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no longer of any use. Instead of the passover, that night in which he was betrayed, Christ instituted the ordinance of the Lord's Supper to be continued in the church to the end of the world. And in the institution of this feast, there seems to be great propriety.
Christ was sent into the world to save sinners. For this end atonement was necessary. “I'he Apostle and IIigh Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus, is abundantly exhibited in the law of Moses by types. Christ is typified by persons and things, beasts and birds: But no one person or thing, beast or bird did fully exhibit him Aaron was a type of Christ; but Aaron did not fully represent him, as appointed to atone for the sins of the scorld. Aaron was an high priest and so was Christ. Aaron was appointed to make atonement for sin, for his own sin, the sin of his house, and for the sin of the whole congregation of the cbildren of Israel. He did not make atonement for any of the Gentile world. But what Christ has done extends equally to the Gentile as to the Jew. Aaron, in making atonement, neyer did, nor was he ever required, to shed a drop of his own blood; neither was die required to try his strength with the powers of darkness Aaron, when he made an atonement for sin, either his own or the sins of the people, always needed the blood of a bullock, or some other beast. Hence the bullock, or the blood of the bullock, or of some other beast, was necessary to make an atonę. ment, Aaron, the Jewish high priest, could not make atonement without the blood of others: But Christ the great High Priest made atonement with his own blood; he needed no assistance from man; he asked not for the blood of beasts. Hence, in shedding his blood as an atonement for sin, Christ was the Antitype, both of Aaron and the beasts whose blood he shed.
Completely to exhibit Christ making atonement for sin, it was necessary that he should be exhibited by à combination of types: one of which, separately would be only a partial one.
Hence Christ was typ
ified by Aaron the high priest, and the two goats which he was required to present "before the Lord at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. And Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats, one lot for the Lord, and the other lot for the scape-goat.” One of these goats is called the Lord's, and the other is called the scape-goat. The goat on which the Lord's lot fell was to be slain, and uffered as a sin-offering. But the
scape-goat, Aaron was commanded to present alive before the Lord; that, in connexion with the slain goat, he might make an atonement. The blood of the goat that was killed Aaron was commanded to use, as he did the blood of the bullock, “and sprinkle, it upon the mercy-seat and before the mercy-seat. Aaron, in making atonement for himself, his household. and the congregation, together with reconciling the holy place, and the tabernacle of the congregation and the altar, was required to put the blood of the bullock, and the blood of the goat "upon the horns of the altar round about,” Lev. xvi, 17. And this ceremony prepared the way to bring in the live, or scapegoat, respecting which Aaron was directed in a particular manner, how to conduct And to understand what is implied in these directions, and to be governed by them, is of the greatest consequence to our eternal salvation. The directions are the following: “and Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions, and all their sins, putting them upon the head of the goat, and shall send him away, by the hand of a fit man, into the wilderness. And the goat shall bear upon him all their iniquities into a land not inhabited: -and he shall let go the goat into the wilderness.”
Now, it is evident that Jesus Christ is thic Antitype both of Aaron and the two goats; of the goat whose blood was shed and sprinkled upon the mercy-seat, and of the goat that was sent into a land not inbabited. Christ is the Antitype of them all conjointiy. Aaron, separately, represents Christ as our Great High Priest; and the goal that was killed, and his blood sprinkled upon the mercy-seat, represents Christ as the High Priest, shedding his own blood for our eternal redemption. And the scape-goat which was not slain at all
, which bore upon himself all the sins and transgressions of the people of Israel, beautifully and strikingly represents the Divinity of bim who says of himself, "I am the Almighty;" Or, the living goat, over which Aaron, with both hands upon his head, was to confess all the iniquities of the people of Israel, may be considered as representing the unchangeableness of the priesthood of Messiah, or of Christ as the ever- living Intercessor. Hence, the priesthood of Christ “was not made after the law of a carnal commandment, but after the power of an endless life.” The priests under the law were not suffered to continue by reason of death. “But This Man, because he continueth ever, hath an unchangeable priesthood. Wherefore he is able also to save them to the uttermost that come Unto God by him, sceing he ever liveth to make intercession for them.” And as perfection could not be by the Levitical priesthood, it was necessary that another Priest should arise after the order of Melchisedec," "and not be called after the order of Aaron.”* Hence, “Christ needed not daily as the Levitical high priests, to offer up sacrifice, first, for his own sins, and then for the sins of the people: for this be did once when he offered up himself. For the law maketh men high priests which have infirmi ty; but the word of the oath which was since the law, maketh the Son, who is consecrated forevermore.”+ Christ was represented by the high priests and their sacrifices. The high priests, however, did not shed their own blood, but the blood of bulls and of goats, for "without shedding of blood there is no remission.” But the High Priest of our profession, Jesus Christ,
* Heb. vii, 11.
