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OBSERVE in a late number of your Magazine, that a writer who, under the fignature of Edipus, has given a disgraceful anecdote of Talleyrand, has also made a

fideftroke at thofe of the French clergy,

who have quitted their afylum in this country to resume their functions in their own. He calls them "vipers, the foremoft to fting, and emulous of each other in their prayers for the Corfican defpot's fuccefs in invading and defolating England!" I prefume that the charge against them of peculiar forwardness in this bufinefs is not to be rigorously understood, and that no more is meant than that they act in correfpondence with the rest of their order. Now, not to urge that thefe priests may really (with the mafs of their countrymen) fuppofe that England is the aggreffor in this war, and may regard their duty to their native land as paramount to gratitude for another-not to infift upon this coufideration-I would afk, how can a clergy established and paid by a state, act otherwife in public concerns, than as the ftate bids them? Do they not everywhere blefs aud curfe, preach and pray, accord. ing to the injunctions of that power which maintains them for its own fupport, juft as it does every other fpecies of ftanding force? Have we any inftances, now-adays, of a prieft or a prophet who, like honeft Balaam, hefitates to devote a pub. lic foe to destruction till he has received a fpecial commiffion for it? If the French emigrant clergy were juftifiable in return ing to their pots when the confular republic had been univerfally acknowledged as one of the regular governments in Europe, (which none, I believe, but a few bigots have difputed), it became a part of their duty to act with refpect to the new go. vernment as they would have done to the old. They were formerly the advocates for paffive obedience in fubjects, and they must be so now—they formerly denounced judgments against all the enemies of the grand monarque, and they must now do fo

against thofe of the grand conful. Moreover, they can scarcely be thought fimple enough to imagine that prayers fictated from a political cabinet will have any effect in influencing the divine decrees; fo that their fentiments of gratitude towards their English friends, need not receive any violent fhock from a confcioufnefs of the mischief they are doing us. Heartily do I wish that the French had no ftronger arms to affail us with; for though I am not fure that our volunteers will be able to out-fight them, I have no doubt that we have plenty of those who can out-pray them. Your's, &c.

DAVUS.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

SIR,

W

ITHOUT entering into any dif cuffion on the character of the late Mr. Robinfon of Cambridge, I shall only obferve, that his Lectures on Noncon formity, which I read many years ago, ftruck me as a moft violent party per formance, full of the credulity and malignity which never fail to accompany bigotry, whatever be the fide it takes. Among other calumnies, the credit given to the horrid charge against James I. of having caufed his eldeft fon, Prince Henry, to be poifoned, particularly fhocked me, as I happened to be furnished with abfolute proof that it was totally groundlefs. In the medical works of Sir Theodore Mayerne is a minute narration of the difeafe of this prince, which was a putrid fever of three weeks duration; and the treatment of which exhibits the whole range of practice in fuch cafes, as it then exifted. The names of the other medical attendants are mentioned, the whole train of fymptoms, and the appearances on diffection, are accurately stated, and not a fhadow of doubt can remain on the authenticity of the relation.

I mult, however, do Mr. Robinfon and his brother Nonconformists the justice to fay, that they were not the only believers and propagators of this calumny against King James. In Dodfley's Collection of Poems, (vol. iii.) is "An Epistle from Florence, by the Honourable [Horace Walpole,]" which contains a fketch, by no means flattering, of the English kings. That of James I. is highly fairical, and ends with this line— "Poifon'd one fon, and t'other fent to Spain."

