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figure or type of him that was to come. Wherever there is a shadow there must be a substance: and wherever there is a type there must be an antitype. The type supposes that the antitype is, as we may say by illustration, behind the curtain; it hath not yet made its appearance; it is exhibited or brought into view only by figures, types, and shadows.
Hence a type always looks both backward and forward. The antitype is the pattera or copy from which, or agreeably to which, the type is formed. If Adam, therefore, were a type of Christ, of whom the Apostle asserts that he was "the figure of him that was to come," then Christ was before Adam. And if Adam was the type of him who was to come, that is, of Christ, who, in the days of Adam had not come in the flesh, then, in a sense Adam was before Christ. Hence a type stands on middle ground, looking back to the antitype as a pattern for the construction of the type, and forward, pointing out what the antitype would be, or how it would appear when it should come forth from behind the curtain.
A type is no farther, or in no other sense a type, than it perfectly represents the person or thing which it was designed to represent. Adam, it is granted on all hands, was a type of Christ. Let us inquire wherein, as a type, he took his likeness from Christ; for he could not be a figure of Christ, only, in those things in which there was an exact agreement. This then must be searched out. It is allowed by all that Adam was a covenant head; and so also was Christ. It was implicitly promised Adam that if he would continue obedient through the course of his trial, and not eat of the forbidden tree, that children should be born to him, and his children's children to the latest posterity, in a state of moral purity or perfect holiness. So it was promised Christ the Antitype, that if he would continue perfectly holy, as a lamb without blemish and without spot, and in that character would do the will of him that sent him, that is, would do every.
thing to which he had given his cordial consent in the covenant of redemption, children should be born to him, through the power and grace of God to the latest generation of men. That is, Christ should have a seed to serve him, a numerous race; that, as a reward for his covenant faithfulness, there should be given him ten thousand times ten thousand and thousands of thousands of the fallen race of Adam. Those millions which shall be born to Christ and become the children of the Most High, through the influence of the Divine Spirit, in consequence of the covenant faithfulness of Christ, shall be given him as a bride. These are the wife of the Lamb. An angel said to John in vision, "Come hither, I will shew thee the bride, the Lamb's wife." And this same apostle heard a triumphant song in heaven, because the marriage of the Lamb was come. "And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia, for the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth. Let us be glad and rejoice and give honour to him; for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready." And in consequence of the covenant faithfulness of the Son, we hear the Father saying to him; "Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee. Ask of me and I will give thee the Heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession." To the same purpose are the following words: "The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand until I make thine enemies thy footstool. The Lord shall send the rod of thy strength out of Zion; rule thou in the midst of thine enemies." Hence, in consequence of his covenant faithfulness, Christ will have given him millions of the human race, with cheerfulness and delight to serve him; but Satan, and all the enemies of Christ will be brought beneath his feet.
These happy children of Christ will be made to persevere in holy obedience through life; and they finally
will go to heaven, to celebrate the praises of God and the Lamb forever and ever. Of this blessed society John had a view; of which he gives an account in his Revelation. "And I looked, and, lo, a Lamb stood on the Mount Zion, and with him an hundred and forty and four thousand, having his Father's name written in their foreheads. And I heard a voice from heaven, as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of a great thunder; and I heard the voice of harpers harping with their harps: and they sung as it were a new song before the throne, and before the four Beasts and the elders; and no man could learn that song but the hundred and forty and four thousand, which were redeemed from the earth. These are they who werenot defiled with women; for they are virgins. These are they who follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth. These were redeemed from among men, being the first fruit to God and to the Lamb. And in their mouth there was found no guile: for they are without fault before the throne of God."*
Christ, as a covenant head was faithful. And the Father was faithful in fulfilling all his promises to his righteous servant; Christ will therefore "see of the travail of his soul and be satisfied."
Adam was not faithful; he yielded to temptation and died: he ruined his character as a faithful and upright man: and, in ruining his character as a man of fidelity, he lost his commission as the federal head of his posterity. Adam by his fall became an enemy to God. Did God hold him in the place of a covenant head after he became his enemy? He did not. As soon as Adam ceased to be obedient, he ceased to be a covenant head. And, as soon as he ceased to be a covenant head, he ceased to be a figure of him who was to come, that is, of Christ. What can any one see in Adam as an apostate, which is a figure of him who was to come? And if we can see nothing, in
*Rev. xiv, 1-5.
which Christ and Adam resemble each other, then, to consider him as a type of Christ is an error.
So far as Adam was a type of Christ, he has been completely answered in the Antitype. As to Adam, Christ has fulfilled the figure. He has performed the part of a covenant head: he has done every thing necessary on his part for the redemption of all mankind. Hence, "If any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous and he is the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world." It was contained in the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, that Christ should come into the world, do many things, and suffer great evils. Our Advocate then stood in the divine counsel or covenant of redemption, as an Antitype. But as the predicted Seed of the woman was not to make his appearance in this world, to act his part as the great Redeemer, until thousands of years should have rolled away, God saw fit to exhibit him by predictions, types and shadows, sacrifices and burnt-offerings.
In the first, and succeeding ages of the world, until Jesus Christ appeared in the flesh, and offered up himself," being "sacrificed for us," he was exhibited "by offerings of the fruit of the ground," together with "burnt-offerings" of beasts, consumed upon the altar of the Lord.
Even Adam, no doubt, as well as Cain and Abel, brought offerings to the Lord; and, "it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the Lord. And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock, and of the fat thereof." And "the Lord had respect unto Abel, and to his offering."
"And Noah builded an altar unto the Lord, and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt-offerings on the altar."
And the Lord appeared unto Abraham, and said, Unto thy seed will I give this land: and there builded he an altar unto the Lord, who appeared unto him,
By this time Abraham was well acquainted with the propriety and the duty of offering sacrifices and burntofferings upon the altar of the Lord. He was prepared therefore to obey God when he should call him to the severe trial of offering up his only son Isaac upon the altar for a burnt offering.
In no page of history, either sacred or profane, is recorded a scene so trying and affecting as that of Abraham's offering his son Isaac, as a burnt-offering upon the altar of the Lord. The Lord's requiring Abraham to offer his son upon mount Moriah, was to answer two objects, the one to try Abraham, and the other, to typify Jesus Christ, who was offered once for all for the redemption of man from sin and from death. "And it came to pass that God did tempt Abraham, and said unto him, Abraham: and he said Behold here I am." Abraham could not know the reason for which the Lord called him until he should be informed. How must the father feel, when he found himself addressed by his Maker, the God whom he loved with a pure heart, "Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and get thee into the land of Moriah, and offer him there upon one of the mountains which I shall tell thee of". Abraham made no reply, exhibited no consternation, manifested no grief; but without any hesitation consented to be the actor in the solemn scene. He rose early in the morning therefore and "saddled his ass, and took two of his young men, and Isaac his son; and clave the wood for a burnt-offering, and rose up and went unto the place of which God had told him." On the third day they came within sight of the place where the dread ful scene was to be exhibited. And leaving all the company behind, Abraham took the lad, his son, and went to the appointed spot to offer him as a burntoffering upon the altar. "And Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering and laid it upon Isaac his son, that is, laid it upon the shoulder of his son, that he might carry it to the altar; and he took fire in his