| Heb. vii, 27, 28,
offered himself a sacrifice for sin. The sios therefore of those who sincerely confess them,' he is faithful and just to forgive, and to cleanse them from all unrighteousness.'* He, like the living or scape-goat, will bear away the sins of all such; he will cast them behind his back, or bury them in the depths of the sea. Such like language, which we find in the word of God, expresses the same as the sins of the people of Israel, being put upon the head of the scape-goat and carried into a land not inhabited; or according to the Hebrew, into a land of separation. This teaches us, that the godly person who once confesses his sin, or becomes a true penitent, shall, through Jesus Christ, have all his sins separated from him. The sepulchre into which Christ was laid, was properly a land of separation. As the sins of his people, therefore, were, as it were, carried into the grave with him and buried there, they will never be allowed to rise up against them. Being delivered for their offences, he rose again for their justification.'t
Some think that atonement consists wholly in suffering; if so, why, in connexion with the stain goat, was the living goat necessary also to make an atonement?: Some writers on this subject are very positive in their sentiments, that the atonement of Christ consists wholly in his sufferings; while, at the same time, they affirm as positively, that the divine nature of Christ did not suffer at all. According to this sentiment, the divinity of Christ in making atonement for the sins of his people, was altogether needless. But the divinity of Christ, and the shedding of his blood, in making atonement for sin, were equally necessary. Crist must be an ever-living and quickening Spirit as well as a dying man, or he could never “make reconciliation for the sins of the people.” To make, yearly, a typical atonement for the holy sanctuary, and for the tabernacle of the congregation, and for the altar; not only a bullock and a goat were required to be slain; but a living goat also was absolutely necessary. By consulting the sixteenth chapter of Leviticus, it will be clearly seen, that the living goat was the most important and essential part of the busi
* 1 John i, 8.
. Rom. iv, 25.
los in the ceremonies of the typical yearly atonement for the sins of Israel. It was over the head of the living goat that the high priest was to confess all the iniquities of the people of Israel; and upon the head of the living or scapegoat, all their sins and iniquities were to be placed: and this goat being sent away by a fit person, was to bear upon him all their iniquities into a land of separation. Hence we are to confess our sins to Christ, not as a mere man, but as an quickening Spirit, who is God manifest in the flesh. For the blood of Christ cleanseth from all iniquity,. not separately as a man, but as the living God.
Again, that Christ was the Antitype of living creatures, as well as of dying goats and slajn bullocks, is evident, from the case of cleansing a leprous, house with two birds. When the owner of the house shall say to the priest, “It seemeth to me there is, as it were, a plague in the house.” After the enumeration of; many ceremonies, it is added, “And he shall take to cleanse the house two birds and cedar wood and scarlet and hyssop: and he shall kill one of the birds in an earthen vessel, over running water: and he shall take the cedar wood and the hyssop, and the scarlet, and the living bird, and dip them in the blood of the slain bird, and in the running water, and sprinkle the house seven times: and he shall cleanse the house with the blood of the bird, and with the running water, and with the living bird:—But he shall, let go the living bird out of the city into the open field, and make an. atonement for the house; and it shall be clean."* Here. we see that a living bird, which must be permitted to go out into the open field, as well as a slain bird, run. ning water, &c. was necessary in making atonement, for an unclean house.
* Lev. xiv.