But Mr. Cole might fay of this writer, "The dog was a whig;" and, doubtless, whig-lies may well be matched againit tory and jacobite lies. Your's, &c. N. N.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

SIR,

B

Y permiffion of the writer, I transmit, for infertion in your refpectable Mifcellary, a communication with which I have recently been favoured by that well known fcientific phenomenon, Mr. John Gough. The ingenious effay "On the Caufes of the Variety of the Human Voices," communicated, fome years ago, by that gentleman, to the Literary and Philofophical Society of Manchester, is of courfe well known to a numerous clafs of fcientific readers, to whom the Memoirs of that once active and flourishing inftitution heretofore prefented a fund of rational amufement. The theory of unifons and fecondary vibrations by which that effay fo ingeniously accounts, firft for the different tones of different inftru. ments of the fame nominal and apparent ftructure, and thence, by inference and analogy, for the diversities of tone fo remarkable in different human voices, muft have carried its conviction to the mind of every fcientific musician and every reflecting obferver of thofe characteristic varieties which that theory profeffes to explain. With the fpeculative theorems of that effay the practical obfervations of the enfuing letter are naturally and intimately connected: and the judicious obfervations it contains, receive additional interest from the fource whence they are derived. Cut off, in his carlieft infancy, from all intercourse with the world of knowledge and obfervation, through the 'customary inlet, the organ of fight, Mr. Gough has been induced by the co-operation of this privation with his ardent and infatiable thirst of science, to cultivate with extreme diligence the fupplementary faculties of hearing and of touch. The acute perfection to which the latter of thefe, has been improved and expanded, has been fufficiently demonftrated by the extent to which he has carried his practical researches into the minute fcience of botany; and the exquifitenefs of his perceptions in the other kind-the promptitude with which he difcovers the ftature of the merelt tranger by the first refoundings of his voice (of which I have myfelf been witness), and the facility with which he recognizes the prefence, and difcriminates the identity of his acquaintance, by merely listening to their refpective breathings, equally illuftrate the unprecedented degree of improvement to which he has expanded his hearing faculties: fo that Mr. Gough is, in reality, MONTHLY MAG. No. 111.

one of those demonftrative inftances of the omnipotency of mental energy, who juftify the apparent hyperbole, with which I occafionally ftimulate the perfeverance of my pupils-that where determined effort and enthufiaftic diligence are not wanting, the blemishes of phyfical nature effectively disappear," the blind themfelves are penetrating; and the mute have tongues of fire!"

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The communication originated (as will be apparent from the context) from the circumftance of Mr. Gough's attendance upon my Lecture, "On the Education and Management of the Organs of Voice," during the fhort courfe of Lectures (eight in number) that I have recently delivered in the town of Kendal "On the Science and Practice of Elocution ;" and the fuggeftion of the writer is perfectly correct, that his remarks will tend to the improvement of my theory. With that theory, however, thofe remarks are in perfect confonance. In a previous Lec"On the Structure, Phyfiology, and Offices of the Organs of Speech," which Mr. Gough (the remoteness of whole refidence interfered with the regularity of his attendance) did not happen to hear, the fecondary vibrations of the human voice through the whole of the cavities and fibres of the head were exprefsly traced; the refpe&tive characteriftic tones were specified, and demonftrated, in their connexion with the refpective organs of promulgation and modification, (the roof, the nostrils, the maxillaries, &c.) and the practical appeal to the collateral evidence of the fenfe of touch, by the application of the finger to the vibrating fibres of the head, during the fpecific intonations, was dictated for the confirmation of the fact. Beyond this effential member of the animal frame, I confefs, however, that my refearches into the ramifications of the organ of voice had never been extended. The obfervations of my corefpondent expand the theory through a fill wider circuit; and the extenfion is demonftratively juft. The fuggestion of the expanfion of fonorous power, and confequent diffufion of found, through a wider circuit, in proportion to the num ber (not loudness) of the vibrating unifons, and of the application of the powers of volition to the bringing of the reipective vibratory fibres into the state of union required, (which may be extended to every defcription of enunciative effort, as well as to the theatrical whispering to which it is here applied) will

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will, alfo, be found of moft efpecial importance to all perfons whofe profeffional or public duties call for the emphatic exertions of the elocutionary powers. To fuch perfons, therefore, I have no doubt that the difcovery will be highly acceptable; and I proceed accordingly, to the quotation of Mr. Gough's letter.

SIR,

"THE fpirit of inquiry, and the valuable obfervations which enriched your lecture on the education of the voice, encourage me to offer a few facts and reflections to your confideration. The naked truth is fimply this, I am vain enough to imagine myself able to improve your theory of the power of the human voice; and as the improvement demonftrates the propriety of the rules which you have given to facilitate the attainment of this accomplishment, I have ventured to trouble you with the following thoughts on the fubject.

