),.—[190.] Loss of speech,s.

Throat.-Hawking of frothy mucus (in four hours),''. —Horrible pains in the throat, and especially in the epigastric region,” — Intense burning pain and feeling of suffocation immediately),. – Deglutition painfu1,90. —Great difficulty in swallowing, 16 - Deglutition impossible, 6.

Stomach.-Great thirst,20 23.- Ineffectual efforts at vomiting,'' - Vomiting, -[200.] Persistent vomiting,” – Vomited some blood,” – Vomiting of bloody matter, **. —He vomited a quantity of matter like soapsuds, 6. -Severe pain in stomach,“:—Horrible pain in the stomach,25 - Severe pain over the epigastric region, increased by pressure (second day), Epigastrium excessively painful on pressure," —He felt as if he were on fire from his stomach to his mouth,16.

Abdomen.-Excessive pain in the abdomen,"

Stool. [210.] Involuntary stools,2 26. — Voided large quantities of blood per anun, 20. —Stools profuse, liquid, red, extremely fetid, evidently consisting of a large amount of disorganized blood,.

Urinary Organs.-Incontinence of urine, * -Urine suppressed, 24. -(Albuminuria); the urine contained up to two grams of Albumen daily,"1.-Urine high-colored and thick, with an abundant heavy lateritious elimination,

Respiratory Organs.-Trachea spasmodically rising and falling,*. —Edema of the glottis,29:— Voice very feeble,24 25. — [220.] Voice husky, 6. -Complete loss of voice," --Sonorous, moist cough, resembling a suffocative catarrh, with tracheal râles, 23. —Cough and expectoration provoked by anything getting into the throat, so that it was almost im

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possible to get liquid into the æsophagus,95:- Profuse expectoration of mucus,— Respiration rapid, 23. —Hoarse croaking respiration,'%. — Respiration stertorous," —Breathing stertorous, with strong odor of Ammonia, 20. Breathing stridulous (in two hours),""--[230.] Gasping for breath, Suffocation, — Insupportable suffocation,

Chest.-Mucous râles in chest,"'.- Intense cutting pain opposite fifth and sixth cervical vertebræ, at the bottom of the pharynx (in twelve hours),"

Heart and Pulse.—Tumultuous action of the heart,28 —Carotids beating violently,'* -Pulse very rapid and feeble, 9. —Pulse small, 112,16 Pulse 100 (in two hours),"":—[240.) Pulse small, rapid, 23 25. — Pulse small,”. -Pulse feeble,".--Pulse slow, very irregular,".

Extremities.—Nails violet, 42.

Generalities.-As soon as she had drank it, she fell back insensible, apparently (to those with her) as if choked. In four hours she had revived somewhat, but complained of severe burning pain down her throat, in the epigastrium, and left hypochondrium, each of which parts were tender on pressure; pulse 53, small; voice a feeble whisper; great debility; countenance anxious; choking sensation on swallowing; pupils widely di. lated; breathing difficult; tongue coated with white fur, painful and tender; two or three patches of its mucous membrane pulled off'; three convulsive twitches of the right arm at different times during my visit,':.- Almost immediately became conscious of severe pain in the stomach. In an hour or two became sick and vomited some blood; hæmatemesis to a greater or less extent continued for three days. In eight weeks she became much emaciated, complained of coustant vomiting, with a weak and frequent pulse, a sort of hectic flush on the cheeks, and great prostration. Latterly the vomiting became more constant and severe, her pulse was sensibly feebler, and she became more emaciated from day to day; the eyes sunken, the tongue foul; she complained of headache, and was so weak that she was scarcely able to turn in bed. The bowels were confined throughout. She ultimately died of starvation,"?.–Face pale, anxious, and covered with clammy sweat, extremities cold, pulse 140, and very feeble; mouth and throat very red and inflamed-looking. He complained of burning pain in his throat, with difficulty of swallowing, and a feeling of impending suffocation ; his voice was reduced to a whisper, and his breathing poisy, frequent, and laborious; all the voluntary muscles of respiration seemed to be exerted to get air into the chest; occasionally he vomited mucus slightly tinged with blood (after one hour). Quantities of tenacious mucus collected in the throat and induced fits of coughing and sickness (first night),

- Three white patches on the tongue, and one or two on the inner side of the cheeks ; none visible on the tonsils or pharynx, but considerable congestion of the mucous membrane of these parts. Deglutition exceed. ingly difficult. Frequent occurrence of vomiting; respiration rapid and shallow, accompanied by laryngeal and tracheal âles ; free passage of air into the chest; cyanosis slight (after one hour). Sigus of interference with the entrance of air into the lungs more marked, but not considerable. Râles distinctly heard all over the back and chest (after eleven hours). Unconscious ; eyes half open; pupils moderately contracted and equal. Couvulsions came on during the night, and were now frequently recurring (after twenty-three hours),-Semiconscious ; pupils widely dilated, and his breathing noisy and hurried; pulse very rapid; sweating profusely. He complained of great pain in the abdomen, and vomited a quantity of

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