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way. Christ

priests and our rulers” they say, "delivered him to be condemned to death, and have crucified him. But we trusted that it had been he who should have redeemed Israel: and, besides all this, to day is the third day since these things were done.” They thought that Christ would have redeemed Israel; but our rulers say they have crucified him. This seemed to destroy all their hopes: just as if he could not be the Redeemer of Israel, if he were crucified. They implicitly say a crucified man cannot be the Redeemer of Israel: whereas his crucifixion was absolutely necessary to the redemption of Israel. The men of Israel could not be redeemed from sin in any other way. himself could not redeem them unless he were crucified; for without shedding of blood is no remission. And, 'Except a corn of wheat fall to the ground and die, it abideth alone; but if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit.*" Hence the salvation of man would have failed, had not Christ died.

The ignorance of Christ's disciples concerning the necessity of his sufferings and death, was a criminal ignorance: Therefore, after his resurrection he reprov: ed them sharply for their ignorance and unbelief. They knew that Christ was crucified, but were greatly astonished to hear that he was risen again. "Yea," says Cleopas, “and certain women also of our company made us astonished, who were early al the sepulchre:-and certain of them who were with us, went to the sepulchre and found it even so as the women had said; but him they saw not.” For their folly and unbelief, our Saviour then addresses them in a manner the most appropriate; "O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken! Ought not Christ to have suffered these things and to enter into his glury? And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the scriptures, ihe things concerning himself.”

John xii, 14

The disciples of Christ were dull of understanding; for he had told them of these things, while he was with them before his crucifixion. And when he had revealed himself to them after his resurrection, and while he was eating a piece of a broiled fish, and of an honey-comb, "These," said he, "are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms concerning me." Till now, even the disciples of Christ were ignorant of the Scriptures of the Old Testament concerning him. Therefore Christ "opened their understanding that they might understand the Scriptures." For, "Thus," said he, "it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day."

Christ, by teaching his disciples, has taught the whole house of Israel, together with the Gentile nations, that his sufferings, dying, and rising again, according to the Scriptures, is the foundation of salvation, agreeably to which, repentance and remission of sins are to be preached in his name among all nations beginning at Jerusalem.

And as Christ was fully determined to accomplish his part of the covenant of redemption, we need not be surprised to hear him say, that, "All things must be fulfilled which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning


When all things which were predicted concerning Christ in the Scriptures, were fulfilled, he could then say, that he had finished the work which the Father had given him to do. And this being done, a fouńdation is laid for man's redemption.

And as it was the purpose of God that man should be redeemed; so all the predictions concerning Christ must be fulfilled.

Christ knew that he must suffer and die. His covenant with the Father, supposes, that, to these things.

he had given his most cordial consent; he is therefore represented by the Prophet Isaiah, “as a lamb brought to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he opened not his mouth." It behoved the Son of God to suffer; he engaged to be obedient unto death, even the death of the cross. All things which were written in the Holy Scriptures concerning him, must be fulfilled. And the omniscient Redeemer knew from what quarter all his sufferings and death would come. Jesus, being the predicted Seed of the woman, knew that he should bruise the serpent's head; and he knew, that in the contest, he should receive from the power of darkness, a bruise upon his heel.


The Lamb of God knew that he must be slain; this was made certain by his own consent to the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God concerning the event. Christ always knew who would betray him, and into whose hands he should be delivered. He not only knew that he must die, but he knew by whose hands he must taste the bitter cup of death. "Him being delivered by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God ye have taken, and by wicked hands have crucified and slain." Hence Christ must be slain; his blood must be shed; but for the redemption of sinners, the manner of his death was as necessary, as the death itself. Christ must be betrayed, and by one of his disciples it must be done; and he must be delivered to be crucified according to the determinate counsel of God; he must be slain; his blood must be shed: but BY WICKED HANDS IT MUST BE DONE. He must not only be slain by wicked hands, but he must die the ignominious death of the cross. He must expire upon the accursed tree. Hence, there would have been no redemption for sinners, had not Christ been delivered by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God. And, the blood of Christ would not have been the blood of redemption, had it not been poured out upon the cross according to the Scriptures. "The kings of the earth," therefore, "stood

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up, and the rulers were gathered together against the Lord, and against his Christ. For, of a truth, against thy boly child Jesus, whom thou hast anointed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles, and the people of Israel, were gathered together, for to do whatsoever thy hand and thy counsel determined before to be done."*

So we see that the Anointed of the Lord must die by the hands of wicked men; and, that his blood might avail to our redemption, he must die upon the cross, in the place of skulls, without the walls of the holy city.

The blood of Christ, however precious, had it been shed within the walls of the holy city, would not have answered the purpose of our redemption. "For the bodies of those beasts, whose blood is brought into the sanctuary by the high priest for sin, are burnt without the camp. Wherefore Jesus also, that he might sanctify the people with his own blood, suffered without the gate." Therefore the foundation of our redemption, essentially, consists in all the events being fulfilled in Christ, which were predicted concerning him: If, concerning him, other things had been predicted, these also must have been fulfilled.

God said concerning his Son Jesus, A bone of him shall not be broken. A bone therefore was not broken. But if instead of this, God had said, Some of his bones shall be broken, not upon the cross, but within the walls of Jerusalem; but not a drop of his blood shall be shed, then, our redemption would have depended essentially upon the bones of Christ being broken, and no blood shed according to the prediction. And this being the case, all sacrifices and burnt-offerings, requiring the shedding of blood, would have been excluded from the system of redemption.


Had God seen fit, in the covenant of redemption, he could have made the breaking of the bones of his

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† Heb. xiii, 11, 12.

*Acts iv, 26-28.

beloved Son, as essential to our salvation, as the shedding of his blood now is. This is evident, for the Almighty is not governed by fatal necessity. He work. . eth all things according to the counsel of his own will. Not only the work of creation, but the glorious work of redemption is according to the will of God.

The plan of redemption is the plan of God; and it was chosen and constructed according to his sovereign will and pleasure. Deity was not led to it by the law of fate, or natural necessity; but it was constructed according to his holy will.

Divine sovereignty is marvellously displayed in the conversion and salvation of sinners; and no less was the sovereign pleasure of God displayed in constructing the plan of redemption: Therefore why it was so constructed may be answered in the words of Christ, “Even so Father; for so it seemed good in thy sight.”

Whatever was written in the law of Moses concerning Christ, has been fulfilled: in him all the types and shadows are found perfectly to concentre.

Christ was the antitype of Moses as a prophet, and of Aaron as a priest He was the antitype not only of the high priests but of their offerings, of the slain goat, and of the scape goat; of the slain bird, and of the living bird.

The most ancient prediction concerning Christ has. been fulfilled; namely, that the Seed of the woman should bruise the serpent's head, and that the serpent should bruise the heel of the woman's Seed. The heel of the woman's Seed must be bruised, and it must be effected by the serpent and his seed. .

Therefore Christ was betrayed by an apostate disciple, under the influence of the serpent; and he was. delivered to the Roman soldiers to be crucified, by the princes of this world who knew not God. "We speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, even the hidden wisdom which God ordained before the world unto our glory; which none of the princes of this world

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