The egrefs of the voice is generally fuppofed to be confined to the aperture of the lips; but any perfon may convince himfelf, that this notion is ill founded, by a fimple experiment. Let him place the tip of his finger upon his breaft or the fide of his forehead when he is fpeaking, and the fenfe of touch will inform him immediately, that the vibrations of the larynx are not restricted to the compafs of the windpipe, but extend to the more diftant parts of the head and cheft, which vibrate in conjunction with the primary organs of voice. In fact the upper moiety of the fpeaker's body becomes an extenfive field of found, refembling a drum, every member of which vibrates as oft as a ftroke is imparted to the parchment covering by the drumstick. Experience thews, that a fixed quantity of percuffive force produces founds, poffeffing greater or lefs powers, according as this force is permitted to act upon greater or lefs portions of vibrating furface. The notes of a clarionet can fill a circle a mile in diameter; but if the reed, or mouth-piece, be made to found, when difunited from the tube, it cannot be heard at the distance of one hundred yards; though this inftrument evidently produces vibrations in the latter inftances, which are equal to thofe it produced in the former.

Let us now fubftitute the larynx in place of the mouth-piece; alfo, let the cheft, together with the head, reprefent the trunk of the clarionet; and this eafy tranfition, from art to nature, explains the method whereby the power of the voice is increased: for it difcovers the phyfical caufes upon which the fecret depends. This method confifts chiefly in contracting the upper extremity of the windpipe, fo as to make the mufcles of the larynx reft ftrongly upon the breath, during its efcape from the lungs. In this manner a quick fuccellion of powerful

vibrations is produced; and thefe impulfes pervade the fuperior moiety of the fpeaker with a power proportionate to their primitive force. The upper part of his body is then converted into an automatic clarionet; the in part from the mufcular ftrength of the effect of which, in refpect of distance, arifes larynx; and is derived partly from the magnitude of that portion of his body, which vibrates in company with the primary organs of voice.

I have now compleated the outline of my theory, by enumerating the phyfical principles which act in conjunction, so as to enlarge the power of the voice. Should the task of comparing my opinion with facts appear worth purfuing, you may easily confirm or refute the theory by making the comparifon: for my part, I fhall take notice but of one incident of the kind; and this is, the circumftance of powerful whispering, which you mention in your lecture on the education of the voice. Actors differ from other men, as they use their endeavours occafionally to make their whispers intelligible to the multitude. This effort is exacted by the nature of the profeffion, which requires certain fecrets of the drama to be communicated to the audience apparently in the language of fecrecy. The perfon who wishes to acquire this difficult attainment, will, probably, find the accomplishment of his enterprize facilitated by making a proper ufe of the following facts. First, if a body is forced to vibrate in confequence of its connexion with another already in a state of vibration, the greatest effect will be produced when the two bodies are in unifon. Second, the vibratory faculty of the chest may be altered by varying the preffure of the mufcles belonging to this part of the human frame; in the fame manner that the vibratory faculty is changed in a drum by altering the action of the braces. It follows from thefe properties of tranfmitted found, that the man will whifper with the greatest effect who can put his head and cheft into unifon with his larynx; when it is in a ftate of extreme relaxation.

You very justly obferve, that the science is yet in its infancy, which teaches the art of giving power to the voice by a judicious management of the vocal organs. Should the preceding attempt advance the infant one ftep towards maturity, the defign of the prefent letter will be answered." Middlebar, I am, &c. Nov. 3, 1803.

