Runes: A Handbook

Forsideomslag
Boydell Press, 2012 - 240 sider
Runes, often considered magical symbols of mystery and power, are in fact an alphabetic form of writing. Derived from one or more Mediterranean prototypes, they were used by Germanic peoples to write different kinds of Germanic language, principally Anglo-Saxon and the various Scandinavian idioms, and were carved into stone, wood, bone, metal, and other hard surfaces; types of inscription range from memorials to the dead, through Christian prayers and everyday messages to crude graffiti. First reliably attested in the second century AD, runes were in due course supplanted by the roman alphabet, though in Anglo-Saxon England they continued in use until the early eleventh century, in Scandinavia until the fifteenth (and later still in one or two outlying areas). This book provides an accessible, general account of runes and runic writing from their inception to their final demise. It also covers modern uses of runes, and deals with such topics as encoded texts, rune names, how runic inscriptions were made, runological method, and the history of runic research. A final chapter explains where those keen to see runic inscriptions can most easily find them. Professor Michael P. Barnes is Emeritus Professor of Scandinavian Studies, University College London.
 

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Indhold

1 Introduction
1
2 The origin of the runes
9
3 The older fuþark
17
4 Inscriptions in the older fuþark
27
5 The development of runes in AngloSaxon England and Frisia
37
6 The English and Frisian inscriptions
42
7 The development of runes in Scandinavia
54
8 Scandinavian inscriptions of the Viking Age
66
13 Runica manuscripta and rune names
153
14 The making of runic inscriptions
165
15 The reading and interpretation of runic inscriptions
177
literature and politics
190
17 A brief history of runology
197
18 Where to find runic inscriptions
213
Glossary
218
Phonetic and phonemic symbols
221

9 The late VikingAge and medieval runes
92
10 Scandinavian inscriptions of the Middle Ages
99
11 Runic writing in the postReformation era
129
12 Cryptic inscriptions and cryptic runes
144

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