JOHN GOUGH. To the obfervations of Mr. Gough on the fonorous vibrations of the fibres of the cheft, I have only to add, that, fince the receipt of his letter, I have tried his hypothefis, by the teft which he fuggefts, both in private experiment and during my public exertions; that, to me at least, thofe experiments have appeared fuficiently

fufficiently fatisfactory; and that the
fact thus difcovered appears to me an
important addition to the means of prac
tical improvement in elocutionary fcience.
If I may be permitted to judge of the
fuccefs of my own experiments, the appli-
cation of the fuggeftion has added at least
one more to the manageable varieties and
modifications of vocal intonation. Indeed,
if the whole of my theory and that of
Mr. Gough be not fallacious, this
muft eventually be the cafe: as nothing
is more clear than that the improvement,
of any faculty must neceffarily depend,
in a very confiderable degree, upon the
accurate comprehenfion of the inftrumen-
tality by which the functions of that
faculty are carried on; and as the human
voice is not fo ftrictly speaking a fingle
inftrument, as a concert of many intru-
ments, whofe refpective powers and cha-
racteristic tones are exceedingly different
from each other; and as we have, evi-
den ly, the power, by the actions, com-
preffions, tenfions, pofitions, and relaxa-
tions of the refpective voluntary muscles
connected with each and all of thefe, to
direct (partially or intirely) the influen-
tial or fecondary vibrations, that refpond
to the original impulfes of the larynx,
through one, or other, or feveral, or all
of thefe, as occafion, or inclination re-
quire, he who beft knows the refpective
portions of this automatic band from
which the different intonations are to be
elicited, will, neceffarily, be beft enabled
to command the correfpondent tones,
which the feveral pallions, fentiments,
and combinations of language may re-
quire; and every difcovery which extends
the just theory of vocal vibrations, ex-
tends, accordingly, the practicable powers
of elocutionary expression.

I am, Sur, your's, &c.
J. THELWALL.

Lancaster, 15 Nov. 1803.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

SIR,

I

Was in fome degree furprifed at the enquiries made by Mr. Barrett, in P. 400 of your last number, becaufe what he is projecting as a novelty, has been already before the public fince the month of April laft.

At the end of "An Eafy Grammar of Geography by the Rev. J. Goldfinith," will be found a vocabulary of proper names of places divided and accented, in the way in which they are ufually pro

nounced. The author of that work con

fulted fome of the most learned men in
this country, before it was put to prefs,
who gave it as a decided opinion, that
no general rules can be laid down for the
pronunciation of certain combinations
of letters in the names of places. Thus
the fb, fch, ch, to which Mr. B. refers,
will in proper names have different pow-
ers according to the language of the coun-
try, to which the place belongs in
Rochelle, for instance, the name of a town
in France, the ch, must be pronounced as

and accordingly in the Vocabulary
alluded to, it is put "Ro-chèlle (pro-
nounced Ro-fhelle)." To take another
intance or two from the fame work,
Brac-ci-à-no, and Ro-mag-na, provinces
of Italy; if the ci, and the a, in the
former, and the g, in the latter were, or
could be, reduced, to English pronouncia-
tion, or in other words, if a general rule
could be given, there would be no diffi-
culty: but as that is impoffible, thofe
words in Goldsmith's Grammar ftand as
follows," Brac-ci-à-no (pronounced Bra-

66

chi-ar-no): Ro-mag na (pronounced "Ro-m'a-na)." Other inftances no lefs ftriking might be felected from the fame little work, but these are fufficient to fhow Mr. Barrett, that he is feeking what is not poffible to be found. If he refer to Goldfmith's Grammar, he will alfo fee that care has been taken not only to divide the feveral words into fyllables, but alfo, to lay the accent on the proper fyllable, affording at once a fort of landand to the fcholar, and, in doubtful cafes, to the preceptor alfo.

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Mr. B. fays that, as many refpectable perfons affociate all their geographical knowledge, with names which they have few opportunities of hearing pronounced, and to fubject themselves to unmerited ridicule, it cannot be doubted that affiftance in this refpe&t, if afforded with tolerable accuracy, would be found particularly useful."

Of this affistance, I have, Sir, fhown, the public is already in poffeffion. And I beg leave to remark that the fole caufe of the other complaint, viz. that geogra phical knowledge is almost always confined to names, has originated from the flovenly way in which introductory works of Geography are ufually written. In fome we meet with a mere collection of names, defcriptions of boundaries, and other technical terms, which it is almoft impoffible for a pupil to commit to me. mory, and, if learnt, convey to the mind no practical information; in others, there C & is

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is not a fingle map, which muft ever be an effectual bar to the attainment of geographical knowledge. The pupil may learn from his book that Portugal is bounded in part by Spain, and in part by the Atlantic, or that the Pyrenees are the boundaries between France and Spain; but if he have no map before him to which he may refer, for the relative pofition which one country bears to another, the memory will be wearied, but the underftanding cannot be informed.

How far thefe and other defects with which a multitude of what are called "Introductions or Guides to Geography," are chargeable, have been remedied in the little book to which I have referred, the public will judge for themselves. Mr. Barrett will, in fome refpects, at least, find in it, what he conceived were ftill among the defiderata in this pleafing and highly ufeful fcience. Dec. 13. 1803.

I am, &c. A CONSTANT READER.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

SIR,

N compliance with the wifh expreffed I have from my common-place book a few memoranda in regard to Beer.

BERE is an Anglo-Saxon word for barley, fo that we have not far to go for its etymology. Indeed they who are beft fkilled in the analogy that exifts among the languages in the North of Europe, find a fingular coincidence in the word before us, which is ufed with little variation for the fame article, among them all. The Germans fay bier; the Danes bior.

ners.

Tacitus, who knew the forefathers of our ancestors among their native woods, has left us a curious picture of their manHe fays their food was of the fimpleft k nd; fuch as wild apples, the flesh of an animal recently killed, or coagulated milk. Without kill in cookery, and without feafoning to ftimulate the palate, they ate to fatisfy nature. But, he tells us, they did not drink with the fole view of quenching thirft; their love of liquor was indulged to particular excefs: they were carelefs indeed as to its quantity, but not its quality. The Roman author fays "Their beverage is a liquor drawn from barley, or from wheat, and, like the juice of the Grape, fermented to a spirit. The fettlers on the banks of the Rhine provide themfelves with wine." (Tacitus de Moribus Ger,

manorum, fect. 23.) The original words are," Potui humor ex hordeo aut frumento, in quamdam fimilitudinem vini corruptus. Proximi ripe & vinum mercantur."

The Anglo Saxons, as well as all the northern tribes, were addicted to hard drinking, which accounts for the numer ous drinking-horns with which the banquets, as they are exhibited in our earliest inanufcripts, feem much better provided than with plates and difhes. Among the ancient Germans, fays Tacitus, it was no difgrace to be fitting day and night, caroufing and drinking. And fuch great drinkers were the Danes who were in England in the time of Edgar, that that monarch not only put down a great number of the alehoules which then exifted, but fuffered one only to be open in each of the villages and finall towns, and ordained that pegs or ftuds fhould be fastened in the drinking cups and horns at ftated distances, and that whofoever should drink beyond his mark should be obnoxious to a fevere punishment.

The brewing veffel of those times was called alfath, from al, ale, and fet a vat: and if we may credit the Laws of Athelc. was made indifferently of iron, brafs, or lead. The word vat, applied by our brewers at the prefent day, is, I believe, the only inftance where the Saxon word is ftiil ufed.

The Laws of Ina king of Weffex, in the year 728, mention both ale and aleboufes: though the first affize was not fixed till the famous ftatute of the fifty first of Henry the 3d.

Although the brewers of London were not incorporated as a company till the time of Henry the 6th, 1438, they occur as a fraternity among the Rolls of Parlia ment confiderably fooner, and are called the Bere-brewers.

From the patents in the Record Office at the Tower, it appears that in the first year of Edward the 4th the supervisorhip of the bere-brewers throughout the kingdom was bestowed by the king on John Devenishe and others; and that their fee was a half-penny of filver upon every barrel. In the 5th of the fame king this office was granted, for their lives, to Richard Bele, Robert Oldum and John Gyles. And in his 11th year we have a patent appointing John Gyles, William Gull, and John Nicholl, fcrutatores et Supervisores de lez Beerebrewers London." That the export trade exifted foon after, we have full proof, fince in 1492, Henry the 7th granted license to a Fleming to

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